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Cbapter 1
IntroductIon to tbe Study
oI LIterature
eIInItIon oI LIterature:
Tbe word 111ero1ure Is derIved Irom tbe LatIn
term 111ero wbIcb means 1e11er. It bas been
deIIned dIIIerentIy by varIous wrIters.
Some IooseIy Interpret IIterature as any
prInted matter wrItten wItbIn a book, a
magazIne or a pampbIet. Otbers deIIne
IIterature as a IaItbIuI reproductIon oI man's
manIIoId experIences bIended Into one
barmonIous expressIon.
Because IIterature deaIs wItb Ideas, tbougbts
and emotIons oI man, IIterature can be saId to
be tbe story oI man. Man's Ioves, grIeIs,
tbougbts, dreams and aspIratIons coacbed In
beautIIuI Ianguage Is 111ero1ure.
In order to know tbe bIstory oI a natIon's
spIrIt, one must read Its IIterature. Hence It Is,
tbat to understand tbe reaI spIrIt oI a natIon,
one must ºtrace tbe IIttIe rIIIs as tbey course
aIong down tbe ages, broadenIng and deepenIng
Into tbe great ocean oI tbougbt wbIcb men oI
tbe present source are presentIy expIorIng."
Brotber AzurIn, saId tbat ºIIterature expresses
tbe IeeIIngs oI peopIe to socIety, to tbe
government, to bIs surroundIngs, to bIs
IeIIowmen and to bIs IvIne Creator." Tbe
expressIon oI one's IeeIIngs, accordIng to bIm,
may be tbrougb Iove, sorrow, bappIness,
batred, anger, pIty, contempt, or revenge.
or Webster, IIterature Is anytbIng tbat Is
prInted, as Iong as It Is reIated to tbe Ideas
and IeeIIngs oI peopIe, wbetber It Is true, or
just a product oI one's ImagInatIon.
In PANITIKING PILIPINO wrItten by AtIenza,
Ramos, SaIazar and NazaI, It says tbat ºtrue
IIterature Is a pIece oI wrItten work wbIcb Is
undyIng. It expresses tbe IeeIIngs and
emotIons oI peopIe In response to bIs
everyday eIIorts to IIve, to be bappy n bIs
envIronment and, aIter struggIes, to reacb
bIs Creator."
Wby We Need to Study PbIIIppIne LIterature Wby We Need to Study PbIIIppIne LIterature
We can enumerate many reasons Ior studyIng
IIterature.
Here are but a Iew:
We study IIterature so tbat we can better
apprecIate our IIterary berItage. We cannot
apprecIate sometbIng tbat we do not
understand. Tbrougb a study oI our
IIterature, we can trace tbe rIcb berItage oI
Ideas banded down to us Irom our IoreIatbers.
Tben we can understand ourseIves better and
take prIde In beIng a IIIpIno.
LIke otber races oI tbe worId, we need to
understand tbat we bave a great and nobIe
tradItIon wbIcb can serve as tbe means to
assImIIate otber cuItures.
Tbrougb sucb a study, we wIII reaIIze our
IIterary IImItatIons condItIoned by certaIn
bIstorIcaI Iactors and we can take steps to
overcome tbem.
Above aII, as IIIpInos, wbo truIy Iove and
take prIde In our own cuIture, we bave to
manIIest our deep concern Ior our own
IIterature and tbIs we can do by studyIng tbe
IIterature oI our country.
OI PbIIIppIne LIterature In EngIIsb and TIme
rames
It can be saId tbat PbIIIppIne IIterature In
EngIIsb bas acbIeved a stature tbat Is, In a
way, pbenomenaI sInce tbe InceptIon oI
EngIIsb In our cuIture.
Our wrItten IIterature, wbIcb Is about Iour
bundred years oId, Is one oI sIow and
evoIutIonary growtb. Our wrIters strove to
express tbeIr sentIments wbIIe struggIIng wItb
a IoreIgn medIum. Tbe great mass oI IIterature
In EngIIsb tbat we bave today Is, Indeed, a
trIbute to wbat our wrIters bave acbIeved In
tbe sbort span oI tIme. Wbat tbey bave wrItten
can compare wItb some oI tbe best works In
tbe worId.
Mucb Is stIII to be acbIeved. Our wrIters
bave yet to wrIte tbeIr OPUS MAGNUMS.
MeanwbIIe, bIstory and IIterature are sIowIy
unIoIdIng beIore us and we are as wItnesses
In tbe assembIy IInes to an evoIvIng IIterary
IIIe.
TIme Irames may not be necessary In a study
oI IIterature, but sInce IIterature and bIstory
are InescapabIy reIated It bas become
IacIIItatIve to map up a system wbIcb wIII aId
us In deIIneatIng certaIn tIme boundarIes.
Tbese tIme boundarIes are not exactIy weII-
deIIned; very oIten, tIme Irames bIend Into
anotber In a seemIng contInuum. or a
systematIc dIscussIon oI tbe tradItIons,
customs, and IeeIIngs oI our peopIe tbat can be
traced In our IIterature, we sbaII adopt certaIn
deIImItatIons.
Tbese tIme Irames are:
TIme rames oI PbIIIppIne LIterature In EngIIsb
IIIerent opInIons prevaII regardIng tbe stages
tbat mark tbe deveIopment oI PbIIIppIne
IIterature In EngIIsb. Let us take tbe IoIIowIng
tIme Irames Ior purpose oI dIscussIon:
1. Tbe PerIod oI Re-orIentatIon: 1S9S-1910
2. PerIod oI ImItatIon: 1910-192S
3. PerIod oI SeII-Iscovery: 192S-1941
4. Japanese PerIod: 1941-194S
S. Tbe RebIrtb oI reedom: 1946-19?0
6. PerIod oI ActIvIsm: 19?0-19?2
?. PerIod oI tbe New SocIety: 19?2-19S1
S. PerIod oI tbe TbIrd RepubIIc: 19S1-19SS
9. Contemporary PerIod: 19S6
LIterature and HIstory
LIterature and bIstory are cIoseIy
InterreIated. In dIscoverIng tbe bIstory oI a
race, tbe IeeIIngs, aspIratIons, customs and
tradItIons oI a peopIe are sure to be IncIuded . .
. and tbese IeeIIngs, aspIratIons, customs and
tradItIons tbat are wrItten Is 111ero1ure. HIstory
can aIso be wrItten and tbIs too, Is IIterature.
Events tbat can be wrItten down are part oI true
IIterature. LIterature, tbereIore, Is part oI
bIstory.
LIterature and bIstory, bowever, aIso bave
dIIIerences. LIterature may be IIgments oI tbe
ImagInatIon or events devoId oI trutb tbat
bave been wrItten down, wbIIe bIstory Is made
up oI events tbat reaIIy bappened.
LIterary ComposItIons tbat Have InIIuenced
tbe WorId.
Among tbem are:
J. TÞe B1b1e or 1Þe Soored Wr111ngs
2. Roron
S. TÞe 111od ond 1Þe Odgsseg
4. TÞe MoÞob-Þoro1o
S. Con1erburg To1es
t. Uno1e Tom's Cob1n
. TÞe D1v1ne Comedg
S. £1 C1d Compeodor
9. TÞe Song o] Ro1ond
JD. TÞe BooK o] 1Þe Deod
JJ. TÞe BooK o] 1Þe Dogs
J2. One TÞousond ond One N1gÞ1s or TÞe
Arob1on N1gÞ1s
GeneraI Types oI LIterature
LIterature can generaIIy be dIvIded Into two
types; prose and poe1rg.
Prose consIsts oI tbose wrItten wItbIn tbe
common IIow oI conversatIon In sentences and
paragrapbs, wbIIe poetry reIers to tbose
expressIons In verse, wItb measure and rbyme,
IIne and stanza and bas a more meIodIous tone.
I. PROSE
Tbere are many types oI prose. Tbese IncIude
tbe IoIIowIng:
a. NoveIs. A Iong narratIve dIvIded Into
cbapters and events are taken Irom true-to-IIIe
storIes.
ExampIe:WITHOUT SEEING THE AWN by
Stevan JaveIIana
b. Sbort story. TbIs Is a narratIve InvoIvIng
one or more cbaracters, one pIot and one
sIngIe ImpressIon.
ExampIe:THE LAUGHTER O MY ATHER by
CarIos BuIosan
c. PIays. TbIs Is presented on a stage, Is
dIvIded Into acts and eacb act bas many
scenes.
ExampIe: THIRTEEN PLAYS by WIIIredo M.
Guerrero
d. Legends. Tbese are IIctItIous narratIves,
usuaIIy about orIgIns.
ExampIe: THE BIKOL LEGEN by PIo uran
e. abIes. Tbese are aIso IIctItIous and tbey
deaI wItb anImaIs and InanImate tbIngs wbo
speak and act IIke peopIe and tbeIr purpose Is
to enIIgbten tbe mInds oI cbIIdren to events
tbat can moId tbeIr ways and attItudes.
ExampIe: THE MONKEY AN THE TURTLE
I. Anecdotes. Tbese are mereIy products oI
tbe wrIter's ImagInatIon and tbe maIn aIm Is
to brIng out Iessons to tbe reader.
ExampIe:THE MOTH AN THE LAMP
g. Essay. TbIs expresses tbe vIewpoInt or
opInIon oI tbe wrIter about a partIcuIar
probIem or event. Tbe best exampIe oI tbIs
Is tbe EdItorIaI page oI a newspaper.
b. BIograpby. TbIs deaIs wItb tbe IIIe oI a
person wbIcb may be about bImseII, bIs
autobIograpby or tbat oI otbers.
ExampIe: CAYETANO ARELLANO by Socorro
O. AIbert
I. News. TbIs Is a report oI everyday events In
socIety, government, scIence and Industry, and
accIdents, bappenIng natIonaIIy or not.
j. OratIon. TbIs Is a IormaI treatment oI a
subject and Is Intended to be spoken In pubIIc.
It appeaIs to tbe InteIIect, to tbe wIII or to tbe
emotIons oI tbe audIence.
II. POETRY
Tbere are tbree types oI poetry and tbese are
tbe IoIIowIng:
A. NarratIve Poetry. TbIs Iorm descrIbes
Important events In IIIe eItber reaI or
ImagInary.
Tbe dIIIerent varIetIes are:
1. EpIc. TbIs Is an extended narratIve about
beroIc expIoIts oIten under supernaturaI
controI.
ExampIe:THE HARVEST SONG O ALIGUYON
transIated In EngIIsb by Amador T.
aguIo
2. MetrIcaI TaIe. TbIs Is a narratIve wbIcb Is
wrItten In verse and can be cIassIIIed eItber
as a baIIad or a metrIcaI romance.
ExampIes: BAYANI NG BUKI by AI Perez
HERO O THE IELS by AI Perez
3. BaIIads. OI tbe narratIve poems, tbIs Is
consIdered tbe sbortest and sImpIest. It bas a
sImpIe structure and teIIs oI a sIngIe IncIdent.
Tbere are aIso varIatIons oI tbese: Iove baIIads,
war baIIads, and sea baIIads, bumorous, moraI,
and bIstorIcaI or mytbIcaI baIIads. In tbe earIy
tIme, tbIs reIerred to a song accompanyIng a
dance.
B. LyrIc Poetry. OrIgInaIaIy, tbIs reIers to tbat
kInd oI poetry meant to be sung to tbe
accompanIment oI a Iyre, but now, tbIs appIIes
to any type oI poetry tbat expresses emotIons
and IeeIIngs oI tbe poet. Tbey are usuaIIy
sbort, sImpIe and easy to understand.
1. oIksongs (AwItIng Bayan). Tbese are sbort
poems Intended to be sung. Tbe common
tbeme Is Iove, despaIr, grIeI, doubt, joy, bope
and sorrow.
ExampIe: CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT
2. Sonnets. TbIs Is a IyrIc poem oI 14 IInes
deaIIng wItb an emotIon, a IeeIIng, or an Idea.
Tbese are two types: tbe ItaIIan and tbe
Sbakespearean.
ExampIe: SANTANG BUS by AIIonso P.
Santos
3. EIegy. TbIs Is a IyrIc poem wbIcb
expresses IeeIIngs oI grIeI and meIancboIy,
and wbose tbeme Is deatb.
ExampIe:THE LOVER'S EATH by RIcaredo
emetIIIo
4. Ode. TbIs Is a poem oI a nobIe IeeIIng,
expressed wItb dIgnIty, wItb no deIInIte
number oI syIIabIes or deIInIte number oI
IInes In a stanza.
