GPS Basic Course

GPS Basic Course

Page 1-1

GPS Basic Course

Section 2

• • • • •

Definition The Real Earth (The Geoid) The Ellipsoid World Geodetic System (WGS84) Height System

Page 1-2

The study of the earth Geodesy is the science of the measurement and mapping of the earth’s surface (F.Geo .R Helmert (1880 Page 1-3 .GPS Basic Course Definition Geodesy :.Earth desy .

America Europe S.GPS Basic Course (The Real Earth (The Geoid • Equipotential surface that best equates to mean sea level • Physical Definition that is a complicated surface • Described by an infinite number of parameters • Can be sensed by instruments Topography N. America Africa Page 1-4 .

GPS Basic Course The Ellipsoid • An ellipse is a mathematical figure which is defined by a – Semi-Major Axis (a) – Semi-Minor Axis (b) • It is a simple geometrical surface • Cannot be sensed by instruments b a Page 1-5 .

GPS Basic Course The Ellipsoid and Geoid N Topography N. America Africa Page 1-6 . America Europe O1 S.

GPS Basic Course The Ellipsoid and Geoid • Which ellipsoid to choose ? N N Topography N. America Africa Page 1-7 . America Europe O1 O2 S.

America Africa Page 1-8 .GPS Basic Course The Ellipsoid and Geoid • The World Geodetic System – WGS 1984 N Topography • The best mean fit to the Earth N. America Europe S.

Y plane and coincides with the Earth’s rotational axis Z P h γ ϕ λ Y X Page 1-9 .GPS Basic Course (World Geodetic System (WGS84 • Origin coincides with Earth’s center of mass • X and Y axis are perpendicular to each other in the equatorial plane • Z axis is at right angles to the X.

Longitude Ellipsoid height – Geocentric X.Y.GPS Basic Course (World Geodetic System (WGS84 • The prime orientation (X) is Greenwich Meridian • Positions and Coordinate differences are obtained in the WGS 84 Coordinate System – Latitude.Z coordinates Z P h γ ϕ λ Y X Page 1-10 .

GPS Basic Course Heighting • Heights determined using GPS are referenced to the WGS 84 Ellipsoid – Ellipsoid Heights are heights above the ellipsoid P Topography h Ellipsoidal heighth = Ellipsoid Page 1-11 .

GPS Basic Course Heighting • The Geoid is that equipotential surface (equal gravity) that best equates to Mean Sea Level • The geoid undulates due to the effects of – Topology. P Topography • Orthometric heights are referenced to a Datum which is typically M.L approximates the Geoid H = Height above Geoid (Orthometric Height)~ h H Geoid Ellipsoid Page 1-12 .S.L • M.S. geology etc.

the geoidal undulation must be accounted for P Topography h H N Geoid N = Geoidal Separation Ellipsoid Page 1-13 .GPS Basic Course Heighting • The height difference between ellipsoid and geoid is called the geoidal undulation • To obtain orthometric heights.

GPS Basic Course Heighting • The geoidal undulation may be positive or negative. Ellipsoidal heighth = P H = Height above Geoid (Orthometric Height)~ N = Geoidal Separation Topography h H N Geoid h=H+N h=H+N Page 1-14 Ellipsoid .

Page 1-15 . A distance or angle measured on the projection should be very close to the same distance or angle measured in the real world. •The secret of a good projection is to minimize the distortion. •Users should specify their projection.GPS Basic Course Projections – The Basics •A projection is a flat representation of a 3-D surface.

Types Mercator Cylindrical Great for east-to-west areas around the equator.GPS Basic Course Projections . Transverse Mercator Cylindrical Great for northto-south areas. The projection for UTM Lambert – 1 Conical Great for eastto-west areas along a common latitude Page 1-16 Lambert – 2 Conical Great for eastto-west areas Covers a wider north-to-south range with less distortion .

Distortion A good projection minimizes the “distortion” of distances and angles when measured in the real world and on your chart.GPS Basic Course Projections . Page 1-17 .

GPS Basic Course Secondly: GPS Basic Theory Page 2-1 .

Section 1 • • • • • • • • Traditionally Why GPS ? GPS General Characteristics GPS System Components Outline Principle : Range Outline Principle : Position GPS Signal Structure Range Determination form Code Observations • Initial Phase Ambiguity • Resolving the Ambiguity • Range Determination form Phase Observations • Selective Availability • Error Sources • Dilution of Precision • Errors Reduction • Differencing Techniques • Linear Combinations Page2-2 .GPS Basic Course Index .

g. it must be traversed around • Typically distance measurement is limited to 5 Km • Weather can limit operations. e. fog.GPS Basic Course Traditionally • GPS has many advantages over Traditional Terrestrial Surveying Techniques • These traditional techniques rely on the visibility between the survey instrument and a target – If an obstructions exists. rain etc Page 2-3 .

