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A Presentation on


(An Urban Design Study of Gaushala-Airport-Tinkune-Babarmahal-Maitighar Road Area)
Tuesday, May 01, 2012

Project by : Government of Nepal, Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation

Tourism Infrastructure Development Project (TIDP)

Singhdurbar, Kathmandu

Consultant: Designers Pavillion (P) Ltd. Thamel, Kathmandu Team Leader: Rajjan M. Chitrakar, B. Arch, MUD

Presentation outline
Project Background and Introduction
Existing Condition of the Study Area Discussion on Issues and Problems Analysis of Existing Condition Urban Design Vision and Concept Proposed Urban Design Plan Implementation Strategy and Investment


Project background and introduction

Background and Introduction

For many reasons, there is a growing concern among city builders and other related stakeholders around the globe about design quality of city space
Accordingly, much effort is being put in design and development, conservation and regeneration of urban areas in many international cities aiming at healthy, working and beautiful urban places under Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation (MTCA), GoN, Tourism Infrastructure Development Project (TIDP) has taken an initiative to redevelop a significant road section of Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) Aims at a comprehensive urban design approach in order to achieve urban spaces with improved visual quality and proper use

Background and Introduction

TIDP is targeting for Nepal Tourism Year (NTY) 2011

introduced to attract one million international visitors every year into Nepal from 2011 AD
Under the project, existing tourist centers as well as new

destinations of Kathmandu Valley will be developed - to add new impetus for economic development of local areas and the region through the promotion of tourism and other related activities
In the fiscal Year 2065/2066, GoN prioritized planned

beautification programs of urban areas in different locations of Kathmandu Valley aiming at promoting places of interest for both local people and visitors including tourists

Background and Introduction

as part of Kathmandu Valley Beautification Program,

this project is an Urban Design Study of GausalaAirport-Tinkune-Babarmahal-Maitighar Road Area

Background and Introduction

Tourism in Kathmandu Valley
one of the key components of city's economy Kathmandu is considered as Nepal's tourist

gateway Almost 90 percent of foreign visitors arrive by air at the Tribhuvan International Airport (TIA) Kathmandu Valley also locates many sites of interest to visitors including the World Heritage Sites (WHS). the potentiality of tourism is very high

Background and Introduction

Current urbanization in Kathmandu Valley
urban development has taken place unplanned for last

few decades resulting in an extremely chaotic urban environment. observed almost everywhere with the study area as no exception. streets are even more chaotic and sometimes unworkable when there is ever-increasing conflict between the pedestrian and vehicle. For Kathmandu, there is a lack of proper planning, design and management of urban areas. With this, there is a great necessity to improve such environment, with special emphasis on visual qualities and use potential.

Background and Introduction

Need for a comprehensive Urban Design

improvement of urban areas (including both streets

and open spaces) in terms of all aspects (physical and social) becomes essential while considering the needs and expectations of both locals and tourists For locals, properly managed urban areas become something that they can be proud of revealing the efforts made by the government in the development of urban environment While for tourists, such favorable urban environment can attract them making very good impression on them places with character also have potential to make a strong visual impact upon the visitors

Existing condition of study area

Physical Setting
study area its nature, is a linear strip of urban space of around 6 KM in length and running along Wards 8, 9, 10, 11, 34 and

35 of KMC The road section locates few major crossings and intersections along its route: Maitighar, New Baneshwor Chowk, Tinkune, Airport junction and Gausala Chowk

Life and Activity

primary activity observed is movement which is both vehicular and pedestrian section from Maitighar to Tinkune is lively and vibrant as compared to Tinkune to Tilganga portion due to comprising commercial activities both in the buildings and the streets Many buildings also serve the mix purpose with commercial activity on lower floors while upper floors are used for residential purposes tourist activity is found to be very limited with concentration on few locations only - one 5-star hotel located at New Baneshwor