S. PsaIms (aIIt). TbIs Is a song praIsIng
God or tbe VIrgIn Mary and contaInIng a
pbIIosopby oI IIIe.
6. AwIt (Song). Tbese bave measures oI tweIve
syIIabIes (dodecasyIIabIc) and sIowIy sung to
tbe accompanIment oI a guItar or bandurIa.
ExampIe: LORANTE AT LAURA by rancIso
BaIagtas
?. CorrIdos (KurIdos). Tbese bave measures oI
eIgbt syIIabIes (octosyIIabIc) and recIted to a
martIaI beat.
ExampIe: IBONG AARNA
C. ramatIc Poetry
1. Comedy. Tbe word comedy comes Irom
tbe Greek term ºkomos" meanIng IestIvIty or
reveIry. TbIs Iorm usuaIIy Is IIgbt and
wrItten wItb tbe purpose oI amusIng, and
usuaIIy bas a bappy endIng.
2. MeIodrama. TbIs Is usuaIIy used In
musIcaI pIays wItb tbe opera. Today, tbIs Is
reIated to tragedy just as tbe Iarce Is to
comedy. It arouses ImmedIate and Intense
emotIon and Is usuaIIy sad but tbere Is a
bappy endIng Ior tbe prIncIpaI cbaracter.
3. Tragedy. TbIs InvoIves tbe bero
struggIIng mIgbtIIy agaInst dynamIc Iorces;
be meets deatb or ruIn wItbout success and
satIsIactIon obtaIned by tbe protagonIst In a
comedy.
4. arce. TbIs Is an exaggerated comedy. It
seeks to arouse mIrtb by IaugbabIe IInes;
sItuatIons are too rIdIcuIous to be true; tbe
cbaracters seem to be carIcatures and tbe
motIves undIgnIIIed and absurd.
S. SocIaI Poems. TbIs Iorm Is eItber pureIy
comIc or tragIc and It pIctures tbe IIIe oI
today. It may aIm to brIng about cbanges In
tbe socIaI condItIons.
ExercIses
1. eaIs wItb Ideas, tbougbts, and emotIons oI
man. It Is saId to be tbe story oI man.
2. LIterature as a IaItbIuI reproductIon oI
man's manIIoId _______ bIended Into one
barmonIous expressIon.
3-S. Tbree reasons wby do we need to study
PbIIIppIne LIterature.
6. WrItten by HarrIet Beecber Stowe oI tbe US.
TbIs depIcted tbe sad Iate oI sIaves; tbIs
became tbe basIs oI democracy Iater on.
?. TbIs was wrItten by ConIucIus oI CbIna. TbIs
became tbe basIs oI Roman CaIendar.
S. TbIs deaIs wItb tbe IIIe oI a person wbIcb
may be about bImseII, bIs autobIograpby or
tbat oI otbers.
9.Tbese bave been tbe source oI mytbs and
Iegends oI Greece. Tbey were wrItten by
Homer.
10.TbIs Is a IyrIc poem oI 14 IInes deaIIng wItb
an emotIons, a IeeIIng, or Idea.
¦||'cr 2
1¦c lrc-´||n:·¦ lcr:od
HIstorIcaI Background
Long beIore tbe SpanIard and otber
IoreIgners Ianded on PbIIIppIne sbores, our
IoreIatbers aIready bad tbeIr own IIterature
stamped In tbe bIstory oI our race.
Our ancIent IIterature sbows our customs
and tradItIons In everyday IIIe as trace In our
IoIk storIes, oId pIays and sbort storIes.
Our ancestors aIso bad tbeIr own aIpbabet
wbIcb was dIIIerent Irom tbat brougbt by tbe
SpanIards. Tbe IIrst aIpbabet used by our
ancestors was sImIIar to tbat oI tbe MaIayo-
PoIynesIan aIpbabet.
Wbatever record our ancestors IeIt were eItber
burned by tbe SpanIsb IrIars In tbe beIIeI tbat
tbey were works oI tbe devII or were wrItten on
materIaIs tbat easIIy perIsbed, IIke tbe barks oI
trees, drIed Ieaves and bamboo cyIInders wbIcb
couId not bave remaIned undestroyed even II
eIIorts were made to preserve tbem.
Otber records tbat remaIned sbowed IoIk songs
tbat proved exIstence oI a natIve cuIture truIy
our own. Some oI tbese were passed on by
word oI moutb tIII tbey reacbed tbe bands oI
some pubIIsbers or prInters wbo took Interest
In prIntIng tbe manuscrIpts oI tbe ancIent
IIIpInos.
Tbe SpanIards wbo came to tbe PbIIIppInes
trIed to prove tbat our ancestors were reaIIy
Iond oI poetry, songs, storIes, rIddIes and
proverbs wbIcb we stIII enjoy today and
wbIcb serve to sbow to generatIons tbe true
cuIture oI our peopIe.
Pre-SpanIsb LIterature Is cbaracterIzed by
A. LEGENS. Legends are a Iorm oI prose
tbe common tbeme oI wbIcb Is about tbe
orIgIn oI a tbIng, pIace, IocatIon or name.
Tbe events are ImagInary, devoId oI trutb
and unbeIIevabIe. OId IIIpIno customs are
reIIected In tbese Iegends. Its aIm Is to
entertaIn. Here Is an exampIe oI a Iegend Is
THE LEGEN O THE TAGALOGS.
B. OLK TALES. oIk taIes are made up oI
storIes about IIIe, adventure, Iove, borror and
bumor wbere one can derIve Iessons about IIIe.
Tbese are useIuI to us because tbey beIp us
apprecIate our envIronment, evaIuate our
personaIItIes and Improve our perspectIves In
IIIe. An exampIe oI tbIs Is THE MOON AN
THE SUN.
C. THE EPIC AGE. EpIcs are Iong narratIve
poems In wbIcb a serIes oI beroIc
acbIevements or events, usuaIIy oI a bero, are
deaIt wItb at Iengtb. Nobody can determIne
wbIcb epIcs are tbe oIdest because In tbeIr
transIatIons Irom otber Ianguages, even In
EngIIsb and SpanIsb. We can onIy determIne
tbeIr orIgIns Irom tbe tIme mentIoned In tbe
saId epIcs.
AsIde Irom tbe aIorementIoned epIcs, tbere are
stIII otber epIcs tbat can be read and studIed
IIke tbe IoIIowIng epIcs.
a. BIdasarI-Moro epIc
b. BIag nI Lam-ang-IIokano epIc
c. Maragtas-VIsayan epIc
d. Haraya-VIsayan epIc
e. Lagda-VIsayan epIc
I. HarI sa BukId-VIsayan epIc
g. KumIntang-TagaIog epIc
b. Parang SabIr-Moro epIc
I. ºagoy" at ºSudsod"-Tagbanua epIc
j. Tatuaang-Bagobo epIc
k. Indarapatra at SuIayman
I. Bantugan
m. aramoke-A-Babay - Moro epIc In
ºarangan"
. OLK SONGS. oIk songs are one oI tbe
oIdest Iorms oI PbIIIppIne IIterature tbat
emerged In tbe pre-SpanIsb perIod. Tbese
songs mIrrored tbe earIy Iorms oI cuIture.
Many oI tbese bave 12 syIIabIes. Here are tbe
exampIes:
a. KundIman
b. KumIntang o Tagumpay
c. Ang aIIt o Imno
d. Ang OyayI o HeIe
e. Iana
I. SoIIranIng
g. TaIIndaw
OTHER ORMS O PRE-SPANISH POETRY
E. EpIgrams, RIddIes, Cbants, MaxIms,
Proverbs or SayIngs
1. EpIgrams (SaIawIkaIn). Tbese bave been
customarIIy used and served as Iaws or ruIes on
good bebavIor by our ancestors. To otbers,
tbese are IIke aIIegorIes or parabIes tbat Impart
Iessons Ior tbe young.
2. RIddIes (Bugtong) or PaIaIsIpan. Tbese are
made up oI one or more measured IInes wItb
rbyme and may consIst oI Iour to 12 syIIabIes.
3. Cbant (BuIong). Used In wItcbcraIt or
encbantment.
4. MaxIms. Some are rbymIng coupIets wItb
verses oI S, 6 or S syIIabIes, eacb IIne bavIng
tbe same number oI syIIabIes.
S. SayIngs (KasabIban). OIten used In teasIng
or to comment on a person's actuatIons.
6. SawIkaIn (SayIngs wItb no bIdden meanIngs)
ExercIses
1. Tbe IIrst aIpbabet used by our ancestors
was sImIIar to tbat oI tbe ______.
2. Wbat does MarIa sbouted to IIog so tbat be
wouId cut tbe snake?
3. In certaIn wIde regIon oI Luzon, tbere was a
vIIIage Irequented by young men. TbIs town
was IuII oI trees, beautIIuI IIowers and a
rIver wbere cIear waters IIowed. Wbat
attracted tbe young men more tban tbe
scenery?
4. Tbe wrIter oI BIAG-NI Lam-Ang
S. AIso known as LuIIaby
6. Tbese bave been customarIIy used and
served as Iaws or ruIes on good bebavIor by
our ancestors
?. SayIngs wItb no bIdden MeanIngs
S. Some are rbymIng coupIets wItb verses oI
S,6, or S syIIabIes, eacb IInes bavIng tbe
same number oI syIIabIes.
9. Used In wItcbcraIt or encbantment.
10. Tbese are med up oI one or more measured
IInes wItb rbyme and may consIst oI Iour to
tweIve syIIabIes.
¦||'cr 3
1¦c ´||n:·¦ lcr:od (!5c5-!393)
HIstorIcaI Background
It Is an accepted beIIeI tbat tbe SpanIsb
coIonIzatIon oI tbe PbIIIppInes started In 1S6S
durIng tbe tIme oI MIgueI Lopez de LegazpI,
tbe IIrst SpanIsb governor-generaI In tbe
PbIIIppInes. LIterature started to IIourIsb
durIng bIs tIme. TbIs spurt contInued
unabated untII tbe CavIte RevoIt In 1S?2. Tbe
SpanIards coIonIzed tbe PbIIIppInes Ior more
tban tbree centurIes.
urIng tbese tImes, many cbanges occurred In
tbe IIves oI IIIpInos. Tbey embraced tbe
CatboIIc reIIgIon, cbanged tbeIr names, and
were baptIzed.
TbeIr IIIestyIes cbanged too. Tbey buIIt
bouses mad oI stones and brIcks, used
beautIIuI IurnIture IIke tbe pIano and used
kItcben utensIIs. CarrIages, traIns and boats
were used as means oI traveI. Tbey beId
IIestas to bonor tbe saInts, tbe pope and tbe
governors. Tbey bad cockIIgbts, borse races
and tbe tbeater as means oI recreatIon.
TbIs gave rIse to tbe IormatIon oI tbe
dIIIerent cIasses oI socIety IIke tbe rIcb and
tbe IandIords. Some IIIpInos IInIsbed
courses IIke medIcIne, Iaw, agrIcuIture and
teacbIng. Many IIIpInos IInIsbed tbeIr
scbooIIng aIready bad been estabIIsbed.
·
A. SPANISH INLUENCES ON PHILIPPINE
LITERATURE
ue to tbe Iong perIod oI coIonIzatIon oI tbe
PbIIIppInes by tbe SpanIards, tbey bave
exerted a strong InIIuence on our IIterature.
1. Tbe IIrst IIIpIno aIpbabet caIIed ALIBATA
was repIaced by tbe Roman aIpbabet.
2. Tbe teacbIng oI tbe CbrIstIan octrIne
became tbe basIs oI reIIgIous practIces.
3. Tbe SpanIsb Ianguage wbIcb became tbe
IIterary Ianguage durIng tbIs tIme Ient many oI
Its words to our Ianguage.
4. European Iegends and tradItIons brougbt
bere became assImIIated In our songs,
corrIdos, and moro-moros.
S. AncIent IIterature was coIIected and
transIated to TagaIog and otber dIaIects.
6. Many grammar books were prInted In
IIIpIno, IIke TagaIog, IIocano and VIsayan
?. Our perIodIcaIs durIng tbese tImes gaIned
a reIIgIous tone.
