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DERIVATIONAL AND INFLECTIONAL PARADIGMS

I> DERIVATIONAL PARADIGM II> INFLECTIONAL PARADIGM

A paradigm is a set of related forms having the same stem but different affixes [Stageberg, 1983:129].

I> Derivational paradigm


Is a set of related words composed of the same base morpheme and all the derivational affixes that can go with this base [Stageberg,1965: ] E.g.: kind, unkind, kindness, kindly, kindliness, kindless, kindlessness child, childish, childishly, childishness, childlike, childless, childhood

derivational paradigms are not characteristically universal: a particular morphological rule can only be applied to a subset of potential words and derivational affixes differ in productivity e.g. the rule that a noun plus the derivational suffix ship produces a new noun can not be applied to all English nouns. there are various specific derivational paradigms which can not be generalized into formulas each base morpheme together with certain potential derivational affixes form a particular paradigm, e.g. the noun base beauty and its derivational words beautiful, beautifully, beautify form a noun paradigm

II> Inflectional paradigms


is a set of related words composed of the same stem and all the inflectional suffixes that can go with this stem (T Minh Thanh, 2003: ).

Types of Inflectional paradigms


II.1> Noun paradigm: at most 4 forms: - Stem (singular form): boy - Singular possessive: boys - Plural possessive: boys - Plural: boys

Note
not all nouns have these 4 forms. E.g.: many take noun + of + noun structure instead of possessive forms (e.g. the roof of the house, the windows of the rooms), - some only have singular form and go with singular verb (e.g. money, salt, milk) - some have only singular form but go with plural verb (e.g. people, police) - some exist in singular form but go with either plural or singular verb depending on the context (e.g. sheep, fish, jury), - some always have plural form but go with singular verb (e.g. measles, mathematics, linguistics) - others always have plural form and go with plural verb (e.g. jeans, trousers, clothes).

II.2> Verb paradigm


Up to 5 forms: - stem (bare form): swim - third person singular present tense form: swims - present participle: swimming - past tense: swam - past participle: swum.

Note
- most verbs follow three-form paradigm: stem, third person singular present tense, and present participle (except be, do and have: 3rd person singular present tense allomorphs are is, does and has) - the past tense form and the past participle form are identical in the case of regular verbs - for most of irregular verbs the allomorphs of past tense and past participle are replacive, additive, suppletive, or zero E.g.: Stem Past tense Past participle Zero put put put Replacive drink drank drunk Additive fall fell fallen Suppletive go went gone

II.3> Comparable paradigm


maximally 3 forms Stem: kind comparative form(-er): kinder superlative form (-est): kindest

Note
4 main groups that usually follow the three-form comparable paradigm: - one-syllable adjectives - some two-syllable adjectives particularly the ones ending in ly or y or ow (e.g. happy, narrow, friendly) - several adverbs of one or two syllables (e.g. hard, early) - preposition near (e.g. I sit nearest the blackboard). most of adjectives and adverbs of two or more than two syllables take more and most in comparative and superlative forms e.g.: careful/carefully more careful/more carefully most careful/most carefully).

some irregular adjectives/adverbs have replacive and or addictive, and suppletive allomorphs in their comparable paradigm, e.g.: - Suppletive: well/good better best - Replacive & additive little less least far farther/futher farthest/furthest

II.4> Pronoun paradigm (irregular paradigm) SINGULAR


Subject Object Prenominal possessive Substitutional possessive

1st 2nd 3rd M F N

I You He she It

Me You Him Her It

My Your His Her Its

Mine Yours His Hers Its

PLURAL
Subject Object Prenominal possessive Substitutional possessive

1st

We

Us

Our

Ours

2nd 3rd

You They

You Them
Whom

Your Their
whose

Yours Theirs
Whose

Interr. Who relative