Movement system and connectivity with adjacent areas

Since study area is one of the busiest portions of

Kathmandu city road network, it sees a considerable amount of traffic people use different types of vehicles for both public and private transportation. Buses and tempos are dominant modes of public transport provision of footpath and zebra crossings along the street (missing along Tinkune to Tilganga portion)

Built form and building frontages

consists of both low and mid rise buildings - new and infill development Buildings exhibit contemporary architectural characteristics in built form, use of material, construction technology and fenestration design total built mass does not portray any distinct style or character active building frontages observed along Maitighar to Tinkune portion while the rest does not contain a desired line up of buildings on the sides of the road except for small portion of Gausala junction food outlets and commercial stores located in the study area contribute to active frontage especially in the vicinity of New Baneshwor area Some landmark buildings are BICC, Krishna Towers, Standard Charatered Bank Building, the Everest Hotel and Jagadamba Towers

Streetscape and visual qualities

due to the incoherence in built form also lacking continuous line up of buildings as well as lack of architectural quality in most of the building facades that the streetscape of the study area is not much exciting and clear - lacks visual harmony Haphazard placement of hoarding boards, traffic signs and signals and advertisement displays observed at nodal junctions hampering the visual quality further aggravated by the unmanaged installation of electric and other cable lines. set back area of most part of the road has been used for off-street parking which is unplanned and inappropriate and also acts as visual barrier

Open space and landscaping

study area is devoid of significant landscape features except

for few green open spaces at some strategic locations Attempts of landscape design have been made at Maitighar traffic island, space in front of BICC and at few other locations green belt area of Ring Road portion of study area has been left underdeveloped and unused since many years and most of these tend to be in the state of encroachment an opportunity of comprehensive landscape planning and design at Tinkune open space

Pedestrian comfort and facilities

the pedestrian environment does not encourage walking footpaths constructed on sides of the road from Maitighar to Tinkune exist missing along Tinkune to Tilganga portion provision of bus stands at numerous locations. But, there is a lack of proper provision and maintenance of street furniture such as dust bins, information signage, etc. The protective railings in footpath are either missing or in state of ruin. The pavements in most portions of the sidewalks are in the state of damage needing upgrading presence of vendors and sometimes even garbage

Places of interest
This 6 KM long strip of study area locates or

connects with numerous places of interest for both locals and visitors. Pashupatinath Temple Complex in close proximity of Gaushala, Boudhhanath Stupa located 10 Mins drive from Gausala towards north-east, BICC at New Baneshwor Chowk, Art Council Gallery at Babarmahal, Golf Course at Tilganga and The Everest Hotel

Discussion on issues and problems

Road congestion
Density of roads of Kathmandu Valley is 14 meters per

hectare which is 5.6 % of developed land which is less according to international standards 60% of total vehicles run in roads of the Valley lesser number of public transportation modes as compared to private ones the existing area of road to cater the growing number of vehicles is insufficient. With increased vehicular traffic and common tracks for all types of vehicles, traffic congestion is increasing during office hours at Maitighar, New Baneshwor and Gausala areas have negative impact upon efficiency and workability of urban place

Pedestrian and vehicular conflict

Among many manifestations of Kathmandus malignant urban growth that we see all around us, the most glaring aspect is the daily clash of pedestrian and vehicular traffic on major streets. The study area is not at all exception to this and as already mentioned, the major junctions are always in conflict between the two The result is that we have a city that is becoming more and more pedestrianunfriendly

Provision of street infrastructure

Streets are not only meant for movement but they are

also spaces used for variety of purposes such as human interactions, transactions of goods, assembly of people, etc. But unfortunately, this issue has been overlooked in the streets of Kathmandu by concerned stakeholders. In turn, social character of streets has never existed in the study area only infrastructure that we could see on the streets of Maitighar Gausala area is bus stand and most of them are not in good conditions. The other infrastructures such as proper lighting, sitting areas, landscaped spaces, etc. that could contribute to life and activity in the streets are found missing