B. THE IRST BOOKS
1. ANG OCTRINA CRISTIANA (THE CHRISTIAN
OCTRINE). TbIs was tbe IIrst book prInted In
tbe PbIIIppInes In 1S93 In xyIograpby. It was
wrItten by r. Juan de PIacencIa and r.
omIngo NIeva, In TagaIog and SpanIsb. It
contaIned tbe Pater Noster (Out atber), Ave
MarIa (HaII Mary), RegIna CoeII (HaII HoIy
Queen), tbe Ten Commandments oI God, tbe
Commandments oI tbe CatboIIc Cburcb, tbe
Seven MortaI SIns, How to ConIess, and tbe
CatbecIsm. Tbree oId orIgInaI copIes oI tbIs
book can stIII be Iound at tbe VatIcan, at tbe
MadrId Musem and at tbe US Congress. It
contaIns onIy S? pages but costs $S,000.0.
2. Nuestra Senora deI RosarIo. Tbe second
book prInted In tbe PbIIIppInes was wrItten by
r. BIancas de San Jose In 1602, and prInted at
tbe UST PrIntIng Press wItb tbe beIp oI Juan de
Vera, a CbInese mestIzo. It contaIns tbe
bIograpbIes oI saInts, novenas, and questIons
and answers on reIIgIon.
3. LIbro de Ios Cuatro PostprImeras de Hombre
(In SpanIsb and TagaIog). TbIs Is tbe IIrst book
prInted In typograpby.
4. Ang BarIaan at Josepbat. TbIs Is a BIbIIcaI
story prInted In tbe PbIIIppInes and transIated
to TagaIog Irom Greek by r. AntonIo de Borja.
It Is beIIeved to be tbe IIrst TagaIog noveI
pubIIsbed In tbe PbIIIppInes even II It Is onIy
a transIatIon. Tbe prInted transIatIon bas
onIy SS6 pages. Tbe IIocano transIatIon In
poetry was done by r. AgustIn MejIa.
S. Tbe PasIon. TbIs Is tbe book about tbe
IIIe and suIIerIngs oI Jesus CbrIst. It Is read
onIy durIng Lent. Tbere were 4 versIons oI
tbIs In TagaIog and eacb versIon Is accordIng
to tbe name oI tbe wrIter.
Tbese are tbe PIIapII versIon (by MarIano
PIIapII oI BuIacan, 1S14), tbe de BeIen
versIon (by Gaspar AquIno de BeIen oI Bat. In
1?04), tbe de Ia Merced (by AnIceto de Ia
Merced oI Norzagaray, BuIacan In 1SS6) and
tbe de GuIa versIon (by LuIs de GuIa In
1?S0).
CrItIcs are not agreed wbetber It Is tbe PIIapII or
tbe de Ia Merced versIon wbIcb Is tbe most
popuIar.
6. Urbana at eIIsa. A book by Modesto de
Castro, tbe so caIIed atber oI CIassIc Prose In
TagaIog. Tbese are Ietters between two sIsters
Urbana at eIIsa and bave InIIuenced greatIy tbe
bebavIor oI peopIe In socIety because tbe Ietters
deaIt wItb good bebavIor.
?. Ang Mga aIIt kay MarIa (PsaIms Ior Mary).
A coIIectIon oI songs praIsIng tbe VIrgIn Mary.
r. MarIano SevIIIa, a IIIpIno prIest, wrote tbIs
In 1S6S and It was popuIar especIaIIy durIng tbe
MaytIme ºIores de Mayo" IestIvaI.
C. LITERARY COMPOSITIONS
1. Arte y RegIas de Ia Lengua TagaIa (Art and
ruIes oI tbe TagaIog Ianguage). WrItten by
r. BIancas de San Jose and transIated to
TagaIog by Tomas PInpIn In 1610.
2. CompendIo de Ia Lengua TagaIa
(UnderstandIng tbe TagaIog Ianguage).
WrItten by r. Gaspar de San AgustIn In
1?03.
3. VocabuIarIo de Ia Lengua TagaIa (TagaIog
vocabuIary). Tbe IIrst TagaIog dIctIonary
wrItten by r. Pedro de San Buenaventura In
1613.
4. VocabuIarIo de Ia Lengua Pampanga
(Pampanga vocabuIary). Tbe IIrst book In
Pampanga wrItten by r. Iego In 1?32.
S. VocabuIarIo de Ia Lengua BIsaya (BIsayan
vocabuIary). Tbe best Ianguage book In VIsayan
by Mateo Sancbez In 1?11.
6. Arte de Ia Lengua IIokana (Tbe Art oI tbe
IIocano Ianguage). Tbe IIrst IIocano grammar
book by rancIsco Lopez.
?. Arte de Ia Lengua BIcoIana (Tbe Art oI tbe
BIcoI Ianguage). Tbe IIrst book In tbe BIcoI
Ianguage and wrItten by r. Marcos LIsbon In
1?S4.
. OLK SONGS. oIk songs became
wIdespread In tbe PbIIIppInes. Eacb regIon bad
Its natIonaI song Irom tbe IowIands to tbe
mountaIns oI Luzon, VIsayas and MIndanao.
oIk songs truIy manIIest tbe artIstIc IeeIIngs
oI tbe IIIpInos. Tbey sbow tbe IIIpInos'
Innate apprecIatIon Ior and Iove oI beauty. Tbe
exampIes are Leron-Leron SInta, PamuIInawen,
andansoy, Sarong BanggI and AtIn Cu Pung
SIngsIng.
E. RECEREATIONAL PLAYS. Tbere are many
recreatIonaI pIays perIormed by IIIpInos
durIng tbe SpanIsb tImes. AImost aII oI tbem
were In poetIc Iorm. Here are exampIes:
1. TIbag - tbe word 11bog means to excavate.
TbIs rItuaI was brougbt bere by tbe SpanIard
to remInd tbe peopIe about tbe searcb oI St.
HeIena Ior tbe Cross on wbIcb Jesus dIed.
2. LagayIay - tbIs Is a specIaI occasIon Ior
tbe PIIarenos oI Sorsogon durIng MaytIme to
get togetber.
As earIy as AprII, tbe partIcIpatIng IadIes are
cbosen and sometImes, motbers voIunteer
tbeIr gIrIs In order to IuIIIII a vow made
durIng an IIIness or Ior a Iavor receIved.
In some parts oI BIcoI, a dIIIerent presentatIon
Is made but tbe objectIve Is tbe same - praIse,
respect and oIIerIng oI Iove to tbe BIessed Cross
by St. HeIen on tbe mound sbe bad dug In.
3. Tbe CenacuIo - tbIs Is a dramatIc
perIormance to commemorate tbe passIon and
deatb oI Jesus CbrIst. Tbere are two kInds: tbe
Con1odo and Hob1odo. In tbe HabIada tbe IInes
are spoken In a more deIIberate manner
sbowIng tbe rbytbmIc measure oI eacb verse
and tbe rbymIng In eacb stanza and Is more
dIgnIIIed In tbeme; tbe Cantada Is cbanted IIke
tbe PasIon.
Tbe CenacuIo Is wrItten In octosyIIabIc verse,
wItb S verses to tbe stanza. Tbe IuII Iengtb
versIons take about 3 nIgbts oI stagIng.
PerIormers come In costumes wItb wIgs and
perIormers are careIuIIy cbosen Ior tbeIr
vIrtuous IIIe. One perIorms tbe roIe oI Jesus
CbrIst and anotber tbe roIe oI tbe VIrgIn
Mary. Many Iamous CenacuIo pIayers come
Irom tbe TagaIog regIons aItbougb tbere are
aIso tbose Irom IIocos, Pampanga, BIcoI and
botb SIbuIanon and HIIIgaynon.
4. PanunuIuyan - tbIs Is presented beIore
12:00 on CbrIstmas Eve. TbIs Is a
presentatIon oI tbe searcb oI tbe VIrgIn Mary
and St. Josepb Ior an Inn wbereIn to deIIver
tbe baby Jesus.
S. Tbe SaIubong (or Panubong) - Tbe SaIubong
Is an Easter pIay tbat dramatIzes tbe meetIng
oI tbe RIsen CbrIst and bIs Motber. It Is stIII
presented In many PbIIIppIne towns.
6. CarIIIo (Sbadow PIay) - tbIs Is a Iorm oI
dramatIc entertaInment perIormed on a
moonIess nIgbt durIng a town IIesta or on dark
nIgbts aIter a barvest. TbIs sbadow pIay Is
made by projectIng cardboard IIgures beIore a
Iamp agaInst a wbIte sbeet. Tbe IIgures are
moved IIke marIonettes wbose dIaIogues are
produced by some experts.
Tbe dIaIogues are drawn Irom a CorrIdo or AwIt
or some reIIgIous pIay Interspersed wItb songs.
Tbese are caIIed by varIous names In dIIIerent
pIaces:
CarIIIo In ManIIa, RIzaI and Batangas and
Laguan; TITRES In IIocos Norte, PangasInan,
Bataa, CapIz and Negros; TITIRI In 2ambaIes;
GAGALO or KIKIMUT In Pampanga and
TarIac; and ALIALA In La UnIon.
?. Tbe 2arzueIa - consIdered tbe Iatber oI
tbe drama; It Is a musIcaI comedy or
meIodrama tbree acts wbIcb deaIt wItb
man's passIons and emotIons IIke Iove, bate,
revenge, crueIty, avarIce or some socIaI or
poIItIcaI probIe.
·
S. Tbe SaInete - tbIs was a sbort musIcaI
comedy popuIar durIng tbe 1S
tb
century. Tbey
were exaggerated comedIes sbown between
acts oI Iong pIays and were mostIy perIormed
by cbaracters Irom tbe Iower cIasses. Tbemes
were taken Irom everyday IIIe scenarIos.
. THE MORO-MORO. LIke tbe CenacuIo, tbe
Moro-moro Is presented aIso on a specIaI stage.
TbIs Is perIormed durIng town IIestas to
entertaIn tbe peopIe and to remInd tbem oI
tbeIr CbrIstIan reIIgIon. Tbe pIot Is usuaIIy tbe
same tbat oI a CbrIstIan prIncess or a
nobIeman's daugbter wbo Is captured by tbe
Mobammedans. Tbe Iatber organIzes a rescue
party wbere IIgbtIng between tbe Moros and
tbe CbrIstIans ensue.
Tbe Mobammedans are deIeated by some
mIracIe or IvIne IntercessIon and tbe
Mobammedans are converted to CbrIstIanIty.
In some Instances, tbe wboIe kIngdom Is
baptIzed and converted. One exampIe oI tbIs
Is PrInsIpe Rodante.
G. KARAGATAN. TbIs Is a poetIc vebIcIe oI a
socIo-reIIgIous nature ceIebrated durIng tbe
deatb oI a person. In tbIs contest, more or
Iess IormaI, a rItuaI Is perIormed based on a
Iegend about a prIncess wbo dropped ber rIng
Into tbe mIddIe oI tbe sea and wbo oIIered
bere band In marrIage to anyone wbo can
retrIeve It.
A Ieader starts oII wItb an extemporaneous
poem announcIng tbe purpose. He tben spIns
a ºIumbo" o ºtabo" marked wItb a wbIte IIne.
Wboever comes In tbe dIrectIon oI tbe wbIte
IIne wben tbe spInnIng stops gets bIs turn to
ºgo Into tbe sea to Iook Ior tbe rIng." TbIs
means a gIrI wIII ask bIm a rIddIe and II be Is
abIe to answer, be wIII oIIer tbe rIng to tbe
gIrI.
H. UPLO. Tbe upIo repIace tbe Karagatan.
TbIs Is a poetIc joust In speakIng and
reasonIng. Tbe roIes are taken Irom tbe BIbIe
and Irom proverbs and sayIng. It Is usuaIIy
pIayed durIng wakes Ior tbe dead.
I. THE BALAGTASAN. TbIs Is a poetIc joust or
a contest oI skIIIs In debate on a partIcuIar
topIc or Issue. TbIs Is repIaced tbe UPLO and
Is beId to bonor rancIsco ºBaIagtas" BaItazar.
J. THE UNG-AW. TbIs Is a cbant In Iree verse
by a bereaved person or bIs representatIve
besIde tbe corpse oI tbe dead. No deIInIte
meter or rbymIng scbeme Is used. Tbe person
cbantIng It IreeIy recItes In poetIc rbytbm
accordIng to bIs IeeIIngs, emotIons and
tbougbts. It Is personaIIzed and usuaIIy deaIs
wItb tbe IIIe, suIIerIngs and sacrIIIces oI tbe
dead and IncIudes apoIogIes Ior bIs mIsdeeds.
