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Temperature is uniform Range of 36.5 to 37.5ºC Should be monitored when significant change expected
Non uniform and lower than core by 2 - 4ºC Skin surface and axilla are usual sites
Sites of measurement Skin Axilla Nasopharynx Urinary bladder Esophagus Tympanic membrane Pulmonary artery Oral cavity Rectum .
Temperature monitoring technologies ELECTRICAL Thermistor Thermocouple Platinum wire - NON ELECTRICAL Dial thermometers (Bimetallic strip. Bourdon gauge) Fluid expansion (mercury. alcohol) Infrared thermometers - .
Fluid expansion Mercury.minus 39 to 250 degree Celsius It takes 2-3 minutes for thermal equilibrium and there is risk of breakage Alcohol-minus 117 to 78 degree Celsius Alcohol is cheaper than mercury !!!! .
bimetallic strip . .Dial thermometers.
Bourdon gauge thermometer .
both ear drum and ear canal Otoscope like probe with disposable probe cover . Senses infrared radiation from a warm surface.Infrared thermometer Objects at body temperature primarily emits infra red radiation.
.Mechanism of infrared thermometer Pyroelectric sensor containing polarized ceramic crystalline material Change in temperature cause change in polarization Change in polarization is detected as a voltage from which the temperature is calculated.
Advantages of infrared thermometers Well tolerated by the patient Stable over a wide range of patients and ambient temperature Non traumatic Rapid measurement .
Disadvantages Intermittent Poor penetration. improper aiming Ear wax and curvature will give low reading .
or Zn) oxide sintered into a wire Changes its resistance to the flow of current when it is exposed to a different temperature. Ni.Thermistor temperature system Metal (Mn. The thermistor is incorporated into a wheatstone bridge Temperature is calculated from the change in current flow . Co.
Thermistor . Resistance Temperature .
Advantages Small sensors Rapid response Continuous reading Sensitive Inexpensive Disposable .
Disadvantages Resistance increases with the age of the device and will change with rapid and large changes in temperature .
Platinum wire a positive temperature coefficient resistor Electrical resistance of platinum wire varies linearly with temperature Positive temperature coefficient Working principle similar to thermistor Extremely small diameter wire .
Platinum wire Resistance Temperature .
Thermocouple Thomas Johann Seebeck .1821 Electrical circuit with two wires of different metals added together at ends. One junction exposed to the area being measured and the other end at a constant reference temperature The temperature difference between these two points create a potential difference (Seebeck effect) and is converted to a temperature reading Copper and Constantan (alloy of Copper and Nickel) is usually used .
Junction Potential Temperature .Thermocouple .
Thermocouple Galvanometer Metal A Metal B Reference junction T1 Measuring junction T2 .
Stability .Advantages .Accuracy .Small size .Continuous reading .Rapid response time .