Use of open space

As already mentioned, there is a huge potential of open

space development in the study area, especially at Tinkune triangular open space, Airtport junction and Gausala area. The only attempt made so far is at Maitighar area. Besides, set back areas along the street have been left unused. Many open space pockets have been used for parking purposes in absence of design and development intervention. This has had significantly negative impact upon the way urban space is visualized as well as used

Encroachment of ROW
In several portions of the study area, encroachment of Right of Way (ROW) of existing street has been observed These instances demand an application of rule of law and equity among road users and property owners

Parking of vehicles has been a major issue and

problem the challenge in improvement of urban areas is a need to plan and manage parking lots properly so that they would not become both physical and visual barrier haphazard parking of both two and four wheelers have resulted in following consequences:

A barrier to road users Contribution to traffic congestion Improper use of urban spaces having development potential Potential activeness of building frontage is reduced Expression of chaotic environment with reduced legibility of space

Advertisement boards
Haphazard installation of advertisement signage in almost all road intersections and junctions of study area has further deteriorated the visual quality of Kathmandus streetscapes. there are no technical and visual standards or norms followed in installation of these hoarding boards. for apparent reasons, it fails to be sensitive and technically sound towards many issues of visual qualities of streetscapes

Electric and other cable lines

Due to the lack of underground or managed cable connection for electricity supply and other services such as telephone, TV cable, etc., the cable lines are found exposed and haphazardly installed. exposures of cable lines which are running in chaotic manner do have significantly negative impact upon the visual quality of streetscapes acting also as visual barriers Issue of trolley bus cable lines

Urban greenery
Plantation of trees along the sidewalks of the roads can

have greater impact upon the visual quality of streetscape. have not only potential to define streetscape with continuous line up of trees but can also contribute to pedestrian movement protecting them from harsh sun during summer time as well as from rain. Trees can also be used as visual barriers to block the undesirable views such as poor quality massing of built form, a parking area, etc. Landscaping of open spaces with greeneries can also contribute to better visual quality of place making it pleasing, welcoming and usable

Slums and squatters

Along the portion of Airport

junction to Gausala Chowk area of the study area and to the south of Tilganga turning, many buildings are found in poor and dilapidated conditions which have also been built encroaching upon existing ROW. A cluster of such buildings in this particular location does definitely make poor visual impact upon any observer passing by

Environmental issues
In Kathmandu, degrading environmental quality

of urban streets has been a growing concern among road users as well as concerned stakeholders. In the study area, there has been significant rise in air and noise pollution in last few years With significant rise is number of vehicles in Kathmandu, there is an increasing level of noise generation contributing to noise pollution Another source contributing to environmental degradation in the streets of study area is frequently seen garbage disposition

Stakeholders opinion
Issues and concerns How urban greenery can be incorporated into development of built environment Feasibility of bicycle track to be proposed Environmental quality of road Parking issues DUDBC KMC KMC, DUDBC Traffic Police, Raised by proposed DUDBC

Road safety and need for awareness campaign for road user
How public can benefit from the proposed improvement works

Traffic Police

Problem with implementation of improvement and development KVTDC projects Issues on overlapping authority and responsibility of concerned KVTDC, KMC, DUDBC stakeholders such as KVTDC, KMC, DUDBC, etc. Sustainable components Application of rule of law concerning encroachment of ROW DUDBC, KMC implementation and maintenance of project KVTDC

Analysis of existing condition

Townscape analysis
Successful places are shaped in such a way that physical

settings promote use and activity and thus, results into lively urban environment. These are unique and have distinct character. They have animation and vitality, an urban buzz along with a strong visual quality.

