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Presented By

Patel Nikunj A
Materials Science( 3rd Sem) Roll No- 17

Definition of adhesive. History of adhesive. Types of adhesive. Mechanism of adhesion. Failure of the adhesive joint. Testing the resistance of adhesive. Adhesive industries in India. References.

Definition of adhesive
An adhesive is a substance capable of holding material together by surface attachment. Adhesives may come from either natural or synthetic sources. Some modern adhesives are extremely strong, and are becoming increasingly important in modern construction and industry.

History of adhesive
The first adhesives were natural gums. It was believed that the Sumerian people were the first to use it. In Europe/Eurasia, egg whites were used as glue. Holland, in the early 1700s , founded the first ever glue factory. As the modern world evolved, several other patented materials, such as bones, starch, were introduced as alternative materials for glue manufacture. Modern glues have much better properties each as flexibility, toughness, curing rate, temperature, and chemical resistance.

Types of Adhesive

Adhesive are mainly two types :1. 2. Cold setting adhesive- Set at temperature below 200c Hot setting adhesive- set at temperature above 1000c.

Types of Adhesive
1. Natural adhesives :Natural adhesives are made from inorganic mineral sources, or biological sources such as vegetable matter, starch dextrin, natural resins.

2. Synthetic adhesives :Elastomers, thermoplastic, and thermosetting adhesives are examples of synthetic adhesives.

3. Drying Adhesive
These adhesives are a mixture of ingredients (typically polymers) dissolved in a solvent. Glues such as white glue.

As the solvent evaporates, the adhesive hardens. Depending on the chemical composition of the adhesive, they will adhere to different materials to greater or lesser degrees. These adhesives are typically weak and are used for household applications

4. Contact adhesive
Contact adhesive is one which must be applied to both surfaces and allowed some time to dry before the two surfaces are pushed together. Some contact adhesives require as long as 24 hours to dry before the surfaces are to be held together. Once the surfaces are pushed together, the bond forms very quickly.hence it is usually not necessary to apply pressure for a long time. This means that there is no need to use clamps, which is convenient. Natural rubber and polychloroprene (Neoprene) are commonly used contact adhesives. Contact adhesives find use in laminates.

5. Reactive adhesive
A reactive adhesive works either by chemical bonding with the surface material or by in-situ hardening as two reactant chemicals complete a polymerization reaction. They are usually applied in thin films.

Reactive adhesives are less effective when there is a secondary goal of filling gaps between the surfaces. These include two-part epoxy, peroxide, silane, metallic cross-links, or isocyanate. Such adhesives are frequently used to prevent loosening of bolts and screws in rapidly moving assemblies, such as automobile engines. They are largely responsible for the running modern car engines .

6.UV and light curing adhesives

UV and light curing adhesives consist essentially of low or medium molecular weight resins.

7.Pressure sensitive adhesives :Pressure sensitive adhesives form a bond by the application of light pressure to the adhesive with the adherend. They are designed with a balance between flow and resistance to flow. The bond forms because the adhesive is soft enough to flow (i.e. "wet") the adherend. The bond has strength because the adhesive is hard enough to resist flow when stress is applied to the bond. Once the adhesive and the adherend are in close proximity, molecular interactions, such as van der Waals' forces, become involved in the bond, contributing significantly to its ultimate strength.

Mechanisms of adhesion
Five theories are necessary to explain the mechanism the adhesion Mechanical keying theory :Adhesive materials fill the voids or pores of the surfaces and hold surfaces together by interlocking. No chemical bond formation take place. Mechanical keying of the adhesives into the aspirities of the adherend surface is major source of adhesion. Example :- Adhesion of textile cords & rubber casing in automobile tyres.

Diffusion Theory

This theory is based on the principle of like dissolves like i.e. they posses similar values of the solubility parameter. This theory states that the adhesion of polymer to themselves and to each other, is duo to mutual diffusion of polymer molecules across the surface. Example- adhesion between the amorphous plastics.

Electronic theory
If the adhesive and the adhered have different electronic band structure there is likely to 6 ev , some electro transfer on contact to balance Fermi level which will results in the formation of a double layer of electrical charges at the interfaces.

The electronic theory of adhesion suggested that the electrostatics forces arising from such contact are junction potential may contribute significantly to the adhesion.

Adsorption theory
Adhesion between the two surfaces can take place by the primary and secondary bonding.

Primary Bond Ionic Covalent Metalic Secondary Bond Vander wall Electrostatics Hydrogen bond

Energy( KJ/ mole) 590-1050 63-710 113-347 Energy ( KJ/mole) 0.08-4.1 0.08-4.0 0.08-4.2

Weak boundary layer theory

Weak boundary is a region of low cohesive strength exists at the interface between adherend and hardened adhesive , failure until occur , at low stress level. This region is termed as Weak boundary layer.

The origin of weak boundary layer varied and include Mould releasing agent, Weak oxide an metal( Zinc), Protective oil on a metal, Corrosion protected at a metal surface,

Failure of the adhesive joint

When subjected to loading, deboning may occur at different locations in the adhesive joint. The major fracture types are the following Cohesive fracture:- Cohesive fracture is obtained if a crack propagates in the bulk polymer which constitutes the adhesive. In this case the surfaces of both adherents after debonding will be covered by fractured adhesive. The crack may propagate in the centre of the layer or near an interface. Interfacial fracture:- The fracture is adhesive or interfacial when deboning occurs between the adhesive and the adherent. In most cases, the occurrence of interfacial fracture for a given adhesive goes along with a smaller fracture toughness. The interfacial character of a fracture surface is usually to identify the precise location of the crack path in the interphase.

Testing the resistance of the adhesive

Double Cantilever Beam tests (DCB)It measures the fracture resistance of

adhesives in a fracture mechanics framework. These tests consist in opening an assembly of two beams by applying a force at the ends of the two beams. The test in unstable (i.e. the crack propagates along the entire specimen once a critical load is attained) and a modified version of this test characterised by a non constant inertia was proposed called the Tapered double cantilever beam specimen (TDCB). Peel Tests :- Its measure the fracture resistance of a thin layer bonded on a thick substrate or of two layers bonded together. They consist in measuring the force needed for tearing an adherent layer from a substrate or for tearing two adherent layers one from another.

Wedge tests: measure the mode I dominated fracture resistance of adhesives used to bond thin plates. These tests consist in inserting a wedge in between two bonded plates. A critical energy release rate can be derived from the crack length during testing.
Mixed-Mode Delaminating Beam (MMDB):test consist in a bonded bilayer with two starting cracks loaded on four points.

End Notch Flexure tests: consist in two bonded beams built-in on one side and loaded by a force on the other. Crack Lap Shear (CLS) tests: are application-oriented fracture resistance tests. They consist in two plates bonded on a limited length and loaded in tension on both ends.

Some Adhesive industries in india

Shah Exports , Ahmedabad. Bhopal glues and chemical P.Ltd. Converter adhesive & Chemical Ltd , Mumbai. Krishna adhesive and Coating Pvt Ltd,Mumbai.

Hand Book of Adhesive by D.E.Packham ( Edition-1992) Hand Book of Adhesive Technology by A. Pizzi & K. L. Mittal ( Edition-1994)