GPS Basic Course ?Why GPS •Weather Independent •Does not require line of sights •Gives high Geodetic Accuracy •Can be operated day and night •Quicker and requires less Manpower –Economical advantages •Common Coordinate System •Wide Range of Applications •Competitively Priced Line of sight is not necessary Page 2-3 .

GPS Basic Course GPS General Characteristics • Developed by the US Department of Defense • Provides – Accurate Navigation • 5 .15 m – Worldwide Coverage – 24 hour access – Common Coordinate System • Designed to replace existing navigation systems • Accessible by Civil and Military Page 2-5 .

GPS Basic Course GPS System Components Space Segment Space Segment NAVSTAR : :NAVigation NAVSTAR NAVigation Satellite Time and Ranging Satellite Time and Ranging Satellites 24 Satellites 24 Km 20200 Km 20200 User Segment User Segment Control Segment Control Segment Receive Satellite Signal Receive Satellite Signal Page 2-6 Master Station 11 Master Station Monitoring Stations 55 Monitoring Stations ` .

GPS Basic Course Control Segment • Master Control Station – Responsible for collecting tracking data from the monitoring stations and calculating satellite orbits and clock parameters • 5 Monitoring Stations – Responsible for measuring pseudorange data. This orbital tracking network is used to determine the broadcast ephemeris and satellite clock modeling – Ground Control Stations – Responsible for upload of information to the satellites Page 2-7 .

2.5 years • Different Classifications – Block 1. 2R & 2 F 55 Equator Page 2-8 . 2A.GPS Basic Course Space Segment • 24 Satellites – 4 satellites in 6 Orbital Planes inclined at 55 Degrees • 20200 Km above the Earth • 12 Hourly orbits – In view for 4-5 hours • Designed to last 7.

GPS Basic Course User Segment • The most visible segment • GPS receivers are found in many locations and applications Page 2-9 .

Ephemeris Space Segment Current ephemeris is transmitted to users Monitor stations • Diego Garcia • Ascension Island • Kwajalein • Hawaii GPS Control Colorado Springs Page 2-3 .Knowing Where the Satellites Are .

000 km/sec – Time (sec) x 300.000 = km • Multiply that phase by the carrier wavelngth. • Page 2-3 .Trilateration From Satellites • By measuring distance from several satellites you can calculate your position Satellite Ranging Measuring the distance from a satellite • Done by measuring travel time of radio signals • Done by measuring the phase of radio signals Measure how long it takes the GPS signal to get to us Multiply that time by 300.

GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Range lX l Xll X ll lll Page 2-10 Vl Vl l Vl ll Xl lV V .

GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Range lX l Xll X ll lll Page 2-11 Vl Vl l Vl ll Xl lV V .

GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Range lX l Xll X ll lll Page 2-12 Vl Vl l Vl ll Xl lV V .

GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Range lX l Xll X ll lll Range = Time Taken x Speed of Light Page 2-13 Vl Vl l Vl ll Xl lV V .

GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Position R1 We are somewhere on a sphere of radius. R1 Page 2-14 .

GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Position R1 R2 Spheres intersect as a circle 2 Page 2-15 .

Longitude and Height 3 Page 2-16 .GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Position R3 R1 R2 Spheres intersect at a point 3 Ranges to resolve for Latitude.

000 Km error second error = 300 m error 1/1.GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Position • The satellites are like “Orbiting Control Stations” Stations • Ranges (distances) are measured to each satellite using time dependent codes • Typically GPS receivers use inexpensive clocks.000. They are much less accurate than the clocks on board the satellites • A radio wave travels at the speed of light • (Distance = Velocity x Time) – Consider an error in the receiver clock • 1/10 second error = 30.000 • Page 2-17 .

Longitude.GPS Basic Course Outline Principle : Position Ranges to resolve for Latitude. Height & Time 4 It is similar in principle to a resection problem Page 2-18 .

23 MHz 10 ÷ L1 C/A Code L1 C/A Code 1575.23 MHz 10.42 MHz 1.23 MHz P (Y)-Code P (Y)-Code 10.023 MHz 1575.23 MHz 10.023 MHz L2 L2 1227.60 MHz P (Y)-Code P (Y)-Code 10.23 MHz 10.GPS Basic Course GPS Signal Structure Each GPS satellite transmits a number of signals • The signal comprises two carrier waves (L1 and L2) and two codes (C/A on L1 and P or Y on both L1 and L2) as well as a satellite orbit message Fundamental Fundamental Frequency Frequency 10.60 MHz 1227.42 MHz 1.23 MHz • x 154 x 120 BPS 50 BPS 50 (Satellite Message (Almanac & Ephemeris (Satellite Message (Almanac & Ephemeris Page 2-20 .