K. THE AWIT and tbe CORRIO. Some use
tbese two IntercbangeabIy because dIstInctIon
Is not cIear.
ExercIses
1. Tbe IIrst spanIsb governor-generaI In tbe
PbIIIppInes.
2-3 Wbat are tbe cbanges occured In tbe IIves
oI tbe IIIpInos durIng tbe SpanIsb
PerIod?
4. Tbe IIrst IIIpIno AIpbabet.
S. TbIs was tbe IIrst book prInted In tbe
PbIIIppInes In 1S93 In xyIograpby.
6. TbIs Is a book about tbe IIIe and suIIerIngs
oI Jesus CbrIst.
?. A book by Modesto de Castro, tbe so-caIIed
atber oI CIassIc Prose In TagaIog
S. TbIs Is a presentatIon oI tbe searcb oI tbe
VIrgIn Mary and St. Josepb Ior an Inn
tbereIn to deIIver tbe baby Jesus
9. TbIs Is a sbort musIcaI comedy popuIar
durIng tbe 1S
tb
century.
10. It Is a personaIIzed and usuaIIy deaI wItb
tbe IIIe, suIIerIngs and sacrIIIces oI tbe
deed and IncIudes apoIogIes Ior bIs
mIsdeeds
¦||'cr =
1¦c lcr:od oí Ln¦:q¦'cn:cn'
(!3?2-!393)
HIstorIcaI Background
AIter 300 years oI passIvIty under SpanIsb
ruIe, tbe IIIpIno spIrIt reawakened wben tbe
3 prIests Gomez, Burgos and 2amora were
guIIIotIned wItbout suIIIcIent evIdence oI
guIIt. TbIs occurred on tbe 1?
tb
oI ebruary.
TbIs was buttressed wItb tbe spIrIt oI
IIberaIIsm wben tbe PbIIIppInes opened Its
doors to worId trade and wItb tbe comIng oI
a IIberaI Ieader In tbe person oI Governor
CarIos MarIa de Ia Torre.
Tbe SpanIards were unabIe to suppress tbe
tIde oI rebeIIIon among tbe IIIpInos.
Tbe once reIIgIous spIrIt transIormed ItseII
Into one oI natIonaIIsm and tbe IIIpInos
demanded cbanges In tbe government and In
tbe cburcb.
A. Tbe Propaganda Movement (1S?2-1S96)
TbIs movement was spearbeaded mostIy by
tbe InteIIectuaI mIddIe-cIass IIke Jose RIzaI,
MarceIo deI PIIar; GracIano Lopez Jaena,
AntonIo Luna, MarIano Ponce, Jose Ma.
PanganIban, and Pedro Paterno. Tbe
objectIves oI tbIs movement were to seek
reIorms and cbanges IIke tbe IoIIowIng:
1. To get equaI treatment Ior tbe IIIpInos and
tbe SpanIards under tbe Iaw.
2. To make tbe PbIIIppInes a coIony oI SpaIn.
3. To restore IIIpIno representatIon In tbe
SpanIsb Cortes.
4. To IIIpInIze tbe parIsbes.
S. To gIve tbe IIIpInos Ireedom oI speecb, oI
tbe press, assembIy and Ior redress oI
grIevances.
B. HIgbIIgbts oI tbe Propaganda Movement
Tbere were tbree prIncIpaI Ieaders oI tbe
Propaganda movement. Tbey were Jose P.
RIzaI, MarceIo H. deI PIIar and GracIano
Lopez Jaena. Here are bIgbIIgbts about tbem
and wbat tbey bave done Ior our country.
R. JOSE P. RI2AL
Jose ProtacIo RIzaI Mercado AIonzo y
ReaIonda was born on June 19, 1S61 at
CaIamba, Laguna. HIs IIrst teacber was bIs
motber Teodora AIonozo. He studIed at tbe
Ateneo de ManIIa, started medIcIne at UST
and IInIsbed at tbe UnIversIdad CentraI oI
MadrId. He aIso studIed at tbe UnIversIty oI
BerIIn, LeIpzIg and HeIdeIberg.
He dIed by musketry In tbe bands oI tbe
SpanIards on ecember 30, 1S96 on cbarges oI
sedItIon and rebeIIIon agaInst tbe SpanIards.
HIs pen-name was Laong Laan and ImasaIang.
HIs books and wrItIngs:
1. NOLI ME TANGERE. TbIs was tbe noveI
tbat gave spIrIt to tbe propaganda movement
and paved tbe way to tbe revoIutIon agaInst
SpaIn.
In tbIs book, be courageousIy exposed tbe evIIs
In tbe SpanIsb-run government In tbe
PbIIIppInes.
Tbe SpanIards probIbIted tbe readIng oI tbIs
noveI but a Iot oI transIatIons were abIe to
enter steaItbIIy In tbe country even II It means
deatb to tbose caugbt In possessIon oI tbem.
Tbe NOLI gave PbIIIppIne IIterature tbe
ImmortaI cbaracters MarIa CIara, Juan
CrIsostomo Ibarra, EIIas, SIsa, PIIosoIong
TasIo, ona VIctorIna, KapItana MarIa, BasIIIo
and CrIspIn, RIzaI bad a powerIuI pen In tbe
deIIneatIon oI tbese cbaracters.
2. EL ILIBUSTERISMO. TbIs Is a sequeI to
tbe NOLI.
WbIIe tbe NOLI exposed tbe evIIs In socIety,
tbe ILI exposed tbose In tbe government
and In tbe cburcb. However, tbe NOLI bas
been dubbed tbe noveI oI socIety wbIIe tbat
oI ILI Is tbat oI poIItIcs.
3. MI ULTIMO AIOS (My Last areweII).
TbIs was a poem by RIzaI wbIIe be was
Incarcerated at ort SantIago and Is one tbat
can compare IavorabIy wItb tbe best In tbe
worId. It was onIy aIter bIs deatb wben bIs
name was aIIIxed to tbe poem.
4. SOBRE LA INOLENCIA E LOS ILIPINOS
(On iIc Indolcncc of iIc Fili¡inos}. An cssay on
iIc so-callcd Fili¡ino indolcncc and an cvaluaiion
of iIc rcasons for sucI allcgaiions.
S. ILIPINAS ENTRO E CIEN AÑOS (TIc
PIili¡¡incs wiiIin a Ccniury}. An cssay ¡rcdiciing
iIc incrcasing influcncc of iIc US in iIc
PIili¡¡incs and iIc dccrcasing inicrcsi of Euro¡c
Icrc. Fizal ¡rcdicicd iIai if iIcrc is any oiIcr
colonizcr of iIc PIili¡¡incs in iIc fuiurc, ii would
lc iIc US.
6. A LA JUVENTU ILIPINA (To iIc Fili¡ino
YouiI}. A ¡ocm Fizal dcdicaicd io iIc Fili¡ino
youiI siudying ai UST.
?. EL CONSEJO E LES IOSES (Tbe
CouncII oI tbe Gods). An aIIegorIcaI pIay
manIIestIng admIratIon Ior Cervantes.
S. JUNTO AL PASIG (BesIde tbe PasIg RIver).
WrItten by RIzaI wben be was 14 years oI
age.
9. ME PIEN VERSOS (You asked Me Ior
Verses); 1SS2 and A LAS LORES E
HEIELBERG (To tbe Iowers oI HeIdeIberg).
Two poems manIIestIng RIzaI's unusuaI
deptb oI emotIon.
10. NOTAS A LA OBRA SUCESOS E LAS
ILIPINAS OR EL R. ANTONIO E MORGA
(Notes on PbIIIppIne Events by r. AntonIo
de Morga): 1SS9
11. P. JACINTO: MEMORIAS E UN
ESTUIANTE E MANILA (P. JacInto: MemoIrs
oI a Student oI ManIIa) 1SS2
12. IARIO E VIAJE E NORTE AMERICA
(Iary oI a Voyage to Nortb AmerIca)
MARCELO H. EL PILAR
MarceIo H. deI PIIar Is popuIarIy known Ior bIs
pen name oI PIarIdeI, Pupdob, PIpIng IIat and
oIores Manapat. He was born at Cupang, San
NIcoIas, BuIacan on August 30, 1SS0.
HIs parents were JuIIan H. deI PIIar, noted
IIIpIno wrIter and BIasa GatmaIta. HIs
brotber was tbe prIest r. TorIbIo deI PIIar wbo
was banIsbed to MarIanas In 1S?2. Because
tbere were many cbIIdren In tbe IamIIy,
MarceIo gave up bIs sbare oI bIs InberItance
Ior bIs otber brotbers and sIsters.
MarceIo started scbooIIng at tbe scbooI oI Mr.
Iores and tben transIerred to tbat oI San Jose
beIore UST. HIs Iast year In Iaw scbooI was
Interrupted Ior S years aIter be bad quarreI
wItb tbe parIsb prIest durIng a baptIsm at San
MIgueI, ManIIa In 1SS0.
He estabIIsbed tbe IarIong TagaIog In 1SS3
wbere be exposed tbe evIIs oI tbe SpanIsb
government In tbe PbIIIppInes and In order
to avoId tbe IaIse accusatIons burrIed at bIm
by tbe prIests. To avoId banIsbment, be was
Iorced to traveI to SpaIn In 1SSS.
He was assIsted by r. Serrano Laktaw In
pubIIsbIng a dIIIerent CatbecIsm and PassIon
Book wbereIn tbey made Iun oI tbe prIests.
Tbey aIso made tbe ASALAN AT TOCSOHAN
and KAIINGAT KAYO taken Irom tbe word
IGAT, a kInd oI snake IIsb caugbt In poIItIcs.
·
Upon bIs arrIvaI In SpaIn, be repIaced
GracIano Lopez Jaena as edItor oI LA
SOLIARIA, a paper wbIcb became tbe
vebIcIe tbru wbIcb reIorms In tbe government
couId be worked out. TbIs dId not Iast Iong
Ior be got sIck and even to reacb Hong Kong
Irom wbere be couId arouse bIs countrymen.
He dIed oI tubercuIosIs In SpaIn but beIore be
dIed, be asked bIs companIons to teII bIs wIIe
and cbIIdren tbat be was sorry be wasn't abIe
to bId tbem goodbye; to teII otbers about tbe
Iate oI our countrymen and to contInue
beIpIng tbe country.
PIarIdeI bas truIy earned a nIcbe In tbe
bIstory oI our natIon. Even today, countIess
streets bave been named aIter bIm. Tbe
Iormer KIngwa bas been named PIarIdeI, tbe
MaIoIos HIgb ScbooI Is now MarceIo H. deI
PIIar HIgb ScbooI and above aII, bIs
patrIotIsm and bravery wIII remaIn aIIve In
our memorIes.
WrItIngs oI MarceIo H. deI PIIar
1. PAGIBIG SA TINUBUANG LUPA (Love oI
Country). TransIated Irom tbe SpanIsb
AMOR PATRIA oI RIzaI, pubIIsbed on August
20, 1SS2, In IarIong TagaIog.
·
2. KAIINGAT KAYO (Be CareIuI). A bumorous
and sarcastIc dIg In answer to r. Jose
RodrIquez In tbe noveI NOLI oI RIzaI, pubIIsbed
In BarceIona In 1SSS. He used oIores Manapat
as pen-name bere.
3. ASALAN AT TOCSOHAN (Prayers and
Jokes). SImIIar to a catbecIsm but sarcastIcaIIy
done agaIns tbe parIsb prIests, pubIIsbed In
BarceIona In 1SSS. Because oI tbIs, deI PIIar
was caIIed ºIIIIbuster." one In admIrabIe tone
oI suppIIcatIon and exceIIent use oI TagaIog.
4. ANG CAAQUILAAN NG IOS (God's
Goodness). PubIIsbed In BarceIona, It was aIso
IIke a catbecIsm sarcastIcaIIy aImed agaInst tbe
parIsb prIests but aIso contaIns a pbIIosopby oI
tbe power and InteIIIgence oI God and an
apprecIatIon Ior and Iove Ior nature.
S. SAGOT SA ESPANYA SA HIBIK NG
PILIPINAS (Answer to SpaIn on tbe PIea oI
tbe IIIpInos). A poem pIeadIng Ior cbange
Irom SpaIn but tbat SpaIn Is aIready oId and
weak to grant any aId to tbe PbIIIppInes.
