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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

Faculty co-ordinator : Mr . Yashwant Kumar Modi (Mechanical Engg. Dept.)

Student members :
Gaurav Sharma (08614g) Govil Gupta (08615g) Ujwal Tyagi (08628g)
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The study has been approved by the department of mechanical engineering,JUET guna.The technical assisstance and guidance has been provided by the Mr Yaswant Kumar Modi (faculty of mechanical engineering,JUET). We would like to acknowledge and thank the contributions of the various faculties and laboratory assistants of JUET ,guna for encouraging our project.

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LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT


LCA involves the collection and evaluation of quantitative data on the inputs and outputs of material, energy and waste flows associated with a product over its entire life cycle so that the environmental impacts can be determined.

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LCA STRUCTURE

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An Introductory Example of LCA The idea of LCA can lively be illustrated in the following example about the construction of a simple wood shed. At the beginning, we need materials including Wood Plank, Nails and other Metal Parts. Process 1 To make the wood planks, some trees need to be fell first Process 2 Felling trees requires the use of chainsaws Process 3 Use of chainsaws requires: Petrol input Process 4 Felling tree generates: Sawdust Branches left in the forest Emissions form the chainsaw
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Up to this stage, we can first consider the tree felling unit process. In cutting the trees, petrol is burnt for the process where branch sawdust and exhaust gas emitted are considered as waste. Logs are the process product for the next unit process.

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METHODOLOGY
SYSTEM BOUNDARY FUNCTIONAL UNIT DATA CLASSIFICATION AND VERIFICATION CALCULATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LOAD PER FUNCTIONAL UNIT SELECTION OF IMPACT ASSESMENT METHOD DATA CLASSIFICATION CHARACTERIZATION NORMALIZATION WEIGHTING

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SYSTEM BOUNDARY

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FUNCTIONAL UNIT
1 km is the well commonly accepted as the unit to measure the fuel economy. Following this, the whole assessment of this study is based on the amount of fuel required to run a car for 1 km.10 litre of petrol as detail unit are assumed to run a normal car for 1 km.

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DATA COLLECTION AND VERIFICATION


Data Source: Secondary Data Databases Considered: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) This database provides individual gate-to-gate, cradle-to-gate and cradle-to-grave accounting of the energy and material flows into and out of the environment that are associated with producing a material, component, or assembly.
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SELECTION OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHOD


The following impact assessment methods are there: CML 2 (2000) EDIP/UMIP EPS 2000 Ecopoints 97 TRACI
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METHOD CONSIDERED
CML 2 Baseline Method (2000) The CML 2 baseline method elaborates the problemoriented (midpoint) approach. The CML Guide provides a list of impact assessment categories grouped into: Global warming. Carcinogens climate change. Radiation. Ozone layer. Ecotoxicity. Acidification/Eutrophication. Fossil fuel.
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EMISSIONS CONSIDERED
Nitrogen Compounds (Nox) Carbon Compounds (COx) Hydrogen Compounds (HCs) Sulphur Compounds (SOx) Methane (CH4)

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CLASSIFICATION

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CHARACTERIZATION
A characterization factor that characterizes contribution of a given inventory parameter to the assigned impact category provides practical means for the quantification. characterization factors only address relative contribution among inventory parameters assigned to a given impact category.

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CHARACTERIZATION
CIi,j = Loadj eqvi,j
Where, CIi,j = the magnitude of characterized impact by the jth inventory parameter in the ith impact category, g x-eq/ fu, fu = functional unit, Loadj = the quantity of the jth inventory parameter, g/fu, eqvi,j = equivalency (characterization) factor of the jth inventory parameter inthe ith impact category, g x-eq/g
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NORMALIZATION
Normalization is a process that divides a characterization value of an impact category of a product system by the normalization reference of the same impact category. A normalization value which is the outcome of the normalization step, represents the fractional contribution of the product system to a given impact category.
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NORMALIZATION
Ni,k = Loadk eqvi,k
Where Ni,k = the magnitude of characterized impact of the kth inventory parameter in the ith impact category, g x-eq/ yr, Loadk = the quantity of the kth inventory parameter, g/yr, eqvi,k = equivalency (characterization) factor of the kth inventory parameter in the ith impact category, g x-eq/g

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WEIGHTING
There are two approaches in weighting, for the broader perspective approach, the outcome is qualitative, while for the narrower perspective it is quantitative taking the form of a single value or weighted impact of a product system.

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WEIGHTING
WIi = Wi CI Where, WI = weighted impact of the ith impact category, Wi = weight of the ith impact category, CIi = characterized impact of the ith impact category.

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