GPS Basic Course Range Determination from Code Observations • Pseudoranges (Code) – Each satellite sends a unique signal which repeats itself approx. 1 msec – Receiver compares self generated signal with received signal – From the time difference (dT) a range observation can be determined – Receiver clock needs to be synchronized with the satellite clock Received Code from Satellite Generated Code from Receiver ∆T (D = V (∆T ρ i (t ( = R(t ( + c(dt − dT ( + λ i N i − Ii (t ( + T + ε ϕ Page 2-21 .

the change in distance can be observed (the carrier phase ambiguity remains constant) Received Satellite Phase Generated Phase from Receiver ∆T D=c ∆T + λN λ iϕ i (t ( = R(t ( + c(dt − dT ( + λ i N i − Ii (t ( + T + ε ϕ Page 2-24 .GPS Basic Course Range Determination from Phase Observations • Phase Observations – Wavelength of the signal is 19 cm on L1 and 24 cm on L2 – Receiver compares self-generated phase with received phase – Number of wavelengths is not known at the time the receiver is switched on (carrier phase ambiguity) – As long as you track the satellite.

GPS Basic Course Autonomous Navigation Accuracy 5 .20 m A receiver in autonomous mode provides navigation and positioning accuracy of about 5 to 20m Page 2-25 .

20m A receiver in autonomous mode provides navigation and positioning accuracy of about 5 to 20m Page 2-26 .GPS Basic Course Autonomous Navigation Accuracy 5 .

Height & Time 4 It is similar in principle to a resection problem Page 2-27 . Longitude.GPS Basic Course Point Positioning Ranges to resolve for Latitude.

20m based on the C/A Code 100m 30m P P = True Position Page 2-28 .GPS Basic Course (Selective Availability (SA • In theory a point position can be accurate to 5 .

GPS Basic Course (Selective Availability (SA • In theory a point position can be accurate to 5 . for competition & political reasons SA is off Page 2-29 P = True Position .20m based on the C/A Code • The USDoD degrades the accuracy of the broadcast information – Dither the Satellite Clocks – Satellite Orbital Information 100m 30m P • This is known as Selective Availability • Positional accuracy 100m (95%) (100m (95%+/- • Nowadays.

A. Accuracy 10.GPS Basic Course Autonomous Navigation Under S.100 m A receiver in autonomous mode provides navigation and positioning accuracy of about 10 to 100 m due to the effects of Selective Availability Page 2-30 .

GPS Basic Course Error Sources • Satellite errors – Orbit uncertainty – Satellite Clock Model • Observation errors – Ionospheric Delay – Tropspheric Delay • Receiver errors – Receiver Clock – Receiver noise • Station errors – Station Coordinates – Multipath Page 2-31 .

Metres 200 400 300 100 0 Satellite Clock Recvr Noise Multipath Tropospheric Ephemeris Ionospheric Recvr Clock GPS Basic Course User Equivalent Range Errors Page 2-32 .

GPS Basic Course How Does One Can Reduce The Errors of GPS? Page 2-33 .

GPS Basic Course Firstly: Differencing Techniques A B Page 3-16 .

Single-Difference Observation • • • Remove the effect of the satellite clock offset. Reduce the effect of the satellite orbital error depending on the distance between stations. The atmospheric delay is significantly reduced especially with short baselines and can be neglected. j j j j j AB AB B A AB AB ∆ ϕ AB

∆ (roh(

= ∆ R (t ( + c(dt − dt ( + ∆ I (t ( + ∆ T + ε

Page 2-34

Double-Difference Observation

• Remove the effect of the receiver & satellite clock offset. • Remove the correlated part of satellite orbital error. • Remove the correlated part of the atmospheric delay.
jk jk jk jk jk λ∇ ∆ϕ AB (t ( = ∇ ∆R AB (t ( + λ ∇ ∆N AB − ∇ ∆I AB (t ( + ∇ ∆T AB + ε ∇jk∆ϕ
AB

Page2-35

Trible - Difference Observation

• • • •

jk jk jk λ δ∇ ∆ ϕ AB ( t 12 ) δ ∇ ∆ R AB (t 12 ( − δ ∇ ∆ I AjkB ( t12 ) + δ ∇ ∆ T AB ( t12 ) + δ ∇ ∆ ε δjk∆ ϕ ( t12 ) ∇
AB

Remove the effect of the clock offsets. Remove the ambiguity bias. Remove the correlated part of satellite orbital error. Remove the correlated part of the atmospheric delay.

Page 2-36

GPS Basic Course :Secondly Linear Combinations of GPS Observables Page 2-25 .

Some other artificial observations can be created from the actual observation by linearly combining them.Linear Combinations • The actual GPS observables are the carrier phases and the code observations. The main applied linear combinations formula is described by: φ.b = a 1 b + λ 1 λ 2 Page 2-37 .b a = φ+ φ a 1 b 2 • The corresponding frequency is: f a .b = f 1 + f 2 a b • The corresponding wavelength is: λ a .

b a f 1∆ n 1 +b f 2 ∆ n Io Io = a f 1 +b f 2 2 • The ratio between the ionospheric delay in the linear combination and in L1 observations will be: ψ in o f 1 [b f 1 + f 2 ] a = f 2 [a f 1 + f 2 ] b Page 2-38 . The ionospheric delay can be written as: ∆Io n a . the clock and the ephemeris errors. The linear combinations have no effect on the frequencyindependent biases such as the tropospheric delay. b.Linear Combinations • The frequency-dependent biases such as the ionospheric delay and the multipath will be affected by these combinations. • The linear combinations will alter the ionospheric delay by a ratio depending on the integers a.