The study area in its development of urban space lack

setting for active use providing less opportunity for socialization. the identity and meaning of place is virtually nonexisting the physical environment lacks a sense of place - a marked difference and discontinuity with the traditional city cores of Kathmandu

Analytical maps and drawings

Analytical maps and drawings

Analytical maps and drawings

Built form

Analytical maps and drawings

Analytical maps and drawings

Analytical maps and drawings

Analytical maps and drawings

Analysis of sense of place

Components of urban space contributing to enhancing potential sense of place

Analysis of sense of place

Physical form analysis of major urban nodes
Human Permeability Landmarks Space to Public



systems Bad OK Bad

Maitighar New Baneshwor Tinkune Triangular area Airport Junction

No Yes No

Low Moderate Low

Yes Yes No













Analysis of sense of place

Activity analysis of major urban nodes
Street life Caf culture Events and People Diversity

local watching

tradition Maitighar New Baneshwor Tinkune triangular area Airport Junction Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Moderate High Low Moderate High High Moderate High Low High







Analysis of sense of place

Image analysis of major urban nodes
Symbolis Legibility m and and Sensory experienc and Receptivi Knowledgea ty bility


imageabilit e y

associatio ns Moderate Moderate Moderate




Baneshwor Tinkune triangular area Airport

Low Low Low

Low Moderate Low

Low Low Low

Low Low Low

Low Low Low


SWOT Analysis
STRENGTHS Proximity to TIA Complex Temple Complex Golf course at located at Tilgana turning nodes with installation of landmark structures Commercially active zone Maitighar to Tinkune area Poor legibility of urban nodes accompanied by poor and area and Bhaktapur Landmark buildings present at urban nodes Encroachment of ROW contributing to legibility of place Presences of Mandala in Maitighar area- Symbolic Underutilization of available open spaces visual quality Good raod linkages with different parts of , Lalitpur Poor management of parking areas Increasing level of air and noise pollution Open space development potential in major urban Garbage disposition on the streets WEAKNESSES Road congestion in major urban nodes Gausala of study area located nearby Pashupatinath Pedestrian and vehicular conflict in major urban nodes

High degree of physical permeability due to connector Lack of active frontage with poor definition of streets adjoining Maitighar to Tinkune portion of study streetscape mainly along Tinkune to Tilganga portion area Visual permeability at Maitighar and Tinkune areas of study area

OPPORTUNITIES Redevelopment of the existing street of the study area with

CONSTRAINTS (THREATS) Lack of urban design guidelines to mange and regulate urban

introduction of wider roads to accommodate service lanes and growth in the study area bicycle tracks and to facilitate pedestrian movement Redevelopment of major urban nodes aiming at Traffic calming and reduced pedestrian and vehicle conflict Reducing road congestion Limited scope of prevailing bye-laws to address the visual quality of streetscapes

Better arrangement of parking areas

Providing better services and facilities to visitors on foot such as toilets, information counters, resting places, dust bins, etc.

Potential development of Tinkune triangular area with landmark structure to symbolize NTY 2011

Violation of prevailing bye-laws and encroachment of ROW followed by construction of permanent built structures

Development of other unused open space pockets within ROW Limited scope of alteration in existing land use of street Conservation and redevelopment of sites of historical importance such as Maitighar Mandala square, at Bijulibazaar and Gausala and gate at Shantinagar Promotion of urban greenery throughout the street portion Improvement of streetscape and visual quality through regulation of advertisement signage and managing exposed cable lines Improvement and upgrading of the condition of sidewalks Problem with sustainability and maintenance of project components Existing trolley bus cable lines and supporting poles

Urban design vision and concept

Vision statement




Urban design concepts

1. Better managed looks better Visual improvement through proper management and development of study area
2. Street as social space Streets are for everyone; these are not only roads meant for movement but are also places 3. Nature as part of built environment Need to integrate natural elements in proposed development plan 4. Improved mobility Streets should be devoid of all kinds of obstacles hindering the movement of both vehicle and pedestrian and thus, reducing conflict between them

