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Topics to be Covered:

Introduction Theories of Motivation (Maslow, Alderfer, Adam, Herzberg, Vroom) Motivational Techniques.

Prakash is an engineer in a large design engineer office. He hails from a poor but disciplined family. The family has a rural background. For prakash, it was earn while you learn althrough till he graduated in architecture. Prakash is intelligent, capable and hard working. But his main fault is that he does not want to take risks. He hesitates to make decisions himself, and often brings petty and routine problems to his boss or to peers for decisions. Whenever he does a design job, brings it in rough draft to his boss for approval before finalizing it. Since prakash is a capable person his boss wants to motivate him to be more independent in his work. The boss believes that this approach will improve prakashs performance, relieve the boss from extra routine and give prakash more self confidence. However the boss is not sure how to go about motivating prakash to take initiative in his work.
IN THE ROLE OF THE BOSS, PLAN HOW WILL YOU MOTIVATE PRAKASH. GIVE REASONS.

Case Incident 1

What Is Motivation?

Direction

Intensity

Persistence

Performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation.


PERFORMANCE =
f (ABILITY * MOTIVATION )

ABILITY is the skill and competence of a person to compete a given task. MOTIVATION is the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways.

Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action

1. Identifies Needs

6. Reassesses needs deficiencies EMPLOYEE

2. Search for ways to satisfy needs

5. Receives either rewards or punishments

3. Engage in goal directed behavior

4. Performs

FRAMEWORK OF MOTIVATION

Importance of Motivation

A motivated employee is quality oriented. Motivated workers are more productive. They always look for better way of doing jobs.

Theories of Motivation
EARLY THEORIES CONTEMPORARY THEORIES

SCIENTIFIC MANGANGEMENT

HUMAN RELATIONS MODEL

CONTENT

PROCESS

REINFORCEMENT

MASLOW HERZBERG ALDERFER Mc CLELLAND

VROOM ADAM PORTER LAWLER

Content vs. Process Motivation Theories

Content theories

explain why people have different needs at different times describe the processes through which needs are translated into behavior

Process theories

CONTENT THEORIES

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


NEEDS General Examples SelfAchievement actualization Status Friendship Stability Food Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Challenging job Job title Friends at work Pension plan Base salary Organizational Examples

Survival or physiological needs: Includes basic needs which are required for survival like food, drink, oxygen, sleep etc. Security or safety needs: Includes preference for a secured income, the acquisition of insurance, a house etc. Belonging needs: Includes affectionate relationship with others namely for a place in his family. Self Esteem needs: Maslow has classified into self esteem and esteem from others. Self Esteem includes desire for competence, confidence, personal strength, achievement, independence. Later includes prestige, recognition, status, reputation. Self Actualization: This is the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming. To self actualize is to become the total kind of person that one wants to become to reach ones potential. Eg. A Beautiful Mind (John Nash)

From Organization's Point of view:

Physiological needs: Employees concern for salary and basic working conditions. Safety needs: Job security, salary increases, safe working conditions, unionization and lobbying for protective legislation. Belonging needs: Need for compatible work group, peer acceptance, professional friendship. Self Esteem: Job title, merit pay, peer/supervisory recognition, challenging work. Self Actualization: Desire for excelling in ones job, successfully managing a unit.

Alderfers ERG Theory


Existence needs

Physiological
How one individual relates to his/her social environment Achievement and self actualization

Relatedness needs

Growth needs

Alderfers ERG Theory

Satisfaction-Progression

Frustration-Regression

Growth Needs
Relatedness Needs Existence Needs

Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Known as 2 factor theory or the motivation hygiene theory The crux of 2 factor theory is based on this survey being done by Herzberg on 200 employees considering the factors which affect work motivation: As per the survey, the respondents asked 2 questions (a) When did you feel particularly good about the job? (b) When did you feel exceptionally bad about the job?

1.

Responses revealed that factors which made respondents feel good were totally different from those which made them feel bad.

Some factors lead to complete job satisfaction (as given in inner circle) called as motivators or satisfiers or job content whereas some lead to complete job dissatisfaction (outer circle) called as dissatisfiers or hygiene factors or job context factors. Satisfaction is affected by motivators and dissatisfaction is affected by hygiene factors. This is the key idea of herzberg.

COMPANY POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

HYGIENE FACTORS

SECURITY
ACHIEVEMENT RECOGNITION WORK ITSELF RESPONSIBILITY GROWTH ADVANCEMENT

STATUS

MOTIVATORS

SALARY WORKING CONDITIONS

Content Theories of Motivation- A Comparative Perspective


Needs Hierarchy Theory SelfActualization Growth Motivators ERG Theory Motivator--Hygiene Theory

Esteem
Belongingness Relatedness Hygienes Existence Physiological

Safety

Exercise on herzbergs theory


5- very imp, 4-imp, 3- somewhat imp, 2 - less imp, 1 - not imp
1. 2.

3.
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

An interesting job A good boss Recognition and appreciation for the work I do The opportunity for advancement A satisfying personal life A prestigious or status job Job responsibility Good working condition(nice office) Sensible company rules, regulations, policies The opportunity to grow through learning new things A job I can do well and succeed at Job security

Hygiene factors= 2 , 5 , 6, 8, 9, 12 Motivations factors = 1, 3, 4, 7, 10, 11

Process Theory of Motivation


Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals.

Vrooms Expectancy Theory


Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it. Elements

Expectancy (E) is the probability that effort will lead to


performance.

leads to an outcome. Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance. Eg. Person motivated towards superior performance due to the desire to be promoted. Valence (V) is how much a particular outcome is valued.

Instrumentality (I) is the perception that performance

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory of Motivation


E-to-P Expectancy P-to-O Expectancy Outcomes & Valences

Outcome 1
+ or -

Effort

Performance

Outcome 2
+ or -

Outcome 3
+ or -

Expectancy Theory in Practice

Increasing the E-to-P expectancy

training, selection, resources, clarify roles, provide coaching and feedback


Measure performance accurately, explain how rewards are based on past performance Use valued rewards, individualize rewards,

Increasing the P-to-O expectancy

Increasing outcome valences

Adams Equity Theory


Individuals equate value of rewards to effort and

compare it to other people.


outcomes(self) inputs (self) =

outcomes (other) inputs (other)

Equity Inputs/Outcomes Comparison of self with others

Motivation to maintain current situation Ways to reduce inequity Change inputs Change outcomes Alter perceptions of self Alter perceptions of other Leave situation Change comparisons

Inequity

Elements of Equity Theory

This is otherwise known as social comparison theory or inequity theory. This theory states that individuals are motivated by their desire to be equitably treated in their work relationships. Elements of equity theory are : (Person), (Comparison), (Inputs) like education,skills,experience ,(Outcomes) like pay, promotions, benefits.

Motivational Techniques:
Various motivational techniques are:

Money Job enlargement, enrichment and rotation Quality of work life Others like flexible working hours, flexible benefits.