006 0.190 0.101 14.65 -1.28 1.07 350.28 0.00 1.35 .107 0.65 ψ ion 1.00 -0.244 0.b (m) 0.862 0. effect Very long wavelength a 1 0 1 1 77 5 -7 Page 2-39 b 0 1 -1 1 -60 -4 9 λ a.Linear Combinations The most common linear combinations are summarised in the following table: Signal • • • • • • • L1 L2 Wide-lane Narrow-lane Ionosphere-free low iono.

GPS Basic Course Ionosphere Orbit Troposphere Thirdly: Modeling GPS Biases Page 2-3 .

The refractive index of Microwaves is a function of frequency f and the density of free electrons Ne The sign will depend on whether the range (+) or the phase (–) refractive index is required. the sun's radiation ionises gas molecules which then lose an electron. and the ranging codes is decreased (the socalled "group velocity") . Page 2-3 • • A.Ionospere Delay: • • • • Atmospheric Corrections Ionosphere Troposphere The ionosphere is extending from about 50 to 1000 kilometres. These free electrons influence the propagation of microwave signals. the "phase velocity" is actually increased. or "advanced".N e n =1 ± f2 & c v = n .

•Extreme at horizon 3 times zenith value. may be useful for point positioning users. •Use IONOSPHERE PREDICTION MODELS -broadcast model generally <50% accuracy. •the time of day •the level of solar activity . •Use DUAL-FREQUENCY receivers -. •Extreme in day 5-10 times night value.form "ionosphere-free" L1/L2 data combination Page 2-3 Ionosphere Troposphere d ion TEC = 40 . •the season.28 * 2 f . MAGNITUDE: •Extreme at zenith 30m.Ionoospheric Delay The factors influence the magnitude of the TEC including: •the latitude of the receiver.

and water vapour pressure . It is a function of the satellite elevation angle and the altitude of the receiver. and is dependent on the atmospheric pressure. and the remaining d tro = MFd d dtro (90 ( + MFw d w (90 ( 10% from the wet component. The tropospheric refractivity can be partitioned into the two components. one for the dry part of the atmosphere and the other for the wet part About 90% of the magnitude of the d trop = d dry + d wet tropospheric delay arises from the tro dry component. temperature. There are several mapping functions Page 2-3 • • • .Tropospheric Delay • • Ionosphere The tropoosphere is extending from Troposphere the earth to 50 kilometres.

4 ppm scale effect) Any uncertainty in modelling the differential tropospheric refraction bias results mostly in a degradation of the height component in the solution. Such models can account for approximately 90% of the delay (corresponding mainly to the dry part). and humidity. Ionosphere Troposphere • • • d trop = d dry + d wet • . and for pseudo-range. pressure. however the remaining 10% (largely due to the wet part) Neglecting to apply tropospheric refraction results in an absolute scale error. (1m leads to 0. The tropospheric delay can be predicted using values of temperature.Tropospheric Delay • The magnitude of the tropospheric delay is the same for both L1 and L2 observations.

nasa.jpl.gov/products/ . clock biases can be fixed by IGS The total IGS tracking network by late 2000 (248 stations) http://igscb.Orbit & Sat.

25 m (Real-Time) & Satellite clock 5 nanosecond •Rapid 0.05 m (17 hours later) & Satellite clock 0.Orbit & Sat.jpl. clock biases can be fixed by IGS False position True position •Predicted Orbit 0. •UltraRapid 0.gov/products/ Page 2-3 .1 nanosecond http://igscb.05 m (13 days) & Satellite clock 0.nasa.5 m (Real-Time) & Satellite clock 150 nanosecond.2 nanosecond •Final < 0.

GPS Basic Course

(Dilution of Precision (DOP
• A description of purely geometrical contribution to the uncertainty in a position fix • It is an indicator as to the geometrical strength of the satellites being tracked at the time of measurement
– GDOP (Geometrical) • Includes Lat, Lon, Height & Time – PDOP (Positional) • Includes Lat, Lon & Height – HDOP (Horizontal) • Includes Lat & Lon – VDOP (Vertical) • Includes Height only
Page 2-40

Good GDOP

GPS Basic Course

(Dilution of Precision (DOP
• A description of purely geometrical contribution to the uncertainty in a position fix • It is an indicator as to the geometrical strength of the satellites being tracked at the time of measurement
– GDOP (Geometrical) • Includes Lat, Lon, Height & Time – PDOP (Positional) • Includes Lat, Lon & Height – HDOP (Horizontal) • Includes Lat & Lon – VDOP (Vertical) • Includes Height only
Page 2-41

Poor DOP

GPS Basic Course

Different GPS Operation Types and Applications

Page 3-1

GPS Basic Course Initial Phase Ambiguity • Initial phase Ambiguity must be determined to use carrier phase data as distance measurements over time (Time (0 (Time (i Ambiguity Ambiguity Phase Measurement Counted Cycles Phase Measurement Page 2-22 .