TbIs poem Is In answer to tbat oI
HermenIgIIdo Iores' HIbIk sa PIIIpInas (A
PIea Irom tbe PbIIIppInes).
6. UPLUHAN.ALIT.MGA BUGTONG (A
poetIcaI contest In narratIve sequence,
psaIms, rIddIes). A compIIatIon oI poems on
tbe oppressIon by tbe prIests In tbe
PbIIIppInes.
?. LA SOBERANIA EN PILIPINAS (SovereIgnty
In tbe PbIIIppInes). TbIs sbows tbe InjustIces
oI tbe IrIars to tbe PIIIpInos.
S. POR TELEONO (By TeIepbone)
9. PASIONG APAT IPAG-ALAB NG PUSO NG
TAONG BABASA (PassIon tbat sbouId arouse
tbe bearts oI tbe readers)
GRACIANO LOPE2 JAENA
(1SS6-1S96)
A most notabIe bero and genIus oI tbe
PbIIIppInes, GracIano Lopez Jaena was born on
ecember 1S, 1SS6 and dIed on January 20,
1S96.
Tbe prIde oI Jaro, IIoIIo, be won tbe
admIratIon oI tbe SpanIards and Europeans.
He Is a known wrIter and orator In tbe
PbIIIppInes. He wrote 100 speecbes wbIcb
were pubIIsbed by RemIgIo GarcIa, Iormer
bookstore owner In ManIIa IIatIca and wbIcb
are stIII read up to no by modern IIIpInos.
Lopez Jaena IeIt tbe PbIIIppInes In 1SS? wItb
tbe beIp oI on CIaudIo Lopez, a rIcb uncIe,
In order to escape punIsbment Iorm bIs
enemIes and arrIved at VaIencIa, tbe center
oI tbe RepubIIcan movement oI tbe
SpanIards. He gaIned tbe acquaIntance oI
tbe bIgb oIIIcIaIs IIke PIy MargaII, Morayta,
Moret, CasteIar, and SaImeron.
rom VaIencIa, be moved to BarceIona wbere
be estabIIsbed tbe IIrst magazIne LA
SOLIARIA. TbIs Iater became tbe oIIIcIaI
voIce oI tbe AssocIatIon HIspano de IIIpInas (a
IIIpIno-SpanIsb AssocIatIon) composed oI
IIIpInos and SpanIards wbo worked Ior
reIorms In tbe PbIIIppInes. Because oI tbIs,
Jaena successIuIIy sbowed tbe SpanIards and
tbe peopIe oI tbe worId bow a newspaperman
can Introduce cbanges In Iaw and reIorms
towards a better IIIe and progress.
Jaena, aItbougb be dIdn't become a proIessor,
was aIso a teacber In a sense to bIs IrIends and
reIatIves In tbe PbIIIppInes.
LIke AntonIo MarIa RegIdor, Tomas G. deI
RosarIo and eIIpe CaIderon, be stood Ior tbe
separatIon oI cburcb and state Ior Iree
educatIon, better government and scbooIs,
Ireedom oI worsbIp and Ior an Independent
and Iree unIversIty.
He sIded wItb RIzaI In tbe controversy
between RIzaI and deI PIIar over wbo sbouId
bead tbe AssocIatIon HIspano de IIIpInas In
MadrId. He returned to tbe PbIIIppInes to
ask Ior donatIons to contInue a new
government caIIed EI LatIgo NacIonaI or
Pambansang LatIgo. He soId tbe rIgbts oI La
SoIIdarIdad ot deI PIIar wbo bad become a
Iawyer and bad brougbt In money Irom bIs
sojourn In SpaIn.
GracIano Lopez Jaena dIed In a cbarIty
bospItaI In BarceIona on January 20, 1S96,
eIeven montbs beIore bIs best IrIend RIzaI was
sbot at tbe Luneta on ecember 30, 1S96.
A. Tbe Works oI GracIano Lopez Jaena
1. ANG RAY BOTO (rIar Botod). One oI
bIs works wrItten In Jaro, IIoIIo In 1S?6, sIx
years aIter tbe CavIte RevoIt attackIng tbe
IrIars In tbe PbIIIppInes. He exposed bow
some oI tbe IrIars were greedy, ambItIous and
ImmoraI.
2. LA HIJA EL RAILE (Tbe CbIId oI tbe
rIar) and EVERYTING IS HAMBUG
(EverytbIng Is mere sbow). Here Jaena
expIaIns tbe tragedy oI marryIng a SpanIard.
3. SA MGA PILIPINO...1S91. A speecb
wbIcb aImed to Improve tbe condItIon oI tbe
IIIpInos to become Iree and progressIve.
4. TALUMPATING PAGUNITA KAY
KOLUMBUS (An OratIon to Commemorate
CoIumbus). A speecb be deIIvered In MadrId
on tbe 39
tb
annIversary oI tbe dIscovery oI
AmerIca
S. EN HONOR EL PRESIENTE MORAYTA E
LA ASSOCIACION HISPANO ILIPINO 1SS4.
Here be praIsed Gen. Morayta Ior bIs equaI
treatment oI tbe IIIpInos.
6. EN HONOR E LOS ARTISTAS LUNA Y
RESURRECCION HIALGO. A sIncere
expressIon oI praIse Ior tbe paIntIngs oI
HIdaIgo on tbe condItIon oI tbe IIIpInos under
tbe SpanIards.
?. AMOR A ESPAÑA O A LAS JOVENES E
MALOLOS (Love Ior SpaIn or To tbe Youtb oI
MaIoIos). Tbe tbeme Is about bow gIrIs were
taugbt SpanIsb In scbooIs and wbose teacbers
were tbe governors-generaI oI tbe pIace.
S. EL BANOLERISMO EN PILIPINAS (BandItry
In tbe PbIIIppInes). Jaena reIuted tbe exIstence
oI bandItry In tbe PbIIIppInes and oI bow tbere
sbouId be Iaws on robbery and otber reIorms.
9. HONOR EN PILIPINAS (Honor In tbe
PbIIIppInes). Tbe trIumpbant exposItIon oI
Luna, ResurrecIon and Pardo de Tavera oI tbe
tbesIs tbat InteIIect or knowIedge gIves bonor
to tbe PbIIIppInes.
10. PAG-ALIS SA BUWIS SA PILIPINAS
(AboIItIon oI Taxes In tbe PbIIIppInes)
11. INSTITUCION NG PILIPINAS (SuIIerIngs oI
tbe PbIIIppInes). Jaena reIers bere to tbe
wrong management oI educatIon In tbe
PbIIIppInes 1SS?.
B. OTHER PROPAGANISTS
ANTONIO LUNA
AntonIo Luna was a pbarmacIst wbo was
banIsbed by tbe SpanIards to SpaIn. He joIned
tbe Propaganda Movement and contrIbuted bIs
wrItIngs to LA SOLIARIA. Most oI bIs
works deaIt wItb IIIpIno customs and otbers
were accusatIons about bow tbe SpanIards ran
tbe government. HIs pen name was TagaIIog.
He dIed at tbe age oI 33 In June 1S99. He was
put to deatb by tbe soIdIers oI AguInaIdo
because oI bIs Instant rIse to Iame wbIcb
became a tbreat to AguInaIdo.
Some oI bIs works are:
1. NOCHE BUENA (CbrIstmas Eve). It
pIctured true IIIpIno IIIe.
2. SE EVIERTEN (How Tbey Iverted
TbemseIves). A dIg at a dance oI tbe
SpanIards wbere tbe peopIe were very
crowded.
3. LA TERTULIA ILIPINA (A IIIpIno
ConIerence or east). epIcts a IIIpIno
custom wbIcb be beIIeved was mucb better
tban tbe SpanIsb.
4. POR MARI (or MadrId). A
denouncement oI SpanIards wbo cIaIm tbat tbe
PbIIIppInes Is a coIony oI SpaIn but wbo tbInk
oI IIIpInos as IoreIgners wben It comes to
coIIectIng taxes Ior stamps.
S. LA CASA E HUEPEES (Tbe LandIady's
House). epIcts a IandIady wbo Iooks Ior
boarders not Ior money but In order to get a
busband Ior ber cbIId.
MARIANO PONCE
MarIano Ponce became an edItor-In-cbIeI,
bIograpber and researcber oI tbe Propaganda
Movement. He used TIkbaIang, KaIIpuIako, and
NanIng as pennames. Tbe common tbemes oI
bIs works were tbe vaIues oI educatIon. He
aIso wrote about bow tbe IIIpInos were
oppressed by tbe IoreIgners and oI tbe
probIems oI bIs countrymen. Among bIs
wrItIngs were:
1. MGA ALAMAT NG BULACAN (Legend oI
BuIacan). ContaIns Iegends, and IoIkIores oI
bIs natIve town.
2. PAGPUGOT KAY LONGINOS (Tbe BebeadIng
oI LongInos). A pIay sbown at tbe pIaza oI
MaIoIos, BuIacan.
3. SOBRE ILIPINOS (About tbe IIIpInos)
4. ANG MGA PILIPINO SA INO-TSINA (Tbe
IIIpInos In Indo-CbIna)
PERO PATERNO
Pedro Paterno was a scboIar, dramatIc,
researcber and noveIIst oI tbe Propaganda
Movement.
He aIso joIned tbe ConIraternIty oI Masons
and tbe AsocIacIon HIspano-PIIIpIno In order
to Iurtber tbe aIms oI tbe Movement. He
was tbe IIrst IIIpIno wrIter wbo escaped
censorsbIp oI tbe press durIng tbe Iast day oI
tbe SpanIsb coIonIzatIon.
Tbe IoIIowIng were a Iew oI bIs wrtIngs:
1. NINAY. Tbe IIrst socIaI noveI In SpanIsb
by a IIIpIno.
2. A MI MARE (To My Motber). Sbows tbe
Importance oI a motber especIaIIy In tbe
bome.
3. SAMPAGUITA Y POESIAS VARIAS
(SampaguItas and VarIed Poems). A
coIIectIon oI bIs poems.
JOSE MA. PANGANIBAN
Jose Ma. PanganIban bId bIs IdentIty bebInd bIs
penname JORMAPA. He was aIso known Ior
bavIng pbotograpbIc mInd. He was a member
oI a number oI movements Ior tbe country.
Some oI bIs wrItIngs were:
1. ANG LUPANG TINUBUAN (My NatIve Land)
2. ANG AKING BUHAY (My LIIe)
3. SU PLANO E ESTUIO (Your Study PIan)
4. EL PENSAMIENTO (Tbe TbInkIng)
C. PerIod oI ActIve RevoIutIon (1S96-1S9S)
HIstorIcaI Background
Tbe IIIpInos dId not get tbe reIorms
demanded by tbe propagandIsts. Tbe
government turned deaI ears to tbese
petItIons; oppressIon contInued and tbe cburcb
and tbe government became even more
oppressIve to tbe IIIpInos. Tbe good
IntentIons oI SpaIn were reversed by tbe IrIars
wbo were IordIng It over In tbe PbIIIppInes.
Because oI tbIs, not a Iew oI tbe IIIpInos
aIIIIIated wItb tbe La LIga IIIpIna (a cIvIc
organIzatIon suspected oI beIng revoIutIonary
and wbIcb trIggered RIzaI's banIsbment to
apItan). LIke Andres BonIIacIo, EmIIIo
JacInto, ApoIInarIo MabInI, Jose PaIma, and
PIo VaIenzueIa decIded tbat tbere was no otber
way except to revoIt.
Tbe gIst oI IIterature contaIned mostIy
accusatIons agaInst tbe government and was
meant to arouse tbe peopIe to unIte and to
prepare Ior Independence.
. HIgbIIgbts oI tbe ActIve RevoIutIon
Tbe noted Ieaders oI tbIs perIod were Andres
BonIIacIo, EmIIIo JacInto and ApoIInarIo
MabInI. Tbese are tbeIr contrIbutIons to our
country.
ANRES BONIACIO
Andres BonIIacIo Is best known as tbe atber oI
IIIpIno emocracy, but more tban otbers, as
tbe atber oI tbe KatIpunan because be Ied In
estabIIsbIng tbe Kataas-taasan, KagaIang-
gaIanga KatIpunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan
(KKK).
Andres BonIIacIo came Irom a poor IamIIy and
It Is saId tbat wbat be Iearned be got Irom tbe
scbooI oI experIence.
