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CHAPTER 3 DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES

PREPARED BY: FM,AF DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

What is a communications system?


Communications Systems: Systems designed to transmit and receive information
Info Sink

Info Source

Comm System

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL COMUNICATION


Definition:

A Digital Communication system (DCS) transfers information from a digital source to the intended receiver (also call the sink) Definition:
A digital information source produces a finite set of possible messages. A typewriter is a good example of a digital source. There is a finite number of characters (messages) that can be emitted by this source.
EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Sources and sink of information


Sources of information can be either natural or man-made. Digital Communication Systems (DCS) represents information, irrespective of its type or origin, by a discrete set of allowed symbols. Sinks of information can be various types of information storage and displays device (computer disks, magnetic tapes) are usually involves as a penultimate destination.

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Typical Block Diagram

Figure 3.1 Block Diagram Digital Communication System

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SIGNAL PROCESSING


Figure 3.1 illustrates the signal flow and the signal processing steps through a typical DCS.

The upper blocks--format, source code, encrypt , channel encode, multiplex, pulse modulate, band pass modulate, frequency spread and multiple access;-- denote signal transformation from the source to the transmitter. The lower block--denote the signal transformation from the receiver to the sink.
For wireless application the transmitter consist of a frequency up conversion stage to a radio frequency (RF), a high power amplifier and an antenna. The receiver consist of an antenna, LNA, frequency down conversion.
EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Digital Communication Transformation


Formatting
The input information source is converted to binary digits (bits), the grouped to form digital message or message symbols assure compatibility between the information and the signal processing within the DCS

Source Coding
produce analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion and removes redundant information

Encryption
provides security only authorized sender can transmits only intended receiver can understand the message

Channel Coding error correction coding transform message symbol to channel symbols reduce probability of error enhance digital signal so that signals are less vulnerable to channel impairment such noise , fading and jamming
EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Modulation and Demodulation


message symbols or channel symbols are converted to waveforms that are compatible with the requirements imposed by the transmission channel. The modulate and demodulate blocks together are called modem Frequency spreading Produce a signal that is relatively invulnerable to interference Enhance privacy of the communicators Multiplexing and Multiple Access combine signal that have different characteristics share a portion of communication sources (ex time, spectrum) enhance the privacy of the communicators

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

A simplified block diagram of a telecommunication system is shown below as five (5) elements:
ENCODING MODULATION CHANNEL DEMODULATION --DECODING TRANSMITTED MODULATION CHANNEL DEMODULATION MESSAGE/ ENCODING
DECODING/ RECEIVED MESSAGE

Sinusoidal and speech messages Pseudo Random Sequence Generation & Gold Code Line Code NRZ, RZ, EMI PCM, Companding Block Code Block Interleaving Convolutional Code Trellis

ASK/FSK/PSK QPSK, 4/8/16 PSK 4/8/16/32 QAM DM, ADM DPSK, MSK, GMSK OFDM MUX- TDM, FDM SS: DSSS, CDMA, FHSS PAM, PPM, PWM

BASEBAND CHANNEL BANDPASS CHANNEL FIBER OPTIC WIRELESS

Corresponding to each modulator Envelopes detector LPF, reconstruction filters PLL LO Matched Filters Superheterodyne RAKE Receiver for CDMA

Corresponding decoder for each encoder BER vs SNR Eye pattern & Decision threshold Constellations Viterbi Algorithm Synchronization

ELECTRICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


Electrical Communication Systems

Signals

Systems

Discrete

Continuous

Analog

Digital Digital Comm Transceiver

Probability

Power & Energy Signals

AM Switching Modulator Envelop Detector

Baseband CODEC

Bandpass MODEM

Information

Continuous Fourier Transform

DSB-SC Product Modulator Coherent Detector Costas Loop SSB Weaver's Method Phasing Method Frequency Method
Frequency & Phase Modulation Narrowband/Wideband VCO & Slope Detector PLL

Source Encoding Huffman codes

ASK PSK FSK BPSK

Entropy

Discrete Fourier Transform

Error-control Encoding Hamming Codes

Channel Capacity

Baseband and Bandpass Signals

Sampling PAM

QPSK

Quantization PCM

M-ary PSK

Complex Envelope

Line Encoding

QAM

Gaussian Noise & SNR


Time Division Mux T1 (DS1) Standards

Random Variables Noise Calculations

Packet Switching Ethernet ISO 7-Layer Protocol

APPLICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATION


1) Relatively low-speed voice-band data communication modem, such as those found in most personal computers. 2) high-speed data transmission systems, such as broadband digital subscriber lines (DSL) 3) Digital microwave and satellite communications system 4) Cellular telephone Personal Communication System (PCS)

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

PULSE MODULATION (PM)


Pulse Modulation consist essentially of sampling analog information signals and then converting those samples into discrete pulses and transporting the pluses from a source to a destination over a physical transmission medium.

The four predominant methods of pulse modulation include pulse width modulation (PWM), pulse position modulation (PPM), Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), and Pulse code modulation (PCM).

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

SAMPLING THEOREM
A bandlimited signal having no spectral components above fm Hz can be determined uniquely by values sampled at uniform intervals of
1 sec Ts 2f m

Uniform sampling theorem

Since

fs
Therefore

1 Ts
Nyquist criterion

f s2f m

fs= sampling frequency Ts= sampling period


EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)


PWM is sometimes called pulse-duration modulation (PDM) or pulse length modulation (PLM), as the width (active portion of the duty cycle) of a constant amplitude pulse is varied proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal at the time the signal is sampled. PWM is shown in figure 3.2c. As the figure shows, the amplitude of sample 1 is lower than the amplitude of sample 2. Thus, pulse 1 is narrower than pulse 2. the maximum analog signal amplitude produces the narrowest pulse. All the pulses have the same amplitude.

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

PPM , the position of a constant width pulse within a prescribed time slot is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. PPM is shown in Figure 3.2d. As the figure shows, the higher the amplitude of the sample, the farther to the right the pulses is positioned within the prescribed time slot. The highest amplitude sample produces a pulse to the far right, and the lowest amplitude sample produces a pulse to the far left.

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)


PAM, the amplitude of a constant width, constant-position pulse is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. PAM shown in figure 3.2e, where it can be seen that the amplitude of a pulse coincides with the amplitude of the analog signal. PAM waveforms resemble the original analog signal more than the waveforms for PWM or PPM.

EP301 SYSTEM COMMUNICATION FUNDAMENTALS

Figure 3.2 Pulse Modulation: a) Analog Signal; b) Sample Pulse; c) PWM; d) PPM; e) PAM; f) PCM

PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM)

PCM is the only digitally encode modulation technique shown Figure 3.2f that is commonly used for digital transmission.

The term pulse code modulation is somewhat of a misnomer, as it is not really a type of modulation but rather form digitally coding analog signals.
With PCM, the pulses are of fixed length and fixed amplitude.

PCM is a binary system where a pulse or lack of pulse within a prescribed time slot represents either a logic 1 or a logic 0 condition.
PWM, PPM, and PAM are digital but seldom binary, as a pulse does not represent a single binary digit (bit)