10 Ambiguities Resolved 0.01 (Time (mins Static Rapid Static 120 5 2 0 0 Page 2-23 . the accuracy of the measurement does not significantly improve with time (Accuracy (m 1.00 Ambiguities Not resolved 0.GPS Basic Course Resolving the Ambiguity • The effect of resolving the ambiguity is shown below • Note that once the ambiguities are resolved.

That is to say a baseline is measured from a fixed point. (a reference station) to a unknown point (a rover station).GPS Basic Course Using GPS for Surveying • All GPS Surveying is carried out using differential techniques. • This is undertaken using one of two methods • Post Processing – The raw GPS data from the satellites is recorded and processed in the office using software • Real Time – The processing of the data is carried out as you work giving an instantaneous and accurate position Page 3-2 .

s – Classical GPS baseline measurement.m.1ppm baseline r.GPS Basic Course (Static (STS • The classical method for long lines and the highest accuracy 5mm + 0. where each line is observed for at least one hour – The observation time is proportional to the length of the line – Standard method for lines over 20 Km • Applications – – – – Geodetic control over large areas National and continental networks Monitoring tectonic movement Network adjustments for highest accuracy Page 3-3 .

efficient – Ideal for short range survey Page 3-4 .1ppm • Applications – Control Surveys. quick. Replace traversing and local triangulation.GPS Basic Course (Rapid Static (STS • Short observation time for baselines up to 20 km. GIS city inventories. Any job where many points have to be surveyed Advantages – Easy. detail surveys. Accuracy 5-10mm +0.

GPS Basic Course (Kinematic (KIS • Stop Mode – The rover must first initialize Page 3-8 .

the system must re-initialized : : 28 : 20 0: 20 0 10 2 : 27: : 10 8 1 18: 0: 10 1 : 18: 1 10 2 : 24: 26: 0 10 14: 2 : 23 : 16: : 1 10 0 30: 10 2 1 22: 0 10 1 : 12: : 23 0 10 1 : 14: 1 : 16: 10 12: : 0: 10 : 1 10 0: 10 : : 1 10 0: 10 3 23 : 0: 10 : 3 : 23 : 3 : 23 : : 23 : 3 : 23 : 23 2 23 3 23 2 23 3 23 2 23 2 23 23 Page 3-9 3 23 .GPS Basic Course (Kinematic (KIS • Moving Mode – The rover must first initialize – Once enough data is collected to resolve the ambiguities the user can now move the receiver – Lock must be maintained on a minimum of 4 satellites at all times – Rover records data at a specific time interval – If lock is lost.

once the rover is continuously tracking a minimum of 5 satellites on the L1 & L2 for a period of time the ambiguities can be resolved 10 12: : 23 Page 3-10 .GPS Basic Course (Ambiguity Resolution On The Fly (KOF • Moving Mode – This technique does not require a static initialization – While moving.

– While moving. once the rover is continuously tracking a minimum of 5 satellites on the L1 & L2 for a period of time the ambiguities can be resolved.GPS Basic Course (Ambiguity Resolution On The Fly (KOF • Moving Mode – This technique does not require a static initialization. 0 10 1 : 14: : 3 : 23 1 : 16: 0 10 1 : 12: : 3 : 23 Page 3-11 : 0: 10 3 23 .

GPS Basic Course (Ambiguity Resolution On The Fly (KOF • Moving Mode – If traveling under an obstruction and loss of lock occurs. 0: 10 1 : 18: 0 10 1 : 14: : 3 : 23 1 : 16: 0 10 1 : 12: : 3 : 23 Page 3-12 : 0: 10 3 23 23 .

– Ambiguity resolution will re-occur once 5 satellites on L1 & L2 are acquired and tracking is consistent for a short period of time 0: 10 1 : 18: 10 24: 10 22: 0 10 1 : 14: : 3 : 23 1 : 16: 0 10 1 : 12: : 3 : 23 Page 3-13 : 0: 10 3 23 : 23 : 23 23 .GPS Basic Course (Ambiguity Resolution On The Fly (KOF • Moving Mode – If traveling under an obstruction and loss of lock occurs.

