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Morphemes: definition, characteristics, classification by meaning: bases/roots and affixes Classification by form: free and bound morphemes

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Derivational and inflectional morphemes: definition, differences

Derivational and inflectional paradigms Immediate constituents Allomorphs: definition, selection: phonologically and morphologically conditioned allomorphs, and types: additive, replacive, subtractive, suppletive, zero allomorphs Words: definition, characteristics, classification: simple, complex, compound words Words: processes of word formation: clipping, blending, acronymy, compounding Words: processes of word formation: derivation, back-formation

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Revision for Midterm test

Word classes: definition classification: form classes

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Word classes: classification: structure classes

Word classes: classification: positional classes Phrases: definition-classification: noun, adjective phrases

Open and closed pre-nominal and post-nominal modifiers

Phrases: classification: verb phrase Phrases: classification: adverb, prepositional phrases Clauses: structure and functions of phrases: object, complement, adjunct Clauses: Functions of phrases: subject and verb Clauses: 7 types Clauses: dependent and independent clauses Sentences: definition and classification: simple, compound, complex sentences Tree diagrams

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Revision for final exam


I> Morphology
the study of morphemes and their different forms (allomorphs), and the way they combine in word formation. [Richards, J.C. et all, 1992:237] E.g.: un- + happy + -ly = unhappily (neg. prefix+happy+adv-forming suffix: 3 morphemes)

The branch of grammar which studies the structure of words. It is generally divided into inflectional morphology, the study of inflections, and lexical or derivational morphology, the study of word formation. Morphology contrasts with syntax, the combination of words into sentences. E.g.: *over- +work + -ed = overworked (derivational prefix+work+inflectional suffix: 3 morphemes) *omnibus bus (clipping)


Phonology (sound systems)

Morphology (word Structure)

Syntax (sentence structure)

Semantics (meaning)

II> Morphemes II.1> Definition-Characteristics

The smallest meaningful unit in a language. A morpheme is a short segment of language that meets 3 criteria: 1. It is a word, or a part of a word that has meaning. 2. It cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders. 3. It recurs in different verbal environments with a relatively stable meaning.

E.g: *friend: -has meaning: one attached to another by respect or affection -by dividing friend we get a smaller meaningful unit end, but its meaning violates the meaning of friend. The remainder /fri-/ is meaningless. -recurs in different verbal environments: befriend, friendly, friendless, friendship, friendliness, unfriendly friend is a morpheme *weaken: -means make sth become (weaker) - cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts without violation of its meaning or without meaningless remainders. -recurs in different verbal environments: darken, cheapen, soften, sharpen, -en is a morpheme

II.2> Classification II.2.1> By form: Free & bound

II.2.1.1> Free morpheme - A free morpheme is one that can be uttered alone with meaning - can be used on its own - may stand alone as words in their own right, as well as enter into the structure of other words - E.g.: king, dream, act, plane II.2.1.2> Bound morpheme - A bound morpheme, unlike free, cannot be uttered alone with meaning. It is always annexed to one or more morphemes to form a word - is never used alone but must be used with another morpheme - may occur only if they combine with another morpheme - E.g.: kingdom, dreamed, react, aquaplane

II.2.2> By meaning: Bases/roots & affixes

II.2.2.1> Bases/roots/heads/central morphemes -A base morpheme is the part of a word that has the principal meaning E.g.: lighten, infamous - Bases are very numerous - most of them are free morphemes, but some are bound E.g.: remarry, keeper, audience, reject FM FM BM BM

II.2.2.1.a> Free bases II.2.2.1.b> Bound bases

Free base: is a base which may be a word on its own right once the other morphemes have been stripped away Bound base: is a base (i.e. it is the basic part of a word and has the principal meaning) which can never occur on its own but can only be joined to other bound morphemes. E.g.: work, works, worker, overwork FB FB FB FB recur, immortal, pendant, portable BB run, BB dead, BB hang, BB carry

A base is any unit whatsoever to which affixes of any kind can be added. The affixes attached to a base may be inflectional affixes selected for syntactic reasons or derivational affixes which alter the meaning or grammatical category of the base. The stem is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional affixes have been added. E.g.: -girls, girlhood: girl is a base -dogs, workers, happier: dog, worker, happy are stems All roots are bases. Bases are called stems only in the context of inflectional morphology

II.2.2.2> Affixes
II.2.2.2> Affixes -are outlying morphemes, i.e. are always bound morphemes and can come before, in the middle of, or after a base; can be added to a base or to each other and change the meaning or grammatical function of a word which they are attached to. -E.g.: deurbanized

urban: FB de-, -ize, -d: affixes

II.2.2.2.a> By position: Prefixes, infixes & suffixes

Prefixes: bound morphemes which occur before a base, e.g.: unkind, untrue, unreliable: un- is a prefix. Suffixes: bound morphemes which occur right after a base or after the construction consisting of a base plus one or more (either free or bound) morphemes teacher = teach + -er : FB + suffix audible = audi + -ible: BB + suffix teachers = teacher + -s = teach + -er + -s : FB + suffix + suffix