He was a voracIous reader and among tbose be
Ioved to read wbIcb aroused bIs revoIutIonary
spIrIt were tbe NOLI and tbe ILI oI RIzaI.
He joIned tbe La LIga IIIpIna Iounded by
RIzaI In 1S92. He estabIIsbed tbe KatIpunan
wbIcb trIggered tbe spIrIt oI Ireedom
especIaIIy wben RIzaI was banIsbed to
apItan, MIndanao.
BonIIacIo Is better known as tbe great
RevoIutIonary ratber tban a wrIter but be
aIso wrote tbIngs wbIcb paved tbe way Ior
tbe revoIutIon and wbIcb aIso became part oI
our IIterature. Among bIs works were:
1. ANG APAT MABATI NG MGA TAGALOG
(Wbat tbe TagaIogs SbouId Know)
2. KATUNGKULANG GAGAWIN NG MGA ANA NG
BAYAN (ObIIgatIons oI Our Countrymen). TbIs
Is an outIIne oI obIIgatIons just IIke tbe 10
commandments oI God.
3. PAG-IBIG SA TINUBUAN LUPA (Love oI One's
NatIve Land). A poem wItb a tItIe sImIIar to
tbat oI MarceIo H. deI PIIar.
4. HULING PAALAM (Last areweII). A
transIatIon oI MI UItImo AdIos oI RIzaI In
TagaIog.
APOLINARIO MABINI
ApoIInarIo MabInI Is known In IIterature and
bIstory as tbe SubIIme ParaIytIc and tbe
BraIns oI tbe RevoIutIon.
EMILIO JACINTO
EmIIIo JacInto was tbe InteIIIgent assIstant
oI Andres BonIIacIo In tbe estabIIsbment oI
tbe KatIpuna. He Is caIIed tbe BraIns oI tbe
KatIpunan. He edIted KaIayaan (reedom) a
KatIpunan newspaper. BonIIacIo wItbdrew
bIs wrItIng oI tbe KartIIya In deIerence to
JacInto's work as secretary oI tbe KatIpunan.
HIs KartIIya was tbe one IoIIowed by tbe
members oI tbe organIzatIon. Here are Iew
oI bIs wrItIngs:
1. KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN (A prImer book
on tbe KatIpunan)
2. LIWANAG AT ILIM (LIgbt and arkness). A
coIIectIon oI essays on dIIIerent subjects IIke
Ireedom, work, IaItb, government, Iove oI
country.
3. A MI MARE (To My Motber). A toucbIng
ode to bIs motber.
4. A LA PATRIA (To My Country). HIs
masterpIece.
He was born In TaIaga, Tanauan, Batangas on
JuIy 22, 1S64. Because be was born oI a poor
IamIIy be bad to work In order to study. He
became known to bIs proIessors and cIassmates
at Letran and tbe UST because oI bIs sbarp
memory and tbe sImpIe cIotbes be used to wear
tbrougbout bIs scbooIIng.
He became tbe rIgbt-band oI EmIIIo AguInaIdo
wben tbe Iatter Iounded bIs RepubIIc In MaIoIos.
HIs contrIbutIons to IIterature were wrItIng on
government socIety, pbIIosopby and poIItIcs.
Here are some oI bIs works:
1. EL VERAERO ECALOGO (Tbe True
ecaIogue or Ten Commandments). TbIs was bIs
masterpIece and bIs aIm bere was to propagate
tbe spIrIt oI natIonaIIsm.
2. EL ESAROLLO Y CAIA E LA
REPUBLICA (Tbe RIse and aII oI tbe
PbIIIppIne RepubIIc)
3. SA BAYANG PILIPINO (To tbe IIIpIno
NatIon)
4. PAHAYAG (News)
OTHER REVOLUTIONISTS
JOSE PALMA
Jose PaIma became popuIar because oI bIs
HImno NacIonaI IIIpIno (Tbe PbIIIppIne
NatIonaI Antbem) wbIcb was set to musIc by
JuIIan eIIpe.
He was born In Tondo, ManIIa on June 6, 1S?6.
HIs brotber RaIaeI PaIma became tbe presIdent
oI tbe UP.
He joIned tbe revoIutIon agaInst tbe AmerIcans
togetber wItb GregorIo deI PIIar, tbe youngest
IIIpIno generaI wbo dIed durIng tbe revoIutIon.
AsIde Irom tbe NatIonaI Antbem, bere are bIs
otber works:
1. MELANCOLIAS (MeIancboIIes). A coIIectIon
oI bIs poems.
2. E MI JARIN (In My Garden). A poem
expressIng one's IongIngs Ior bIs sweetbeart.
NEWSPAPERS URING THE REVOLUTION
In tbe eIIort oI tbe RevoIutIonIsts to spread to
tbe worId tbeIr IongIngs Ior tbeIr country, many
newspapers were put up durIng tbe
RevoIutIonary perIod. Tbey were:
1. HERALO E LA REVOLUCION. PrInted tbe
decrees oI tbe RevoIutIary Government, news
and works In TagaIog tbat aroused natIonaIIsm.
2. LA INEPENENCIA (Independence). EdIted
by AntonIo Luna and wbose aIm was Ior
PbIIIppIne Independence.
3. LA REPUBLICA PILIPINA (Tbe PbIIIppIne
RepubIIc). EstabIIsbed by Pedro Paterno In
1S9S.
4. LA LIBERTA (LIberty). EdIted by CIemente
2uIueta.
ExercIses
1. How does tbe IIIIpIno spIrIt reawaken aIter
300 years oI passIvIty under spanIsb ruIe?
2-3 GIve 2 objectIves oI Propaganda
Movement to seek reIorms and cbanges.
4. TbIs Is a sequeI Ior tbe NOLI ME TANGERE
S. MarceIo H. eI PIIar estabIIsbed tbe
_______In 1SS2, wbere be expressed tbe
evIIs oI tbe spanIsb government In tbe
PbIIIppInes
6. TbIs became tbe oIIIcIaI voIce oI tbe
AssocIacIon HIspano de IIIpInas
?. He Is tbe atber oI IIIpIno emocracy and
tbe atber oI tbe KatIpunan
S. He Is tbe BraIns oI tbe KatIpunan
9. Tbe SubIIme ParaIytIc and tbe BraIns oI tbe
RevoIutIon
10. He became popuIar because oI bIs HImno
NacIonaI IIIpIno (Tbe PbIIIppIne NatIonaI
Antbem)
Cbapter S
Tbe AmerIcan RegIme
(1S9S-1941)
HIstorIcaI Background
Tbe IIIpIno RevoIutIonIsts won agaInst tbe
SpanIards wbo coIonIzed us Ior more tban 300
years. Our IIag was boIsted on June 12, 1S9S
as a symboI oI our Independence. Gen. EmIIIo
AguInaIdo was eIected tbe IIrst PresIdent oI tbe
PbIIIppIne RepubIIc but tbIs was sbort-IIved.
Tbe II.-AmerIcan was resuIted In tbe deIeat oI
Gen. MIgueI MaIvar In 1903.
Tbe peace movements started as earIy as 1900.
Many IIIpInos started wrItIng agaIn and tbe
natIonaIIsm oI tbe peopIe remaIned undaunted.
IIIpIno wrIters went Into aII Iorms oI
IIterature IIke news, reportIng, poetry,
storIes, pIays, essays, and noveIs. TbeIr
wrItIngs cIearIy depIcted tbeIr Iove oI
country and tbeIr IongIngs Ior Independence.
Tbe actIve arousaI In tbe IIeId oI IIterature
started to be IeIt In tbe IoIIowIng
newspapers.
1. EL NUEVO IA (Tbe New ay).
EstabIIsbed by SergIo Osmena In 1900. Tbe
AmerIcan censors twIce banned tbIs and
tbreatened Osmena wItb banIsbment because
oI bIs natIonaIIstIc wrItIngs.
2. EL GRITO EL PUEBLO (Tbe CaII oI tbe
NatIon). EstabIIsbed by PascuaI PobIete In
1900.
3. EL RENACIMIENTO (Tbe RebIrtb). ounded
by RaIaeI PaIma In 1901.
Tbere were aIso pIays wrItten tben but aIter tbe
IIrst and second presentatIons, tbe AmerIcans
put a stop to tbIs because oI tbe consIstent
tbeme oI natIonaIIsm. IncIuded bere were tbe
IoIIowIng:
1. KAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS (Yesterday,
Today and Tomorrow).
WrItten by AureIIo ToIentIno depIctIng tbe
suppressIon done by tbe AmerIcans and tbeIr
pIan to coIonIze tbe PbIIIppInes.
2. TANIKALANG GINTO oI Juan Abad.
3. MALAYA by Tomas RemIgIo.
4. WALANG SUGAT by SeverIno Reyes.
A. CbaracterIstIcs oI LIterature durIng TbIs
PerIod
Tbree groups oI wrIters contrIbuted to
PbIIIppIne LIterature durIng tbIs perIod.
urIng tbe IIrst year oI tbe AmerIcan perIod, tbe
Ianguages used In wrItIng were SpanIsb and
TagaIog and tbe dIaIects oI tbe dIIIerent regIons,
but SpanIsb and TagaIog predomInated.
In 1910, a new group started to wrIte In EngIIsb.
Hence, SpanIsb, TagaIog, tbe VernacuIars and
IInaIIy, EngIIsb, were tbe medIums used In
IIterature durIng tbese tImes. WbIIe tbe tbree
groups were one In tbeIr Ideas and spIrIt, tbey
dIIIered In tbeIr metbods oI reportIng. Tbe
wrIters In SpanIsb were wont to wrIte on
natIonaIIsm IIke bonorIng RIzaI and otber
beroes.
Tbe wrIters In TagaIog contInued In tbeIr
IamentatIons on tbe condItIons oI tbe
country and tbeIr attempts to arouse Iove Ior
one's natIve tongue. Tbe wrIters In EngIIsb
ImItated tbe tbemes and metbods oI tbe
AmerIcans.
A. LIterature In SpanIsb
Tbe InspIratIon oI our IIIpIno wrIters In
SpanIsb was RIzaI not onIy because oI bIs
beIng a natIonaI Ieader but aIso because oI
bIs noveIs NOLI and ILI. Tbese two noveIs
contaIned tbe best quaIItIes oI a noveI ever
wrItten, In EngIIsb or In IIIpIno. Tbose wbo
were InspIred to wrIte In praIse oI bIm were
CecIIIo ApostoI, ernando Ma. Guerrero,
Jesus BaImorI, ManueI Bernabe and CIaro M.
Recto.
CECILIO APOSTOL
CecIIIo ApostoI wrote poems dedIcated to RIzaI,
JacInto, MabInI and aII otber beroes but bIs poem
dedIcated to RIzaI Is consIdered tbe best poem In
praIse oI tbe bero oI Bagumbayan.
ERNANO MA. GUERRERO
It Is beIIeved tbat ernando Ma. Guerrero sbared
wItb ApostoI tbe reIgn In tbe baIagtasan In
SpanIsb durIng tbeIr tIme.
He aIso dedIcated a poem to RIzaI but be
coIIected tbe best oI bIs poems In a book caIIed
CRISALIAS, meanIng, a kInd oI bIack, wooIy
caterpIIIar. Here are a Iew stanzas oI bIs caII to
RIzaI wbIcb be wrote on June 19, 1901 to
commemorate RIzaI's bIrtbday.
JESUS BALMORI
Jesus BaImorI Is weII-known Ior bIs pen name
oI BatIkuIIng. He and ManueI Bernabe
partIcIpated In a debate on tbe topIc -
(Remembrance and orgetIuIness). He was
eIected Poet Laureate In SpanIsb bestIng
ManueI Bernabe.
MANUEL BERNABE
ManueI Bernabe Is a IyrIc poet and tbe
IIerceness oI bIs natIonaIIstIc spIrIt was
uncbanged In any topIc be wrote about.
In bIs debate wItb BaImorI, be was more
attractIve to tbe pubIIc because oI tbe
modIous words be used. He deIended
OLVIO (orgetIuIness).
CLARO M. RECTO
In nobIIIty oI speecb and tbeme, CIaro M.
Recto can compare wItb tbe otber wrIters oI
SpanIsb. He coIIected bIs poems In a book
entItIed BAJO LOS COCOTEROS (Under Tbe
Coconut Trees).
Otber WrIters In SpanIsb
1. AdeIIna Guerrea was tbe IIrst woman poet
In tbe PbIIIppInes wbo was good In SpanIsb.