– Ambiguity resolution will re-occur once 5 satellites on L1 & L2 are acquired and tracking is consistent for a short period of time – This technique allows positions to be determined up to the point that the min. satellites were re-acquired 0: 20 10 27: 0: 10 1 : 18: 10 24: 26: 10 22: 0 10 1 : 14: : 3 : 23 1 : 16: 0 10 1 : 12: : 3 : 23 0: 10 : 10 Page 3-14 : 0: 10 3 23 : 23 : 23 : 23 3 23 23 23 .GPS Basic Course (Ambiguity Resolution On The Fly (KOF • Moving Mode – If traveling under an obstruction and loss of lock occurs.

satellites were re-acquired : : 28 0 10 2 : 27: 0: 10 1 : 18: 1 10 2 : 24: 26: : 1 10 0 30: 10 2 1 22: 0 10 1 : 14: : 3 : 23 1 : 16: 0 10 1 : 12: : 3 : 23 : 0: 10 : : 1 10 Page 3-15 : 0: 10 3 23 : 3 : 23 : 3 : 23 : : 23 3 23 2 23 2 23 23 .GPS Basic Course (Ambiguity Resolution On The Fly (KOF • Moving Mode – If traveling under an obstruction and loss of lock occurs. – Ambiguity resolution will re-occur once 5 satellites on L1 & L2 are acquired and tracking is consistent for a short period of time – This technique allows positions to be determined up to the point that the min.

GPS Basic Course Real-Time Differential GPS Concept .

GPS Basic Course Concept of Real Time • Real Time Code. Real Time Phase – No post processing required – Results are instantly available – Can operate in two modes • RTK • RT-DGPS A B Page 3-16 .

REAL-TIME Code DGPS REAL-TIME Code DGPS Rover Reference Page 3-17 .

5 cm . and receiver clocks – minimizes atmospheric delays – Accuracy 0.GPS Basic Course Differential Positioning • It is possible to determine the position of Rover ‘B’ in relation to Reference ‘A’ provided – The coordinates of the Reference Station (A) are known – Satellites are tracked simultaneously • Differential Positioning – eliminates errors in the sat.5 m A Baseline Vector B Page 3-18 .

5 m can be achieved • This is typically referred to as DGPS r to ec eV in el as B Page 3-19 . accuracy’s in the range of 0.DGPS in Photogrammetry Differential Positioning • If using the Code only part of the signal.5 .

you know in the field that the ambiguities are resolved and that the results are correct. •All high precision applications (Land. •No post processing. Page 3-19 . .REAL-TIME KINEMATIC “RTK” SURVEYING Disadvantages: . •Several rovers can use one reference station.Needs a radio modem (data link(. •Quality control . Marine& Aviation(. Advantages: •Coordinates in real time in the field (WGS84 or local coordinates(. •One person system.Radio contact can be interrupted by obstructions such as hills. valleys buildings etc.

10 mm + 1ppm A Baseline Vector B Page 3-20 .GPS Basic Course Differential Positioning • If using Phase or Code & Phase accuracy is in the order of 5 .

accuracy’s in the order of 5 .10 mm + 1ppm can be achieved r to ec eV in el as B Page 2-3 .GPS Basic Course Differential Positioning • If using the Code and Phase part of the signal.

simultaneously tracking a minimum of 4 satellites (preferably 5) will yield 0.100 m accuracy – Dependent on SA – 1 Epoch solution • Differential Positioning Methods using 2 receivers.GPS Basic Course Summary of GPS Positioning • Point Positioning Methods using stand alone receivers provide 10 .5 cm to 5 m accuracy with respect to a Reference Station • Remember – Differential Techniques using Code will give meter accuracy – Differential Techniques using Phase will give centimeter accuracy Page 3-21 .

SR399. SR9400. Move quickly from point to point • Positions to centimeter level accuracy Page 2-3 . SR9500 Unit.Real Time GPS Real Time Phase (RTK) • Initialization The Action takes Rapid Static place at the Rover SR9400. The System can be initialized. recording automatically at predetermined intervals. This is where points and assoc. SR9500 part can begin.Point SR9500 SR399. Then the moving On the fly SR399. Initializing on a known point takes 15 sec. This normally Known takes about 1 min. information can be recorded Moving Part Move continuously to determine trajectories.

Real Time GPS Quality Assurance • Blunder Detection – – – – Base Station Coordinates Heights of Instrumentation Transformation (if used) Vector determination • Vector Confirmation Page 2-3 .

Page 2-3 .Real Time GPS Dilution of Precision (DOP) • Operating in RTK mode – Recommended to use a minimum of 5 Satellites and a GDOP of 8 or less. (Once integers are fixed) • Operating in Code only mode – Recommended to use a minimum of 5 satellites with a GDOP of 6 or less.

0.01 m Page 2-3 .Real Time GPS Understanding the CQ • The coordinate Quality Indicator (CQ) is a 3-Dimensional estimator of the accuracy of a point derived in Real Time.03 m • Vertical accuracy…………………….03 m • Horizontal accuracy………………… 0. • GPS results normally yield Horizontal accuracy's 2-3 times better than the Vertical • Coordinate Quality indicator………. 0.

