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By Nitin Parwani Kumar Saurav Bhavesh Darjee Mayank Kumar

For a better combustion of fuel oil inside a 2stroke engine, an adequate supply of fresh air is needed. The method by which sufficient amount of air is provided to the engine's cylinder is known as scavenging. During the process, the increased amount of air helps to clear the cylinder of the gases of combustion. VIDEO

POSITION : In Two-stroke during the latter part of the down stroke (expansion) and the early part of the upstroke (compression). In a 4-stroke cycle engine, scavenging takes place when the piston is nearing and passing TDC during the latter part of an upstroke (exhaust) and the early part of a downstroke (intake). Provided by the engine's turbo-charging system. Turbochargerer to supply a consistent flow of fresh air inside the main engine.

The more efficient the scavenging, the better is the fuel combustion and power output of the engine. The passage of scavenge air will also assist cooling of the cylinder, piston and valves. Time available for scavenging process in 2 stroke engine is less than 4 stroke engines.

Scavenging Efficiency

Trapping Efficiency

CROSS SCAVENGING LOOP SCAVENGING UNIFLOW SCAVENGING

CROSS FLOW

After ignition of the fuel the piston travels down the liner uncovering firstly the exhaust ports. The exhaust gas at a pressure above atmospheric is expelled. This is often referred to as blowdown and its effect can be seen on the power card for all the types of scavenging as a rapid drop in cylinder pressure towards the end of the cycle

CYLINDER PRESSURE VARIATION

The method of loop scavenging is similar to the cross flow except the exhaust and scavenge ports may be found on the same side

Some 2 stroke engines do not have exhaust valves; As well as scavenge ports in the cylinder liner, they are fitted with exhaust ports located just above the scavenge ports. As the piston uncovers the exhaust ports on the power stroke, the exhaust gas starts to leave the cylinder. When the scavenge ports are uncovered, scavenge air loops around the cylinder and pushes the remaining exhaust gas out of the cylinder. This type of engine is known as a loop scavenged engine. Note that the piston skirt is much longer than that for a uniflow scavenged engine. This is because the skirt has to seal the scavenge and exhaust ports when the piston is at TDC.

Although simpler in construction with less moving parts, these engines are not as efficient or as powerful as uniflow scavenged engines. The scavenging of the cylinder is not 100%, and thus less fuel can be burnt per stroke. All modern large 2 stroke crosshead engines now being built are of the uniflow scavenged type.

2 stroke engines with an exhaust valve mounted in the cylinder head are known as uniflow scavenged engines. This is because the flow of scavenging air is in one (uni) direction.

The main difference between the two types is that uniflow requires an exhaust valve or piston to operate. Loop or cross flow relies on the piston to open and close exhaust ports

The scavenge air enters through the scavenge ports in the lower part of the cylinder liner, the exhaust gas is expelled through the centrally mounted exhaust valve in the cylinder cover. The scavenge ports are angled to generating a rotational movement of the rising column of air. Air is forced out of the cylinder by the rising piston leading to low flow resistance, the effect is often compared to squeezing the contents out of a tube.

Advantages of the Uniflow method

Opposed Piston Scavenging Method

The opposed piston :-design is in favour due to its inherent dynamic load balancing advantage:~ little requirement for scavenging by dilution. ~As the air flow is symmetrical rising up the liner the thermal influencing on the liner walls, cylinder covers and piston crowns is also symmetrical. ~The reduced number of ports (no exhaust ports), and reduced size of the scavenge ports ~reduces the problems of liner lubrication allowing reduced oil consumption. disadvantagemechanical complexity.

Importance of Scavenging
Scavenging Overall

affects -

efficiency Fuel consumption per unit power Incomplete scavenging results in poor combustion Lubricating oil contamination Wear piston rings and liner Mean temperature of cylinder high

Scavenging is not the same for both two stroke and four stroke engines. This is mainly because in the four- stroke engine there is adequate overlap between the opening of the inlet valve and closing of the exhaust valve. But in a two-stroke engine this overlap is limited and for this reason a slight mixture of exhaust gases and incoming air occurs inside the cylinder. Also, in a four stroke engine the air is induced during a downwards stroke of one of the two cycles, i.e per power stroke, and the exhaust gases are removed in the preceding stroke.

But in a two stroke engine there is no specific cycle of scavenging. Air is introduced during the end of power stroke when the exhaust gases are removed. The time of scavenging is too less in two stroke engines, as greater the exhaust valves stay open lesser the time the piston gets for compression. To prevent the effects due to this phenomenon, more amount of fresh air is supplied. Thus, greater the scavenging better the combustion of fuel.

Two big disadvantages of SI engine- fuel loss and idling difficulty. CI does not face such problems. So CI engine is better in case of two stroke. In SI engine using carburettor ,scavenging is done with fuel-air mixture and only the fuel mixed with retained air is used for combustion. To avoid fuel loss,fuel Injection just before the exhaust port closure may be used instead of a carburettor. The two-strokeSI engine picks up only gradually and may even stop t low speeds when MEP reduces to about 1.2 bar. This is due to mixing of large amount of residual gas with small amount of charge.

Backfiring at lower speeds due to slow burning rate. Fuel injection improves idling and also eliminates backfiring as there is no fuel present in the inlet system. In CI engines there is no loss of fuel as the charge is only air and there is no difficulty at idling because of fresh charge (air) is not reduced.