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Chapte

r
5

Food
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Contents
You will learn...
 the chemical elements that make up
carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
 tests for starch, reducing sugar, proteins and
fats.
 the sources of carbohydrates, fats, proteins,
fibre, vitamins, mineral salts and water.
 the dietary importance of the seven classes
of nutrients.
 the deficiency symptoms for vitamins and
mineral salts.

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Nutrients
Importance of Nutrients

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and


minerals are essential nutrients that are needed
by the body for

 Growth
 Repair
 Maintenance

Nutrients in canned
foods are listed on
labels 3
s
Sugars fruits, vegetables and milk
Sugars: Either
monosaccharides (simple
sugars)
disaccharides (complex
Carbohydrate: sugars).
Compound composed
of carbon, hydrogen
and oxygen in the polysaccharides
ratio of 1:2:1
Eg. Starch (C6H10O5)n

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Carbohydrates
Test for reducing sugar
Add a small amount of Benedict’s solution to
the sample. Boil the mixture
The presence of sugar is
indicated by the formation of a
Benedict’s solution remains precipitate from green, through
clear blue sugar is to yellow and orange, to brick
absent. red.

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Carbohydrates Iodine test for starch
This starch test is performed by adding a few
drops iodine solution to the sample.

Starch present

Starch absent

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Fats are compounds that
contain carbon, hydrogen and
Fats
oxygen.

Different kinds of fats 


different fatty acids
attached to glycerol.
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Oils fats which are
liquid at room
temperature.
Fats Waxes  fats which are
solid at room
temperature.

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Fats
• Fats provide more than twice the energy as
carbohydrates
• Excess food is stored as fats under the skin and
around organs
• The layer of fats beneath the skin serves as an
insulating layer
• It helps to protect organs from physical injuries
• Stored fat is used as a reserve supply of energy
• Fats act as a medium for the intake of fat-soluble
vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E and K

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Fats
Types of Fats

Unsaturated fatty acid 


contains < max amount of H
possible.
Very unsaturated fatty acids
 polyunsaturates.

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Fats
Types of Fats

• Fats that are solid at room


temperature tend to be high in
saturated fats. Healthy
artery
• Saturated fats increase the
level of cholesterol in the
blood.
• Diets rich in cholesterol and
saturated fats increases the Damaged
artery
risk of heart disease.
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Fats Emulsion test for fats
Dissolve the sample liquid in ethanol.
Water is then added to the mixture.
Emulsion formed 
Fat is present.

water
one drop
of sample

2cm3 of
ethanol

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Proteins
Proteins are compounds that contain
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

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Proteins
Proteins  made up of basic units (amino
acids)
Essential amino acids necessary to keep the
body healthy.
There are about 20 different amino acids.
9 of them are essential.
different
types of
amino acids

peptide
links

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Proteins Biuret test for proteins
Add sodium hydroxide to protein sample. Then,
copper sulphate is added drop by drop.

2cm3 of
1% copper
sodium
sulphate
hydroxide
solution added
drop by drop

2cm3 of
protein
sample

Purple solution formed  Protein is present

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Fibre
 A carbohydrate consisting largely of
cellulose and lignin from plant foods.
 Cannot be digested by the human body.
 It helps by adding bulk to the
undigested waste  stimulates
muscles of the large intestine to
contract and move the waste along.
 Prevents constipation.

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Dietary Fibre / Roughage

 Organic nutrients

 Part of food we
cannot digest e.g.
cellulose & lignin Best source: fruits,
vegetables, wholemeal
from plant foods. bread & wholegrain
cereals such as oats,
brown rice & wheat
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Dietary Importance of
Fibre
Provide bulk to intestinal
contents - thus stimulate
the muscle of the large
intestine to contract &
move the indigestible
matter along.
Vitamins

 Organic nutrients needed in small amounts


for good health.
 Fat-soluble vitamins stored in the body.
 Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored in
the body
 Excess will be excreted.
 Insufficient in the diet  deficiency diseases.

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Water-soluble vitamins
Vitamins Major sources
Thiamine Beans, peanuts, meat (especially
(B1) pork), whole grains, eggs
Riboflavin Dairy products, eggs, green leafy
(B2) vegetables, yeast
Niacin Meat, poultry, fish, peanuts
Meat, poultry, fish, potatoes,
B6
sweet potatoes
Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy
B12
products
Fruits (especially citrus fruits) and
C vegetables, strawberries,
tomatoes, green leafy vegetables20
Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin Major sources


Dark yellow vegetables (such as carrots),
A
green leafy vegetables, liver, eggs
D Sunlight, fish liver oil, fortified milk

E Vegetable oils, seeds, whole grains


Green leafy vegetables, cabbage, pork
K
liver, intestinal bacteria

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Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Importance Deficiency Symptoms


 Essential for keeping the  Bleeding gums
epithelia healthy  Loose teeth
 Bleeding under the skin
 Keeps teeth firm in gums  Weakness
 Slow healing wounds
 Helps healing of wounds

 Aids iron absorption

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Vitamin D (Calciferol)

Importance Deficiency Symptoms


 Helps in the absorption  Causes rickets. It is a
of phosphorus and disease found mainly
calcium from the in children when
intestine bones fail to harden
properly leading to
bowlegs and beaded
 Builds and maintains
ribs.
bones and teeth

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Mineral

•Inorganic chemical elements


•Essential to the body’s functions.
•Regulate body processes.
•Are quickly used or lost as waste products.
•Examples include calcium, phosphorus and
magnesium and iodine, iron and zinc.

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Calcium

Importance Deficiency Symptoms


 For development of  Soft bones
strong bones and
teeth
 Osteoporosis (adults)
 Rickets (children)
 For blood clotting
 Slow blood clotting
 Weakness
 For muscle contraction
 Slow healing wounds

 For nerve and heart


activity

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Iron

Importance Deficiency Symptoms


 Forms haemoglobin in  Anaemia

red blood cells


 Paleness of skin
 Transports oxygen as
oxyhaemoglobin  Fatigue

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Water

 Enables nutrients to dissolve


and be carried to the parts of the
body where they are needed.
 Is needed for all the body’s
functions
 digestion of food

 removal of excretory waste,

maintenance of body
temperature at 37°C
 cushioning sensitive parts of

the body such as the brain.


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(Inorganic nutrient)
 Acts as a medium for chemical reactions to
occur.
 Acts as solvent and transport agent for:
digested food, wastes, hormones etc.
 An essential/major components of: lubricant
found in joints, digestive juices & blood.
 Helps to regulate body temperature (e.g.
sweating)

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Water

Sources: milk, juices and soup.


•Is lost during urination, perspiration
and even breathing.
•If not replaced, will lead to
dehydration, causing muscle cramps
and weakness.

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