• Differential Float (3). HDOP.Real Time GPS Recording Quality Control Data • Mode of Operation • Navigation (0). Differential Phase (4) • • • • • • GDOP. PDOP. Differential Code (1). VDOP Antenna Height Number of satellites used in solution Number of epochs on a point Length of interval between epochs Receiver Serial Type and Serial Number Page 2-3 .

. to a point. – To North.Real Time GPS Features…. last point.Stakeout • Orientation. to a line Target Position •Stakeout a point by Azimuth and Distance Offset Present Position Distance Target Position •Stakeout a point in orthogonal mode (Distance and Offset) Azim uth ce tan Dis Present Position Page 2-3 .

Stakeout • Stakeout Lines – Auto Increment and Offset Defined Line Line to be Staked et ffs O • Stakeout Hidden Points – East/North/Height St at io n • Minimum Key Strokes Start Point Page 2-3 In cr em en t ..Real Time GPS Surveying Features….

Intersections – Arcs.Applications • COGO (Coordinate Geometry) – Inverse. Station Offset Well Head Crossline Distance Source Line Inline Distance Page 2-3 . Traverse..Real Time GPS Features….

.Real Time GPS Features….Auto Record • Continuous Recording – By Distance – By Time – Targeting available during continuous tracking : 23 : 23 : 23 :14 10 : 23 : 23 :12 10 : 23 : 10 10 :18 :16 10 :22 10 20 Page 2-3 .

. X Z Y Page 2-3 .Coordinate Conversion • Getting into Local Coordinate Systems • Choose from one of two methods • Classical – Compute it in the field – Download it from the appropriate software.Real Time GPS Features….

Real Time GPS Limitations • GPS is not always the correct tool – Obstructions • Multipath • Loss of lock Page 2-3 .

GPS Applications (Photogrammetry) Use of GPS in Airborne Surveying • Ground Control Determination • Flight Management and Camera Control • Determination of Perspective Centers • Orientation of non-imaging sensors Page 3-22 .

GPS Applications (Photogrammetry) Ground Control Determination • Ground Control – Survey techniques identical to cadastral or other applications – High Accuracy – Faster than conventional techniques – No direct line of sight necessary – 3-D Ground Control Points – Ground units may be used as reference receivers for airborne operations Page 3-23 .

GPS Applications (Photogrammetry) Flight Navigation and Camera Control • Flight Navigation – Guidance from airport to project area – Optimum flight path between flight lines • Camera Control – Shutter release at predefined positions – Annotation of position on the image – Side lap control Page 3-24 .

GPS Applications (Photogrammetry) Positions at Camera Events • GPS measurements are taken at regular intervals or epochs – for kinematic applications. usually 1 sec Camera Event • The camera is triggered as required – Camera firing is not coincidental with GPS epoch – Controlled by operator or flight management system GPS Position • Camera positions are interpolated from GPS results – Correct time of camera event is critical – Must be accurate relative to GPS measurement time – Use the same time source for both GPS and trapping the camera event. This is an important role of the ‘event catcher’ Page 3-25 .

GPS Applications (Photogrammetry) Aircraft System Components Pilot Display ACU30 28v DC Operator Terminal Antenna NSF3 RC30 Page 3-26 .

GPS Applications (Photogrammetry) Data Processing Flow Airborne Data Transfer Reference Data and Airborne Data to PC Reference Data Compute camera positions from GPS epochs and actual times of camera events Process GPS data to generate epoch positions Camera Event Positions Epoch Positions Local Coordinates Page 3-27 Transform to Local Coordinate System Aero Triangulation .

2942. 0503/03943\$ 54.0  .8..:7..03920907 !.84:943 W 1107039.:7.36:08:834/0 ... 1107039.43070.80 .:7.078  82:9...:7.90908 570107.%0.020907 1107039.0..0.%0.304:897.!\$.078 574.. #010703..970850./0   2.3/.232:2418.943 W #0202-07 4/0 20907..0.03920907 .-  0/ ..3.!489433094/8:8370.0\$9.994..80 ..36:08:83!.741!\$!489433 W !439!489433094/8:8389. !.4:780 \$:22.

039209070..%20!.0.3 5..07 &39 %0\$8902 .0/  %83472.47/0/ 39..08 80.943.884.990#4.0.08 5.. \$# \$# \$# 4.17425439945439 W 3901 \$# \$# !48943894. %039024.0.5/\$9.47/3.343..06:.9...  31472.9570/0907230/3907..:7. 34354399.0.94708 70.3!.08.0  .3-03  %88070 54398.8 343!439 \$# \$# \$# 4.9439. 9.%20!\$ #0.943 #.80 #% W %0.-4:923  39.3-039.4393:4:894/090723097. !.3/..79.#0.:942.9...79 4.3-0 70.

943 %7.94743172.3.943 .80\$9.0 W :3/07090.908 098413897:2039.943 W '0.%20!\$ ":.988:7.943 1:80/ '0.0  .#0.943447/3.947/090723.381472.943 !.