Urban design objectives

To develop the study area as attractive destination for

both locals and tourists To promote the study area as pedestrian and cyclefriendly streets To develop the study area for public benefit and interest To encourage and manage life and activity in the streets To enhance urban design quality of the study area with accomplishment of high degree of legibility, permeability, connectivity, variety and imageability To use the study area as catalyst for development of other potential tourist sites in Kathmandu Valley

Urban design plan

Urban design strategy

Better managed looks Street as social space Nature as part of built Improved mobility pedestrian and

the streets especially

landscape Reduce at and cultural uses along the features in the development vehicular conflict at busy proposal intersections

Manage life and activity in Intensify restaurant, leisure Integrate

busy intersection of New study area Baneshwor Chowk and

Manage such as


elements Provide public spaces with Develop accessibility and space

unused pockets

open Provide



advertisement better

with Tinkune to Gausala areas

signage, traffic signs, etc in usability at major nodes entire study area

greeneries and water bodies

Manage street vendors at Regulate ground floor use of Plant New Baneshwor Chowk and adjoining Gausala Chowk buildings



the Provide street dividers laong

and sidewalks at regular interval the street

ensure that frontages are active



of Properly define streetscape Preserve the bio-diversity of Provide



sidewalks along the entire in areas where it is missing study area portion of road especially at Tinkune to

measures such as zebra crossings where they are

Gausala portion


Urban design strategy

Better managed looks Street as social space Nature as part of built Improved mobility



Manage parking lots

Avoid visual barriers to

Protect sidewalks from spilling pedestrian over along of the

at New Baneshwor and building edges Gausala Chowk

entire study area Provide separate space Provide for taxi cabs New facilities Chowk, and appropriate to pedestrian at major Encourage stop the drivers vehicle to at

Baneshwor Tinkune Ensure area, new


designated locations only

Airport nodes buildings

junction and respect the context and have architectural merits in entire study area Reduce current pollution level in entire study area

Urban design strategy

Better managed looks Street as social space Nature as part of built Improved mobility



Add bus stops at along Tinkune Portion to Gausala

Discourage use of

commercial residential

buildings at urban nodes

Ensure maintenance of

proper traffic

islands at Maitighar

Involve private sector in management areas of urban

Proposed land use strategy

Since, the study area has been already

developed in larger scale except for Tinkune to Tilganga portion and for infill developments to be made in rest of the areas, not much intervention in terms of land use modification is possible Encourage mixed-use developments the following buildings types can be encouraged to be accommodated at strategic locations.

Museum at Sinamangal area City center at Babrmahal area 2 to 3 star hotels at Airport junction Religious center at Gausala area Non-star hotels at Gausala Chowk

Proposed movement strategy

Taking into consideration the existing ROW of study area, two different proposals of road widening have been

made separately for

Maitighar to Tinkune area (ROW: 25 M from

center line) and Tinkune to Gausala area (ROW: 31 M from center line)

Typical road sections

Proposed Master Layout Plan


Airport Junction


New Baneshwor


Proposed development of urban nodes - Maitighar

Urban node
Maitighar Chowk

Salient features of proposed development

Footpath around the Mandala square Re-construction of Landmark structure with new architectural design Construction of 2 nos. of flyovers to avoid traffic intersections Green belt as buffer zone on road sides

Proposed development of urban nodes New Baneshwor

Urban node
New Baneshwor Chowk

Salient features of proposed development

Underground parking lot with capacity of accommodating 100 four wheelers and 105 two wheelers Construction of toilets at basement Provision of a subway for pedestrian Provision of overhead bridge for pedestrian Demolition of structures constructed within ROW Development of ROW space into pedestrianized areas with sitting arrangements, parking spaces, landscaped areas, etc.

