Chapter Thirteen

Managing Groups and Teams

Copyright © 2005 Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook.

Chapter Outline
• Groups and Teams in Organizations
– Types of Groups and Teams – Why People Join Groups and Teams – Stages of Group and Team Development

• Characteristics of Groups and Teams
– Role Structure – Behavioral Norms – Cohesiveness – Formal and Informal Leadership

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13–2

Chapter Outline (cont’d)
• Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflicts
– The Nature of Conflict – Causes of Conflict

• Managing Conflict in Organizations
– Stimulating Conflict – Controlling Conflict – Resolving and Eliminating Conflict

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13–3

Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
– Define and identify types of groups and teams in organizations, discuss reasons why people join groups and teams, and list the stages of group and team development. – Identify and discuss four essential characteristics of groups and teams. – Discuss interpersonal and intergroup conflict in organizations. – Describe how organizations manage conflict.

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13–4

Groups and Teams in Organizations
• Group
– Two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal.

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Figure 13.1 Types of Groups and Teams in Organizations

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13–6

Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
• Functional Group
– A permanent group created to accomplish a number of organizational purposes within an indefinite time horizon.

• Informal or Interest Group
– A group created by its own members for purposes that may or may not be relevant to organizational goals.

• Task Group
– A group created by the organization to accomplish a relatively narrow range of purposes within a stated time horizon.
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Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
• Team
– A group of workers who function as a unit, often with little or no supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities. – Sometimes are called self-managed teams, crossfunctional teams, or high performance teams.

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13–8

Groups and Teams in Organizations (cont’d)
• Team (cont’d)
– Benefits of teams
• Give more responsibility for task performance to the workers who complete the tasks. • Empower workers by giving them greater authority and decision-making freedom. • Allow organizations to capitalize on the knowledge and motivation of their workers. • Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote flexibility and responsiveness.

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13–9

Table 13.1 Types of Teams
Problem-solving team Most popular team type; comprises knowledge workers who gather to solve a problem and then disband. Management team Work team Virtual team Consists mainly of managers from various functional areas who coordinate the work among other teams. Are responsible for the daily work of the organization; when empowered, they are self-managed teams. A new type of team that interacts by computer; member enters and leaves the network as needed and may take turns serving as leader. Declining in popularity, quality circles, comprising of workers and supervisors, meet intermittently to discuss workplace problems.

Quality circle

Source: “Types of Teams” adapted from Brian Dumaine, “The Trouble with Teams,” Fortune, September 5, 1994. Copyright © 1994 Time, Inc. All rights reserved

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13–10

Why People Join Groups and Teams
• Interpersonal attraction—people are attracted to one another. • Group activities—group activities appeal to them. • Group goals—the groups’ goals motivate them to join. • Need satisfaction—fulfills an individual’s need for affiliation. • Instrumental benefits—membership provides other benefits.
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Figure 13.2 Stages of Group Development

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13–12

Stages of Group Development

Source: Van Fleet, David D., and Tim Peterson, Contemporary Management, Third Edition. Copyright © 1994 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used with permission.

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13–13

Stages of Group and Team Development
• Forming
– Attempting to define the task and how it will be accomplished through discussions of task-related concepts/issues.

• Storming
– Defensiveness, intragroup competition, and the formation of factions; arguing among members, even when they agree.

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13–14

Stages of Group and Team Development (cont’d)
• Norming
– Establishing and maintaining team ground rules. – More friendliness and confiding in one another.

• Performing
– The ability of the group/team to prevent or work through problems. – Members develop a close attachment to the team.

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13–15

Characteristics of Groups and Teams
• Role
– The part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals.
• Task-specialist—role concentrating on getting the group’s tasks accomplished. • Socioemotional role—providing social and emotional support to others on the team.

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13–16

Role Structures
• The set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept. • A result of role episodes in which the expected role is translated and defined into the enacted role. • Role ambiguity—occurs when the sent role is unclear.

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13–17

Figure 13.3 The Development of a Role

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13–18

Role Structures (cont’d)
• Role conflict—occurs when the messages and cues comprising the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive.
– Interrole conflict is the result of a conflict between roles. – Intrarole conflict is caused by conflicting demands from different sources. – Intrasender conflict arises when a single source sends contradictory messages. – Person-role conflict is the discrepancy between role requirements and an individual’s values, attitudes, and needs.

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13–19

Role Structures (cont’d)
• Role overload— occurs when role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities.

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13–20

Characteristics of Groups and Teams: Implications
• Avoid role ambiguity, conflict, and overload by:
– Having clear and reasonable expectations of employees. – Sending clear and straightforward role cues. – Taking into account the employee’s other roles and personal value system. – Recognizing an individual’s capabilities and limits.

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13–21

Behavioral Norms
• Norms are standards of behavior that a group accepts and expects of its members. • Norms define the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
– Norm generalization—the norms of one group cannot always be generalized to another group. – Norm variation—norms and their application vary within a group or team.

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13–22

Behavioral Norms (cont’d)
• Norm conformity—individuals conform as response to:
– Group or team pressure to conform to group behavior. – An initial (ambiguous) stimulus prompting group behavior. – Individual traits that reflect their propensity to conform. – The influence of situational factors (e.g., group size and unanimity).

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13–23

Behavioral Norms (cont’d)
• Individual responses to norm conformity:
– Adopt the norms of the group. – Try to obey the “spirit” of the norms while retaining individuality.

• Socialization
– Norm conformity that occurs when a person makes the transition from being an outsider to being and insider in the organization.

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13–24

Cohesiveness
• The extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the group.

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13–25

Table 13.2 Factors That Influence Group Cohesiveness

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13–26

Figure 13.4 The Interaction Between Cohesiveness and Performance Norms

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13–27

Formal and Informal Leadership
• Informal leader
– A person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized by the organization or group. – An informal leader, ideally, may also be the formal leader for the group or he may supplement the formal leader in fulfilling leadership roles. – Informal leaders draw on referent or expert power to establish themselves as leaders.

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13–28

Formal and Informal Leadership (cont’d)
• Formal leader
– A person who has been elected or designated to engage in leadership activities by the group members – A person who has been formally appointed or recognized by the organization as the leader for the group.

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13–29

Interpersonal and Intergroup Conflict
• The Nature of Conflict
– Conflict
• A disagreement between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations.

– There is an optimal level of conflict in an organization:
• Too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and lacks innovation and underperforms. • Too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non-cooperation dominate, and the organization suffers from low performance. • A moderate level of conflict in an organization fosters motivation, creativity, innovation, and initiative and can raise performance.

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13–30

Figure 13.5 The Nature of Organizational Conflict

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13–31

Causes of Conflict
• Interpersonal Conflict
– Personality clash – Differing beliefs or perceptions – Competitiveness

• Conflict Between Organization and the Environment
– Conflict with competition – Conflict with consumer groups – Conflict with employees

• Intergroup Conflict
– Interdependence – Different goals – Competition for scarce resources

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13–32

Causes and Consequences of Conflict
Causes of Conflict
Interdependency Competition Different Goals and Activities Personalities

Consequences of Conflict
Hostility Withdrawal Increased Motivation Increased Performance

Source: Van Fleet, David D., and Tim Peterson, Contemporary Management, Third Edition. Copyright © 1994 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Used with permission.

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13–33

Table 13.3 Methods for Managing Conflict

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Video: “Inside the People Business at Finagle a Bagel”

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