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Submitted By
Balraj - 007
Devesh - 008
Debajyoti - 009
A chain is a reliable machine
component, which transmits power
by means of tensile forces, and is
used primarily for power
transmission and conveyance
systems(for material handling

As a transmission, chain drives can

operate efficiently at high loads and
they may be used where precise
speed ratios are required.
Features of Chain Drives

 Features of Chain Drives:

 Speed reduction/increase of up to seven to one can be
easily accommodated.
 Chain can accommodate long shaft-center distances (less
than 4 m), and is more versatile.
 It is possible to use chain with multiple shafts or drives with
both sides of the chain.
 Standardization of chains under the American National
Standards Institute (ANSI), the International Standardization
Organization (ISO), and the Japanese Industrial Standards
(JIS) allow ease of selection.
 It is easy to cut and connect chains.
 The sprocket diameter for a chain system may be smaller
than a belt pulley, while transmitting the same torque.
Types of chains

Roller Chains
A length of roller chain is made
up from a number of links and
each chain link comprise side
plates, pins, bushes and rollers.
The ends of a chain are joined
together when in mesh with the
drive and driven sprocket. As the
sprocket teeth engage with the
rollers, rolling rather than sliding
contact occurs - thus making this
a very efficient form of
transmission element.
Roller chains are available in
various standard forms, including
stainless steel, plastic (for their
self lubricating qualities) and
various forms (especially for use
on agricultural and conveying
Components of roller chain
 A roller chain consists of a
number of inner link
assemblies in which adjacent
pairs are connected by outer
 An inner link assembly is
made up of a pair of inner
plates connected by two
riveted bushes spaced a set
distance apart called the
pitch. A roller is free to rotate
on either bush.
 The outer links comprise a
pair of outer plates which are
attached via a pair of riveted
bearing pins which are spaced
a pitch distance apart.
 These pins are free to fit
inside the inner link bushes
and connect inner links as
shown in Figure.
Conveyer Chain
 Roller chains which are
specifically manufactured for
use on material handling and
conveyor equipment are called
‘Conveyer Chain’.

 Such chains are widely used in

the textile, food processing,
mining and agricultural
industries, for escalators,
elevators and also on modern
machine tools.
Inverted Tooth Chain
 Inverted Tooth chain has teeth
formed in the links and these
engage with the teeth in the
 Their sprockets can be likened to
gears but instead of meshing
with each other they connect
across a greater centre distance
by means of a chain.
 Due to the compliance of
individual links, there is less
impact force when a link first
engages with sprocket teeth and
consequently an inverted tooth
chain drive can operate more
quietly and at higher speed than
roller chain of comparable size.
 Chains are usually
prelubricated with rust-
prevention oil before
shipping. Nevertheless, it
is essential to lubricate
roller chain. Properly
lubricated chain has a
longer wear life and is
less likely to develop rust.
 Lubricate the chain where
the tension is minimal,
applying the lubricant in
the clearance between
the link plates
  Lubrication Method

Manual Application.
Oil is applied with an oil
filler or brush on the slack
side of the chain.

Drip Lubrication.
A simple case can be used.
Oil from the oil cup is
supplied by drip feeding

Oil Bath Lubrication.

The chain is installed in a leak free
 Chain drives are a very widely used transmission system and can
be found extensively in all mechanical industries and even on
some civil engineering projects.
 Applications range from machine tool, marine and aerospace
drives, motor cycle and bicycle transmissions.
 They are also widely used in the nuclear, mining and food
industries and on conveying and packaging machinery.
 For example, in many motor vehicle and ships engines, the cam
shaft is driven by a chain.
 Chain drives are used on civil aircraft such as Concorde and
military aircraft.
A sprocket is a profiled wheel with teeth that
meshes with a chain, track or other perforated or
indented material. It is distinguished from a gear in
that sprockets are never meshed together directly,
and from a pulley by not usually having a flange at
each side.

The sprocket looks like a gear but differs in three important

4. Sprockets have many engaging teeth; gears usually have only
one or two.
5. The teeth of a gear touch and slip against each other; there is
basically no slippage in a sprocket.
6. The shape of the teeth are different in gears and sprockets.
Types of Sprockets
There are four types of sprocket;

3. Type A: Plain Plate sprockets

4. Type B: Hub on one side
5. Type C: Hub on both sides
6. Type D: Detachable hub
 Sprockets are used in bicycles,
motorcycles, cars, tanks, and other
machinery either to transmit rotary
motion between two shafts where gears
are unsuitable or to impart linear motion
to a track, tape etc.
 In the case of vehicles with
caterpillar tracks the engine-driven
toothed-wheel transmitting motion to
the tracks is known as the drive
sprocket and may be positioned at the
front or back of the vehicle, or in some
cases, both.
 Sprockets are used in the film transport
mechanisms of movie projectors and
movie cameras. In this case, the
sprocket wheels engage
film perforations in the film stock.
 Sprocket feed was also used for
punched tape and is used for paper feed
to some computer printers.
Thank you