Sbe obtaIned tbe 2obeI prIze In ber song £1
N1do. (Tbe Nest).
2. IsIdro MarporI became Iamous Ior bIs Iour
books entItIed Aromos de £nsueno (Scents oI
reams).
3. MacarIo AdrIatIco wrote oI a Iegend oI
MIndoro entItIe Lo Pun1o de So11o (Tbe PIace
oI OrIgIn).
4. EpIIanIo de Ios Santos (known as on
PAnyong). He was a good Ieader and bIograpber
durIng tbe wboIe perIod oI SpanIsb IIterature.
S. Pedro AunarIo wrote tbe Deoo1ogo de1
Pro1eoo1on1smo.
B. IIIpIno LIterature
FLORANT£ AT LAURA o] Frono1soo Bo1og1os
ond URBANA AT F£L1SA o] Modes1o de Cos1ro
beoome 1Þe 1nsp1ro11on o] 1Þe Togo1og ur11ers.
Ju11on Cruz Bo1mooedo o1oss1]1ed 1Þree K1nds
o] Togo1og poe1s: TÞeg uere:
1. Poe1 o] 1Þe Heor1 (Makata ng Puso). Tbese
IncIuded Lope K. Santos, InIgo Ed. RegaIado,
CarIos GatmaItan, Pedro eogracIas deI RosarIo,
IIdeIonso Santos, Amado V. Hernandez, NemecIo
Carabana, and Mar AntonIo.
2. Poe1s o] L1]e (Makata ng Bubay). Led by Lope
K Santos, Jose Corazon de Jesus, IorentIno
CoIIantes, PatrIcIo MarIano, CarIos GarmaItan,
and Amado V. Hernandez.
3. Poe1s o] 1Þe S1oge (Makata ng TangbaIan).
Led by AureIIo ToIentIno, PatrIcIo MarIano,
SeverIno Reyes, and Tomas RemIgIo.
In tbe reaIm oI sbort storIes tbat started to
appear In tbe coIumn Pongsondo11ong
L1bongon (Sbort-tIme LeIsure) and Dog11
(ast) we IInd bere tbe names oI Lope K.
Santos, PatrIcIo MarIano, and Rosauro
AImarIo. In tbe LIwayway PubIIcatIons, we
IInd eogracIas RosarIo, Teodoro Gener, and
CIrIo H. PanganIban.
Noted noveIIsts or bIograpbers were
VaIerIano Hernandez Pena, Lope K. Santos,
InIgo Ed. RegaIado, austIno AguIIar, etc.
Here are tbe autobIograpbIes oI some oI tbe
wrIters mentIoned:
LOPE K. SANTOS
Lope K. Santos, a noveIIst, poet and autbor,
and grammarIan covered tbree perIods oI
TagaIog IIterature - AmerIcan, Japanese and tbe
contemporary perIod. II ManueI L. Quezon Is
caIIed tbe atber oI tbe NatIonaI Language,
Lope K. Santos Is caIIed tbe atber oI tbe
NatIonaI Language Grammar. He was aIso
caIIed tbe ºApo" oI tbe TagaIog wrIters.
BANAAG AT SIKAT was bIs masterpIece.
JOSE CORA2ON E JESUS
Jose Corazon de Jesus Is very popuIarIy known
as Huseng Batute. He was aIso caIIed tbe Poet
oI Love In bIs tIme. ANG ISANG PUNONG
KAHOY (A TREE), an eIegy, Is beIIeved to be bIs
masterpIece.
AMAO V. HERNANE2
Amado V. Hernandez was dubbed Makata ng
mga Manggagawa (Poet oI tbe Laborers) In
our IIterature because be pIctures In bIs
poem tbe Intense Iove Ior tbe poor worker or
Iaborer. To bIm, a poem Is a scent,
bIttersweet memorIes, and a murmur oI
IIowIng water. Tbe pen Is powerIuI and
accordIng to bIm, even a kIng can be bent by
tbe pen.
He contrIbuted a Iot oI wrItIngs to IIterature
IIke ISANG IPANG LANGIT (A Stretcb oI
Heaven), BAYANG MALAYA (A ree NatIon),
ANG PANAY (Tbe BIakcsmItb), and MUNTING
LUPA (A SmaII PIot), but bIs masterpIece Is ANG
PANAY.
VALERIANO HERNANE2 PEÑA
Togetber wItb Lope K. Santos be reacbed tbe
summIt oI bIs noveI-wrItIng. He was known as
Tandang Anong and bIs pen name was KuntII
ButII (SmaII GraIn). He consIders NENA AT
NENENG bIs masterpIece.
IÑIGO E. REGALAO
InIgo Ed. RegaIado was a son oI a popuIar
wrIter durIng tbe SpanIsb tIme known as
OdaIger. He proved tbat be not onIy IoIIowed
tbe Iootsteps oI bIs Iatber but aIso reacbed
tbe peak oI bIs success by tbe ºsumpong"
(wbIm) oI bIs pen. He aIso became a popuIar
story-teIIer, noveIIst and newspaperman.
Tbe TagaIog rama
urIng tbe advent oI tbe AmerIcan perIod,
SeverIno Reyes and Hermogenes IIagan
started tbe movement agaInst tbe moro-
moro ( a pIay on tbe SpanIsb struggIes
agaInst tbe MusIIms) and struggIed to sbow
tbe peopIe tbe vaIues one can get Irom tbe
zarzueIa and tbe sImpIe pIays.
Tbe peopIe one sbouId not Iorget In tbe IIeId oI
wrItIng are tbe IoIIowIng:
1. SeverIno Reyes. atber oI tbe TagaIog
drama and autbor oI tbe ImmortaI WALANG
SUGAT.
2. AureIIo ToIentIno. Tbe dramatIst In wbom
tbe Kapampangans take prIde. IncIuded In bIs
wrItIngs were LUHANG TAGALOG, bIs
masterpIece, and KAHAPON, NGAYONG AT
BUKAS tbat resuIted In bIs IncarceratIon.
3. Hermogenes IIagan. ounded tbe group
Campana IIagan tbat presented many dramas In
CentraI Luzon.
4. PatrIcIo MarIano. Wrote tbe noveI NINAY
and ANAK NG AGAT (Son oI tbe Sea), bIs
masterpIece.
S. JuIIan Cruz BaImaceda. Wrote BUNGANGA
NG PATING (Sbark's Moutb). TbIs gave bIm
mucb bonor and Iame.
Tbe TagaIog Sbort Story
Two coIIectIons oI TagaIog storIes were
pubIIsbed durIng tbe AmerIcan PerIod. Irst
was tbe MGA KUWENTONG GINTO (GoIden
StorIes) pubIIsbed In 1936 and %) KUWENTONG
GINTO ng S0 BATIKANG KUWENTISTA (S0
GoIden StorIes by S0 Noted StoryteIIers) In
1939. Tbe IIrst was wrItten by AIejandro
AbadIIIa and CIoduaIdo deI Mundo tbat
contaIned tbe 2S best storIes accordIng to
tbem.
Tbe second was wrItten by PedrIto Reyes.
PAROLANG GINTO (GoIden Lantern) and
TALAANG BUGHAW (BIue LIst) oI AbadIIIa
became popuIar durIng tbIs perIod.
TagaIog Poetry
AImost aII TagaIog wrIters durIng tbe
AmerIcan PerIod were abIe to compose
beautIIuI poems wbIcb made It dIIIIcuIt to
seIect tbe best. Even II poetry wrItIng Is as
oId as bIstory, poetry stIII surIaces wItb Its
sweetness, beauty, and meIody.
Otber orms oI LIterature
Tbe IoIIowIng are tbose recognIzed In tbe IIeId
oI IIocano LIterature:
1. Pedro Bukaneg. atber oI IIocano
LIterature. rom bIs name was derIved tbe
word Bukanegan, wbIcb means BaIagtasan (a
poetIc contest) In IIocano.
2. CIaro CaIuya. PrInce oI IIocano Poets.
Known as poet and noveIIst.
3. Leon PIcbay. Known as tbe best
Bukanegero (Irom Bukaneg). AIso a poet,
noveIIst, sbort story wrIter, dramatIst and
essayIst.
LIterature oI tbe Kapampangans
(Pampango LIterature)
Two staIwarts In tbe IIterature oI tbe
Kapampangans stand out: tbey are:
1. Juan CrIsostomo Soto. (atber oI
Kapampangan LIterature). Tbe word
CRISOTAN (meanIng BaIagtasan) In TagaIog
Is taken Irom bIs name.
2. AureIIo ToIentIno. He truIy proved bIs
beIng a Kaampangan In bIs transIatIon oI
KAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS Into
Kapampangan wbIcb be caIIed NAPON,
NGENI AT BUKAS.
VIsayan LIterature
Tbe IoIIowIng are tbe top men In VIsayan
IIterature:
1. ErIberto Gumban. (atber oI VIsayan
LIterature). He wrote a zarzueIa, moro-moro
and a pIay In VIsayan.
2. MagdaIena JaIandonI. Sbe devoted ber
taIent to tbe noveI. Sbe wrote ANG MGA
TUNUK SAN ISA CA BULACLAC.
C. PbIIIppIne LIterature In EngIIsb
In a way, we can say tbat we can trace tbe
begInnIngs oI PbIIIppIne IIterature In EngIIsb
wItb tbe comIng oI tbe AmerIcans. or tbIs
purpose, we can dIvIde tbIs perIod Into tbree
tIme Irames, nameIy:
1. Tbe PerIod oI Re-orIentatIon: 1S9S-1910
2. Tbe PerIod oI ImItatIon: 1910-192S
3. Tbe PerIod oI SeII-Iscovery: 192S-1941
(1) Tbe PerIod oI Re-orIentatIon (1S9S-1910)
EngIIsb as a IIterary vebIcIe came wItb tbe
AmerIcan occupatIon In August 13, 1S9S and as
tbey say, a cboIce bestowed on us by bIstory.
By 1900, EngIIsb came to be used as a medIum
oI InstructIon In tbe pubIIc scbooIs. rom tbe
AmerIcan Iorces were recruIted tbe IIrst
teacbers oI EngIIsb.
By 190S, tbe prImary and IntermedIate grades
were usIng EngIIsb. It was aIso about tbIs tIme
wben UP, tbe Iorerunner In tbe use oI EngIIsb
In bIgber educatIon, was Iounded.
WrIters oI tbIs perIod were stIII adjustIng to
tbe newIound Ireedom aIter tbe paraIyzIng
eIIect oI repressIon oI tbougbt and speecb
under tbe SpanIsb regIme. Tbey were
adjustIng tbe Idea oI democracy, to tbe new
pbraseoIogy oI tbe EngIIsb Ianguage and to
tbe standards oI tbe EngIIsb IIterary styIe
WrIters bad to Iearn dIrect expressIon as
condItIoned by dIrect tbInkIng. Tbey bad to
Iearn tbat sentence constructIons; sounds
and speecb In EngIIsb were not tbe same as
In tbe vernacuIar. Tbey bad to dIscard
sentImentaIIty and IIorIdIty oI Ianguage Ior
tbe more dIrect and precIse EngIIsb
Ianguage.
Not mucb was produced durIng tbIs perIod and
wbat IIterature was produced was not mucb oI
IIterary wortb. Tbe IIrst attempts In EngIIsb
were In two perIodIcaIs oI tbIs tIme:
(a) £1 Renoo1m1en1o: Iounded In ManIIa by
RaIaeI PaIma In 1901.
(b) PÞ111pp1nes Free Press: estabIIsbed In
ManIIa In 190S by R. McCuIIougb Ick and .
Tbeo Rogers.
POETRY
In 190?, Justo JuIIano's SURSUM CORA
wbIcb appeared In tbe RenacImIento was tbe
IIrst work to be pubIIsbed In EngIIsb.
In 1909, Jan . SaIazar's MY MOTHER and
bIs AIR CASTLES were aIso pubIIsbed In tbIs
paper.
It was aIso In 1909 wben Proceso SebastIan
IoIIowed wItb bIs poem TO MY LAY IN
LAOAG, aIso In tbIs same paper.
(2) Tbe PerIod oI ImItatIon (1910-1924)
By 1919, tbe UP CoIIege oIIo pubIIsbed tbe
IIterary composItIons oI tbe IIrst IIIpIno
wrIters In EngIIsb. Tbey were tbe pIoneers
In sbort story wrItIng.
