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University of Tehran

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering


Center of Excellence for
Control and Intelligent Processing
Designing MIMO PID Controller using
Colonial Competitive Algorithm: Applied
to Distillation Column Process
By:
Esmaeil Atashpaz Gargari
Farzad Hashemzadeh
Caro Lucas

Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence,
University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
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Introduction
Outline
Main objective
PID Controller for Multivariable Process
Problem Statement
What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm
(CCA)?
Simulation Results
Conclusion

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Introduction
Main objective
To show an industrial application of a novel
evolutionary optimization algorithm.
To design a MIMO PID controller for a
distillation column process
The design objective in PID controller design is
to track the system outputs by the inputs.
A colonial competitive Algorithm is used for
this purpose.
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PID Controller for Multivariable Process


11 1
1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
n nn
p s p s
s
p s p s
=
(
(
(
(

P
1 2
[ ]
T
d d d dn
y y y = Y
1 2
[ ]
T
n
y y y = Y
1 2
[ ]
T
n
u u u = U
11 22
[ ]
T
d nn
e e e = = E Y Y
11 1
1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
n nn
c s c s
s
c s c s
=
(
(
(
(

C
0
1 1
( )
n n
ij
i j
IAE e t dt

= =
| |
|
\ .

}
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Introduction
Colonial Competitive Algorithm (CCA) is novel socio-
politically motivated optimization strategy.

Proposed by Atashpaz-gargari and Lucas in the
papersImperialist Competitive Algorithm: An
Algorithm for Optimization Inspired by Imperialistic
Competition. IEEE CEC 2007, Singapore

Is inspired by sociopolitical process of Imperialism !!
Since in late inception, it has been used in many
applications.
Has shown good convergence and global minimum
achievement.
Has a lot to do with.
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Colonial Competitive Algorithm!?
Is it useful?
A short list of CCA applications

SISO PID Controller Design
MIMO PID Controller design for Distillation Column
Process
Intelligent Recommender Systems
Adaptive Antenna Design
Optimal Layout design
Nash Equilibrium point achievement
Gershgorin Bands Narrowing
Automated Guided Vehicle
Materials property characterization through sharp and
spherical indentation tests.

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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Basic Idea of CCA
GAs use the biological evolution of human as a source
of inspiration.
Why most of evolutionary algorithms such as GA and
SA are computer simulation of natural processes?
Is human evolution limmited to biological evolution?
No!!
Are there another kinds of evolution?
Yes.!
Is there any way to use these kind evolutions as a
sourse of inspiration for an optimization algorithm?
Yes.
Colonial Competitive
Algorithm (CCA)
Is one of the answers to this question
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Basic Idea of CCA
Imperialism is the policy of extending the power and
rule of a government beyond its own boundaries.
A country may attempt to dominate others by direct
rule or by less obvious means such as a control of
markets for goods or raw materials. The latter is often
called neocolonialism.
Imperialism changed the public attitude toward
civilization of the West during 19th and 20th century.
Social Darwinists interpreted imperialism and
supported the idea that the culture of West is superior
to the Easts culture.!
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Basic idea of CCA
According to the assimilation policy, some countries
like France intended to construct a new France in
Indochina through building French speaking schools
and expanding its language and culture.
In the proposed algorithm, the imperialists do the same
for their colonies. !!!
All the imperialists compete for taking possession of
colonies of each other.
Also assimilation policy is modeled by moving the
colonies toward the imperialists.
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
A big picture
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We form an array of variable values to be
optimized.
In GA terminology, this array is called
chromosome, but here the term country is
used for this array.



We are looking for the best country. That is a
country with best Culture, Language, !
What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Creating Initial Empires
1 2 3
[ , , ,..., ]
var
N
country p p p p =
var
1 2 3
( ) ( , , ,..., )
N
cost f country f p p p p = =
Culture Economical Policy Language Religion
..
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Generating Initial Empires (Cont.)
max{ }
n n i
i
C c c =
1
imp
n
n
N
i
i
C
p
C
=
=

. . { . }
n n col
N C round p N =
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
A big picture
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Assimilation Policy!
Culture
Language
Imperialist states started to spread their culture in their colonies
through making the schools with their own language and ...
(0 , ) x U d |
Revolution

A sudden change in socio-political characteristics of a country

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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
A big picture
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Exchanging Positions of the Imperialist and a Colony
While moving toward the imperialist, a colony
may reach to a position with lower cost than
that of imperialist.
In such a case, the imperialist moves to the
position of that colony and vise versa.

