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Evolution Part I

The unity of life: All forms of life have common features DNA is the genetic (hereditary) material of all cells
A gene is a discrete unit of DNA The chemical structure of DNA accounts for its function The diversity of life results from differences in DNA structure from individual to individual

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Nucleus

DNA

Nucleotide
Cell

(a) DNA double helix

(b) Single strand of DNA

The unity of life: All forms of life have common features All living things share common properties
1. Order 2. Regulation 3. Growth and development 4. Energy processing 5. Response to the environment 6. Reproduction 7. Evolutionary adaptation

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

(1) Order

(2) Regulation

(3) Growth and development

(4) Energy processing

(5) Response to the environment

(6) Reproduction

(7) Evolutionary adaptation

The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains


The three domains (groups) of life (EBA)
1. Bacteriaprokaryotic, and most are unicellular and microscopic 2. Archaealike bacteria, are prokaryotic, and most are unicellular and microscopic 3. Eukaryaare eukaryotic and contain a nucleus and organelles

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Domain Eukarya Domain Bacteria

Bacteria (multiple kingdoms) Protists (multiple kingdoms) Kingdom Plantae

Domain Archaea

Archaea (multiple kingdoms)

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Animalia

Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
The book accomplished two things
Presented evidence to support the idea of evolution Proposed a mechanism for evolution called natural selection

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life Natural selection was inferred by connecting two observations
Individuals within a population inherit different characteristics and vary from other individuals A particular population of individuals produces more offspring than will survive to produce offspring of their own

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life Natural selection is an editing mechanism
It results from exposure of heritable variations to environmental factors that favor some individuals over others
Over time this results in evolution of new species adapted to particular environments Evolution is biologys core theme and explains unity and diversity of life

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

1 Population with varied inherited traits

2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits

3 Reproduction of survivors

Killer whale
Pangolin

Evolution
Changes in a population over time

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Does the idea of evolution contradict a belief in God?


Many scientists of all religious faiths believe in both. Some people feel evolution contradicts the literal interpretation of the Bible.

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Theory of Evolution

Science has overwhelming evidence that all life is constantly evolving

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HMS Beagle 1831-1836

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Ostrich in Africa

Rhea in South America

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Adaptive Radiation

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Land Iquana

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Marine Iquana

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Different Tortoises on Each Island

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Origin of Species 1859

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Natural Selection
One mechanism of evolution Main concepts of natural selection
Overproduction of offspring Inherited variation in offspring Competition Best adapted in a given environment survive and reproduce to increase their kind
They are naturally selected
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Overproduction of Offspring
Elephants (very slow reproductive rate)
If all the offspring of one elephant pair survive and all their offspring survive then:
750 years = 19,000,000 elephants 1200 years = Enough elephants to cover the earth!

Beetles
A handful that weighs 10 mg each 82 weeks
61,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 ton
The weight of the earth!

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Variation of Offspring
Offspring of the same parents are different from each other

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Competition
Since more individuals are born than can survive for an extended period of time, they compete for resources
Food Living space Mates

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Best adapted to a given environment are selected to survive


Brown bears
Adapted to survive in Oklahoma

Polar bears
Adapted to survive in Alaska

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Artificial Selection

Collie

Sheltie
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Evolution is Change
Changing alleles in a population can produce new species Dogs have evolved from wolves Man has artificially selected traits to produce the various dog breeds Nature uses natural selection and other mechanisms for evolution

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Natural Selection of Flies

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Scientific Disciplines That Give Evidence for Evolution


Paleontology Comparative anatomy Biogeography Molecular biology Others

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Paleontology
Study of fossils
Allows us to see anatomical similarities between living species and organisms that lived in the past Allows us to see how life has changed over time

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Life Has Changed


Millions of species have been found that are different from life today

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Horse Evolution

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50 Million Years of Change

50 MYA

30 MYA

15 MYA

Modern
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Florida Museum of Natural History


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Comparative Anatomy

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Homologous Structures
Same structures used for different purposes

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Homologous Structures

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Homoplasy Analogous Structures

Similar structures due to convergent evolution,

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Biogeography

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Why No Polar Bears in Antarctica or No Penguins in Arctic?

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Why marsupials in Australia?

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Molecular Biology
The study of the molecules of life including DNA and proteins

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DNA Similarity

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Homeobox or HOX
First discovered in fruit flies in 1983 Later found in mice, man and other organisms Controls embryonic development of different body regions
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Evolution of New Body Plan


Hox gene Ubx of crustacean mutated in lab Caused suppression of leg development Mechanism for evolution of insect body plan 400 MYA
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Comparing DNA
Human DNA compared to:
Chimpanzee 99% same Gorilla 97.7% same Orangutan 96.3% same Another human 99.9% same

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Comparing Protein Sequences


Many proteins in all of man are identical Organ transplants require similar proteins in the donor and the recipient
A sibling or parent is often the best source for an organ transplant

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Which would be the closest protein match for an organ transplant?


Assuming all are alive and healthy. A persons father A persons great grandfather A persons 10th great grandfather

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Molecular Clock
The further you go back in time, the more proteins (and DNA) are different. Differences in protein sequences and DNA can be used to estimate time when two species shared a common ancestor

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Related Organisms
Close similarity of protein sequences indicates close relationship

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Cytochrome C
Protein used to release energy from food 104 amino acids 20 of the amino acids occupy the same position in all eukaryotes

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Comparison of Human Cytochrome C


100 amino acids different in tuna fish 12 amino acids different in a horse 8 amino acids different in a kangaroo 1 amino acid different in a monkey Identical to chimpanzee
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Pattern of Evolution Originally Based on Fossil Record


DNA comparisons confirm the same pattern Protein sequences confirm the same pattern 150 years of research by thousands of scientists demonstrate beyond doubt that life evolves.

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The End
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ources: IO 2215: Oklahoma City Community College by Dennis Anderson earson Education by Campbell