Proposed development of urban nodes Tinkune

Urban node

Salient features of proposed development

triangular Construction of landmark sculpture to symbolize


Tourism and Nepal

Landscaped development of triangular area with greeneries and water bodies Provision of basement and surface parking lots

Provision of children play areas

Provision of shops along Tinkune-Koteshwor street portion Construction of 3 nos. of flyovers (alternative)

Proposed development of urban nodes Airport

Urban node
Airport Junction

Salient features of proposed development

Provision of service center Construction of 2 nos. of welcome gate Construction of landscaped park with landmark structure Re/construction of additional Bus Stops Construction of underground service lane

Proposed development of urban nodes Gausala

Urban node
Gausala Chowk

Salient features of proposed development

Widening of road with demolition of illegally constructed buildings Provision of service center Construction of landscaped park Reconstruction of additional Bus Stops

Reconstruction of existing Temples

Reconstruction of Traffic Police office with provision of basement parking Provision of surface parking for two wheelers

Proposed built structures

SN 1 2. 3 4 5 Entry gate Welcome gate Public toilet Type of built structure Nature development Redevelopment Redevelopment New development New development Bijulibazaar, Shantinagar Airport junction New Airport Gausala New development Redevelopment New development New development New dvelopment New development Redevelopment Redevelopment Tinkune to Tilganga area 4 junction 4 1 2 1 and 2 of Locations Numbers

Service Centers (with information New development counter, toilets, ATM counters and waiting space)

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Bus stand Bus stand Parking area Shed for market Landmark structure Landmark structure Landmark structure Chautari

All locations with existing 15 bus stands , New Baneshwor Chowk, 3 Tinkune area Tinkune landscaped area Tinkune landscaped area Airport junction Maitighar Mandala Sinamangal Total 1 1 1 1 1 37

Implementation strategy and investment plan

Identification of stakeholders, their role and responsibility

SN Name of Role Responsible for

1 DUDBC Key role in implementation of project Assisting in development of key project



Key role in implementation of project with

particular focus on development of

Construction and maintenance of roads

proposed widening of road


Key role in implementation of project

Public space development at nodal points

Penalizing and discouraging encroachment of ROW of street Penalizing and discouraging building construction contravening prevailing bye-laws, Formulation of urban design guidelines and building

regulations to address current problems

4 KMC Key role in implementation of project in coordination with Wards Development and management of urban areas Development of public spaces

Construction of urban infrastructures such as

toilets, bus stands, information centers, etc. Regulation ins installation of advertisement boards, Taking care of parking arrangements

Identification of stakeholders, their role and responsibility

SN Name of Role Responsible for

5 Traffic Police Key role in management of traffic in study area Management and control of street intersections, responsible for ensuring smooth flow of traffic in study area Taking care of parking arrangements







archeologically 7 PTDT


during Upgrading and regular maintenance of temples, public space and public toilets at

implementation of project Role in implementation of project especially in the vicinity of complex with particular focus on development of area along with some portion of Tilganga area


Role in implementation of project especially in the vicinity of complex with particular focus on development of Airport junction area

Providing tourist services and facilities at Airport junction

Identification of possible sources of income and responsible agencies

Apart from funding to be made by TIDP in implementation of

proposed development, the study team has identified the following possible sources of income:

Revenue generated from parking space to be provided in major urban nodes Revenue generated by KMC from advertisement boards Restaurants and small food outlets can be allowed to use adjacent street space as spill over with financial return from them A portion of proposed landscape development at Tinkune Triangular area has provision of entry fee thus contributes to revenue generation Likewise, revenue generated from development of temporary shops proposed at Tinkune Triangular area Financial contributions by Town Development Fund, KVTDC, KMC, MPPW, District Development Committee, TIA and Community Based Organizations (CBOs)

Identification of possible sources of income and responsible agencies

SN Development activity Responsible authority

Redevelopment of Maitigahr to Tinkune road section





Redevelopment of Tinkune to Gausala road section





Redevelopment of urban nodes


4 5 6 7

Welcome gates at Airport junction Construction of Bus stands Redevelopment of temple at Bijulibazaar Redevelopment of gate at Shantinagar


Thank you!!!