Imperialist
Best
Colony
Imperialist
Colony
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
A big picture
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Total Power of an Empire
Total power of an empire is mainly affected by
the power of imperialist country.
But the power of the colonies of an empire has
an effect, albeit negligible, on the total power
of that empire.
This fact is modeled by defining the total cost
as

. . ( ) { ( )}
n n n
T C Cost imperialist mean Cost colonies of empire = +
. . ( ) { ( )}
n n n
T C Cost imperialist mean Cost colonies of empire = +
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
A big picture
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Imperialistic Competition
all empires try to take possession of colonies of other
empires and control them.

Imperialist 1
Imperialist 2
Imperialist 3
Imperialist N
Empire 1
Empire 2
Empire 3
Empire N
The Weakest
Empire
Weakest Colony in
Weakest Empire
2
P
3
P
N
P
. . . .
. . . . .
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Imperialistic Competition (Cont.)
. . . . . max{ . . }
n n i
i
N T C T C T C =
1
. . .
. . .
n
imp
n
p
N
i
i
N T C
p
N T C
=
=

1 2 3
, , , ...,
N
imp
p p p p
p p p p =
(

P
1 2 3
, , , ...,
imp
N
r r r r = (

R
1 2 3
, , , ..., (0,1)
imp
N
r r r r U
1 2 3
, , , ...,
imp
N
D D D D = (

D=P- R
1 2 3
1 2 3
, , , ... ,
N imp
imp
p p p p N
p r p r p r p r
(

=
Maximum?
Roulette Wheel?
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
A big picture
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What is Colonial Competitive Algorithm?
Pseudo Code
Select some random points on the function and initialize the
empires.
Move the colonies toward their relevant imperialist
(Assimilating).
If there is a colony in an empire which has lower cost than
that of imperialist, exchange the positions of that colony and
the imperialist.
Compute the total cost of all empires (Related to the power
of both imperialist and its colonies).
Pick the weakest colony (colonies) from the weakest empire
and give it (them) to the empire that has the most likelihood
to possess it (Imperialistic competition).
Eliminate the powerless empires.
If there is just one empire, stop, if not go to 2.
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Simulation Results
2*2 MIMO Distillation Column

3
7 3
12.8 18.9
( ) ( )
1 16.7 1 21
.
( ) ( )
6.6 19.4
1 10.9 1 14.4
s s
D
s s
B
e e
X s R s
s s
X s S s
e e
s s

+ +
=

+ +
(
(
( (
(
( (
(
(

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Simulation Results

Wang, Q. G., Zou, B., Lee, T. H., & Qiang, B. (1997). Auto-
tuning of multivariable PID controllers from decentralized relay
feedback. Automatica, 33(3), pp 319330.





1 1
0.18 0.047 0.01 0.023 0.008
1 1
0.067 0.016 0.054 0.07 0.016
( )
s
s s
s
s s
s
+ +
+
=
(
(
(
(

C
11 11 12 12 12
21 21 21 22 22
1 1
( )
1 1
P I P I D
P I D P I
K K K K K s
s s
s
K K K s K K
s s
+ + +
=
+ + +
(
(
(
(
(

C
11 12 21 22
0 0 0 0
11 12 21 22
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) IAE e t dt e t dt e t dt e t dt
IAE IAE IAE IAE

= + + +
= + + +
} } } }
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Simulation Results
Schematics
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Simulation Results
Convergence
the steady state convergence value of CCA is
12.8549, which is smaller than that of GA, 14.
9334.
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Simulation Results
Resulting Controllers

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Simulation Results
Step Responses
Output 1

Output 2

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Simulation Results
Step Responses (Cont.)
Error Output 1

Error Output 2

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Simulation Results
Comparing








The controlller obtained by CCA has generally better
performance than the others.
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Conclusion

Colonial Competitive Algorithm is a novel
evolutionary optimization algorithm.
It has successfully been used to solve some
optimization problems.
It is based on the sociopolitical evolution of
human.
It was able to properly tune the PID parameters
for a MIMO
It has a lot to do with.
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The end
Thanks


Thanks for your attention!
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