0390078.232:2 418. !4147 088  3.%20!\$ :94341!70.0  .#0. !4147 088 !.909089.9334/04324/0 #0.42203/0/94:80.7010/ W 507.90908.843  ! W 507.232:2 41\$.42203/0/94:80.933#%24/0 #0.3/.

 W 47439..90":.. 8 9208 -099079.:7...5439/07. 0892.93/.41. 2 2 2 !..947 " 8..0/47439..3/390" W %0.0/3#0. 203843..%20 W !\$708:983472.390'079.447/3...#0.:7.9474190.. W 447/3...947 W '079.:7.0  .:7.%20!\$ &3/0789.93/.....90":...

943 1107039.90908:80/384:943 :2-0741054.843...07\$07.9  1107039.9.5439 039413907.80  W W W W W W  ! ! !  ! ' ! 39033.%50.-09003054.943 W .47/3":..!.%20!\$ #0.09 :2-07418.3/\$07. W 4/041 507.0.:2-07 !.#0.8 #0.4/0   W 1107039.943974.4.0  .

3.04:9.30 %.0 9.943 %4479 94. 24/0 89.3.5439- 2:9.3.3/89.#0.5439 .0.0 %.04:9 W 7039.3/ 11809 2:9 .0  .3  8 !708039!48943 !.0 11809 !708039!48943 89.709 !48943 W\$9.54393479443.895439 94.%20!\$ 0.04:9.9:708 \$9.709 !48943 W\$9.

0/ W \$9.#0.04:9//03!4398 .9:708 \$9.3/ 11809 0130/30 3094-0\$9.04:9 W \$9.03 0.04:9308 :943.89.%20!\$\$:7.702039.

479.

79!439 !.09 W 32:20\$97408 \$9.0  .

#0.0780 390780.943 11809 00.%20!\$ 0.3.9:708 55.8 \$9.0 !.9438 7./ 748830 89.030 33089..90042097 3.0 \$4:7.0780 %7.3.0  ..9438 W    447/3.

47/ W 4393:4:8#0.47/3 89.3 !.%20!\$ 0.#0..7093.0  ....-0/:73 .0 %20 %.4393:4:897.9:708 :94#0.3.

88.9:708 447/3.447/3.557457.908419.07843 W 09933944.70    !.%20!\$ 0.90 \$89028 W 4480174243041942094/8 W .0  ./9174290 ... 425:90939010/ 434.#0.9043.

%20!\$ 29.890.9944 -897:.9 W 488414.9438 W :95.. !.4770.0  .#0.9438 W !\$8349.

!\$55.943 W 9..3 8038478 !.0 039078 W 7039.0  .03 W 74:3/43974090723.9438 !4947.94341!07850.9.02039.22097 &8041!\$37-4730\$:7.207.94341343 2.3/ .43974 W 090723.3.

078147 .8 7010703.088.55.03943..!\$55..:7.22097 74:3/43974090723.9438 !4947.9438 ..3.94 .0./.9304189 30.-0:80/.89079.9438 !.943 W 74:3/43974 \$:7.0  . .7-47304507.7  74:3/43974!4398 74:3/:3982..090.36:08 4/70.36:08/039..070.897.43. 90.474907..

80.3.9570/0130/ 5489438 3349.943.3/.22097 9.9-09003 19308 W ...43974 !.943 :/.01742.43974 \$:9907700..43974 W 9..9.207.7547994 5740.0  .0 \$/0.. 592:2195.207.943415489434390 2.5.70.9438 !4947.!\$55.

039.0  .0.3/ 97.9438 :8:.039 W %0.207..94747192..9438 !4947.0398 W !\$20.094!\$20.970:.9.207.90/1742!\$ 708:98 4770. .992041.02039 88902 !\$ !48943 W .207.8 147302.55390.207.9. :89-0..73907.22097 !489438.709.207..39740 4190 0.8:7020398.5489438.70390754.8706:70/ .!\$55.80.9.039 %88.1738349.9!\$054.:7.8:702039920 &80908.79.2092084:7.897070/.207.03...55..3./039..9.07 !..9070... ..207.43.0147-49!\$.0398.325479.0. 439740/-4507.8 47054.

 \$ \$ # # !.0  . .947 %0723. !49 85. & & .22097 7.7. 507.!\$55.9438 !4947.19\$8902425430398 39033..

0. 447/3.3/ 7-4730.94 0307.90\$8902 4..!74.0  074 %7.9...5489438 .8.. 447/3..381472944.!\$55.08834 7-4730 .3:. !489438 %7. %7. .0 .9.0.9:.943 .920841..90054.0398 !74.9438 !4947.94! #010703.207.088!\$/..039 !489438 54.38107#010703.207.9.9.207.3/.9.908 !.22097 . 425:90.9.54894381742 !\$054.