Infixes: bound morphemes that have been inserted within a word; are rare in English 2 kinds: addition & replacement (more common) Addition: account + for + able=accountable (for is dropped) un+get+at+able = ungetable (at is dropped) rely+on+able = reliable (on is dropped) Replacement: few noun plurals goosegeese: -ee- replaces oomousemice: -i- replaces oumore often past tense & past participles of verbs taketooktaken ringrangrung

Inflectional affixes: suffixes which are added to word and change it according to grammatical rules; also called grammatical morphemes. Finch (2000: 105): 8 inflections of three groups: -Verb inflections past tense: ed (attack + ed) past participle: ed (attack + ed) present participle: ing (attack + ing) third person singular present tense : s (attack + s) -Noun inflections plural : s (dog + s) possessive : s, s (dog + s, dog + s) -Adjective/ Adverb inflections comparative: er (large + er) superlative: est (large +est)

II.2.2.2.b> By function: Inflectional & derivational affixes

Derivational affixes: affixes which are added to other words or morphemes and can change the meaning and the word class of the ones which they are attached to. can create new dictionary items; are also called lexical morphemes. 2 types: - Class-maintaining derivational affixes: do not make any changes in grammatical class of the words or morphemes with which they are connected. Most of pre-fixes are of this type, e.g. abnormal, bicycle, cooperate, disadvantage, immortal, etc. Suffixes can also be derivationals, e.g. Israelite, stewardess, mileage, etc. - Class-changing derivational affixes: cause changes in grammatical class of the words to which they get attach. Most of suffixes but few prefixes are of this type, e.g. admirable, beautify, broaden, trainee, selfish, enrich

III> Exercises
I> Analyze the following words into their constituents, naming each one 1. Undecided 2. Impenetrability 3. Uninteresting 4. Disestablished 5. Devolution 6. Reintroduction 7. Revengeful 8. Fatality 9. Makes 10. Wallflowers

1. 2. Undecided: {un-}: DP; {decide}: FB; {-ed}: DS Impenetrability: {-im}: DP; {penetr-}: BB; {-ate}: DS(v); {-able}: DS; {-ity}: DS 3. Uninteresting: {un-}: DP; {interest}: FB(n); {-ing}: DS 4. Disestablished: {dis-}: DP; {establish}: FB(v); {-ed}: DS 5. Devolution: {devolve}: FB(v); {-tion}: DS 6. Reintroduction: {re-}: DP; {introduce}: FB(v); {-tion}: DS 7. Revengeful: {revenge}: FB(n); {-ful}: DS 8. Fatality: {fate}: FB(n); {-al}: DS(adj); {-ity}: DS 9. Makes: {make}: FB; {-s}: IS (3rd person singular present tense) 10. Wallflowers: {wall}: FB; {flower}: FB; {-s}: IS (noun plural)

II> Identify the meaning of the bound base in each of the following words, & then give as many words with the same BB as you can

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revise contradict regress intervene recur

-vise=see supervise,..

oppose rodent portable rupture annual


revise -vise=see

devise,visible,visionary,television,visibility, visual,


contradict -dict=say

dictate,dictator,dictation,diction,dictum,contradiction,contradictory,contradict orily







-vene=comeconvene,contravene,supervene recur -cur=run recurrence,current,occur,currency inspect -spect=look spectacle,prospect,perspective,prospectus oppose -pose=place/put depose,propose,deposit,impose rodent -rod=gnaw erode,erosion,erosive portable -port=carry deport,transport,portage rupture -rupt=break erupt,abrupt,corrupt,interrupt annual -ann=year annuity,annuitant,anniversary bigamy -gamy=marriage polygamy,



-vise=see -dict= say -gress=go -vene=come -cur=run -spect=look -pose=place/put

devise,visible,visionary,television,visibility, visual, supervise,etc dictate,dictator,dictation,diction,dictum,contradiction,contradi ctory,contradictorily regressive,regression,progress,progressive,progression,egre ss,ingress convene,contravene,supervene recurrence,current,occur,currency spectacle,prospect,perspective,prospectus depose,propose,deposit,impose




recur inspect



-port=carry -rupt=break -ann=year -gamy=marriage

deport,transport,portage erupt,abrupt,corrupt,interrupt annuity,annuitant,anniversary polygamy, polygamous,monogamy,monogamous,bigamous


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