Tbey were tben gropIng tbeIr way Into
ImItatIng AmerIcan and BrItIsb modeIs wbIcb
resuIted In a stIIted, artIIIcIaI and unnaturaI
styIe, IackIng vItaIIty and spontaneIty. TbeIr
modeIs IncIuded LongIeIIow and Hawtborne,
Emerson and Tboreau, Wordswortb and
Tennyson, Tbackeray and MacauIay,
LongIeIIow, AIIan Poe, IrvIng and otber
AmerIcan wrIters oI tbe RomantIc ScbooI.
WrIters oI tbIs IoIIo IncIuded ernando
Maramag (tbe best edItorIaI wrIter oI tbIs
perIod) Juan . SaIazar, Jose M. Hernandez,
VIcente deI Ierro,
and rancIsco M. AIrIca and VIctorIano
Yamzon. Tbey pIoneered In EngIIsb poetry.
ESSAYS
Tbe noted essayIsts oI tbIs tIme were: CarIos
P. RomuIo, Jorge C. Bocobo, Mauro Mendez,
and VIcente HIIarIo.
TbeIr essays were truIy scboIarIy
cbaracterIzed by sobrIety, substance and
structure. Tbey exceIIed In tbe serIous
essay, especIaIIy tbe edItorIaI type.
Tbe next group oI wrIters Introduced tbe
InIormaI essay, crItIcIsm and tbe journaIIstIc
coIumn. Tbey spIced tbeIr work wItb bumor,
wIt and satIre. Tbese group IncIuded IgnacIo
ManIapaz, GodeIredo RIvera, ederIco
Mangabas, rancIsco B. IcasIano, SaIvador P.
Lopez, Jose Lansang and Amando G. ayrIt.
SHORT STORIES
In tbe IIeId oI sbort storIes, EA STARS by
Paz Marquez BenItez wrItten In tbe earIy 1920's
stand out as a modeI oI perIectIon In cbaracter
deIIneatIon, IocaI coIor, pIot and message.
Otber sbort storIes pubIIsbed durIng tbIs tIme
were but poor ImItatIons oI tbeIr IoreIgn
modeIs.
Tbe UP CoIIege oIIo was Iater repIaced by
tbe PbIIIppIne CoIIegIan. Newspapers and
perIodIcaIs aIso saw prInt durIng tbIs tIme
IIke tbe Bu11e11n, 1Þe PÞ111pp1nes Hero1d
(J92D), 1Þe PÞ111pp1ne Rev1eu, 1Þe
1ndependen1, R1s1ng PÞ111pp1nes ond
C111zens, and tbe PÞ111pp1ne £duoo11on
Mogoz1ne J924.
. PerIod oI SeII-Iscovery and Growtb
(192S-1941)
By tbIs tIme, IIIpIno wrIters bad acquIred
tbe mastery oI EngIIsb wrItIng. Tbey now
conIIdentIy and competentIy wrote on a Iot
oI subjects aItbougb tbe oId-tIme IavorItes oI
Iove and youtb persIsted. Tbey went Into aII
Iorms oI wrItIng IIke tbe noveI and tbe
drama.
1. POETRY
Notewortby names In tbIs IIeId IncIude MarceIo
de GracIa ConcepcIon, Jose GarcIa VIIIa, AngeIa
ManaIang GIorIa, AbeIardo SubIdo, TrInIdad
Tarrosa SubIdo and RaIaeI 2uIueta da Costa.
Tbey turned our not onIy Iove poems but
patrIotIc, reIIgIous, descrIptIve and reIIectIve
poems as weII. Tbey wrote In Iree verse, In
odes and sonnets and In otber types. Poetry
was orIgInaI, spontaneous, competentIy wrItten
and Iater, Incorporated socIaI conscIousness.
2. THE SHORT STORY (192S-1941)
ProbabIy because oI tbe IncentIves provIded by
pubIIcatIons IIke tbe PÞ111pp1ne Free Press, TÞe
GropÞ1o, TÞe PÞ111pp1ne Mogoz1ne and coIIege
pubIIcatIons IIke tbe UP L11erorg Appren11oe,
poetry and tbe sbort story IIourIsbed durIng
tbese tImes.
Otber wrIters durIng tbIs tIme IncIude
Osmundo Sta. Romana, Arturo Rotor, Paz
Latorena's Sunset, and Jose GarcIa VIIIa's MIr-
In-Isa. rom 1930 to 1940, tbe GoIden Era oI
IIIpIno wrItIng In EngIIsb saw tbe sbort story
wrIters ºwbo bave arrIved," IIke Jose
Lansang's TÞe BroKen Poroso1, SInaI C.
Hamada's To1ono1o's W1]e, austo ugenIo's
Wonder1us1, Amando G. ayrIt's H1s G1]1 ond
Yes1erdog, Amador T. augIo's TÞe Womon
WÞo LooKed Ou1 o] 1Þe W1ndou.
CbaracterIstIcs oI tbe sbort storIes durIng
tbese tImes:
Tbere were stIII remnants oI SpanIsb InIIuence
In tbe use oI expressIons tbat were IIorId,
sentImentaI, exaggerated and bombastIc. Tbe
InIIuence oI tbe Western cuIture aIso was
aIready evIdent.
3. ESSAYS AN OTHER PROSE STYLES
(192S-1941)
Essays durIng tbIs perIod Improved wItb tbe
years In quaIIty and quantIty, In content,
subject and styIe. EssayIsts IIke CarIos P.
RomuIo became even more emInent edItorIaI
wrIters.
Tbe notabIe wrIters oI essays durIng tbIs
perIod were:
a. PoIItIcaI, socIaI reIIectIve essays: Tbrougb
tbeIr newspaper coIumns tbe IoIIowIng
became very popuIar: ederIco Mangabas,
SaIvador P. Lopez, Pura S. Castrence, VIcente
AIbano PacIs, ArIston Estrada and Jose A.
Lansang.
b. CrItIcaI essays were espoused by SaIvador
P. Lopez, I.V. MaIIarI, IgnacIo ManIapaz, Jose
GarcIa VIIIa, Arturo B. Rotor, and LeopoIdo Y.
Yabes. An exampIe oI tbIs Is MaxImo V.
SoIIven's THEY CALLE IT BROTHERHOO.
c. PersonaI or amIIIar essays were wrItten
by .B. IcasIano (Mang KIko), AIIredo E.
LItIatco, SoIomon V. ArnaIdo, Amando G.
ayrIt and ConsueIo Gar (Catuca).
Some oI tbe notabIe works durIng tbIs tIme
were:
1940:SaIvador P. Lopez' LITERATURE AN
SOCIETY wbIcb Is a coIIectIon oI crItIcaI
reIIectIons and serIous essays and wbIcb won
IIrst prIze In tbe CommonweaItb LIterary
Contest oI 1940.
1940:CamIIo OsIas pubIIsbed THE ILIPINO
WAY O LIE, a serIes oI essays on tbe IIIpIno
way oI IIIe as drawn Irom bIstory, IoIkways,
pbIIosopby and psycboIogy oI tbe PbIIIppInes.
1941: .B. IcasIano (Mang KIko) was
reprInts oI tbe best oI IcasIano's essays In
tbe Sundog T1mes Mogoz1ne under tbe
coIumn rom Mg N1po Hu1. It Is an essay oI
tbe common ºtao" and Is wrItten wItb bumor
and sympatby.
August 16, 1941: CarIos P. RomuIo bad an
edItorIaI prInted In tbe PÞ111pp1nes Hero1d.
EntItIed 1 AM A F1L1P1NO, It was reprInted In
bIs book MY BORTH£R AM£R1CANS In 194S
In New York by oubIeday & Co.
OTHER ESSAYISTS INCLUE:
IgnacIo ManIapaz, VIcente AIbano PacIs, I.V.
MaIIarI, Jose M. ernandez, LeopoIdo Y.
Yabes, IsIdro L. RItIzos, Pura SantIIIan.
Tbe PbIIIppIne WrIter's League put out a
coIIectIon oI essays caIIed L11ero1ure Under 1Þe
Commonueo11Þ.
Amando G. ayrIt wItb bIs coIumn Good
Morn1ng Judge Ied otbers IIke Leon Ma.
Guerrero, SaIvador P. Lopez, VIcente AIbano
PacIs, Jose A. Lansang and ederIco Mangabas.
4. BIOGRAPHY 192S-1941
In 193S, I.P. CabaIIero and MarceIo de GracIa
ConcepcIon wrote about QU£2ON.
In 193S, TH£ GR£AT MALAYAN won a prIze In
tbe natIonaI contest sponsored by tbe
CommonweaItb oI tbe PbIIIppInes. TbIs was
wrItten by CarIos QuIrIno, tbe most Iamous
bIograpber oI tbe perIod. He aIso wrote
Quezon, 1Þe Mon o] Des11ng.
In 1940, I.V. MaIIarI's TÞe B1r1Þ o] D1soon1en1
reveaIed tbe sensItIve toucb oI a wrIter wbo In
sImpIe Ianguage was abIe to reveaI bIs proIound
tbougbts and IeeIIngs.
S. HISTORY
Not mucb about bIstory bas been wrItten by
IIIpIno wrIters. In 193?, wItb regard to
IIterary bIstory, we can cIte TeoIIIo deI
CastIIIo's TÞe Br1e] H1s1org o] 1Þe PÞ111pp1ne
1s1onds.
6. PUBLICATIONS
Tbe PÞ111pp1ne Free Press provIded tbe IIrst
IncentIves to IIIpIno wrIters In EngIIsb by
oIIerIng prIzes to wortbwbIIe contrIbutIons.
Otber pubIIcatIons IoIIowed suIt.
?. THE RAMA (192S-1941)
rama durIng tbIs perIod dId not reacb tbe
beIgbts attaIned by tbe noveI or tbe sbort
story. Tbe UP provIded tbe IncentIves wben
tbey Introduced pIaywrItIng as a course and
estabIIsbed tbe UP LIttIe Tbeater.
ExercIses
1 Tbe PbIIIppIne IIag was boIsted on _______
as a symboI oI our Independence.
2. Tbe peace movement started as earIy as
_______.
3. WrItten by AureIIo ToIentIno depIctIng tbe
suppressIon done by tbe AmerIcans and
tbeIr pIan to coIonIze In tbe PbIIIppInes.
4. Wby RIzaI became tbe InspIratIon oI tbe
IIIpIno wrIters.
S. A book oI ernando Ma. Guerrero wbIcb
means kInd oI bIack, wooIy caterpIIIar
6. Tbe IIrst woman poet In tbe PbIIIppInes
wbo was good In SpanIsb
?. Tbe atber oI tbe NatIonaI Language
Grammar.
S. AccordIng to ________ even a kIng can be
sent by tbe pen.
9. A son oI a popuIar wrIter durIng tbe
SpanIsb tIme known as OdaIager
10. Tbe atber oI Kapampangan LIterature
11. HIs name derIved Irom tbe word Bukanegan
12. In wbat year dId EngIIsb become a medIum
oI InstructIons In tbe pubIIc scbooIs.
13. Tbe IIrst to break away Irom tbe
conventIonaI Iorms and tbemes oI
PbIIIppIne poetry pIaced tbe PbIIIppInes on
tbe LIterary map wItb tbe pubIIcatIon oI
bIs books In tbe U.S.
14-1S TbeIr essays were truIy scboIarIy
cbaracterIzed by sobrIety, substance and
structure
¦||'cr c
1¦c )|||nc·c lcr:od (!9=!-
!9=5)
HIstorIcaI Background
Between 1941-194S, PbIIIppIne LIterature was
Interrupted In Its deveIopment wben tbe
PbIIIppInes was agaIn conquered by anotber
IoreIgn country, Japan. PbIIIppIne IIterature In
EngIIsb came to a baIt. Except Ior tbe
TRIBUNE and tbe PHILIPPINE REVIEW, aImost
aII newspapers In EngIIsb were stopped by tbe
Japanese.
TbIs bad an advantageous eIIect on IIIpIno
LIterature, wbIcb experIenced renewed
attentIon because wrIters In EngIIsb turned to
wrItIng In IIIpIno. Juan Laya, wbo use to wrIte
In EngIIsb turned to IIIpIno because oI tbe
strIct probIbItIons oI tbe Japanese regardIng
any wrItIng In EngIIsb.
Tbe weekIy LIWAYWAY was pIaced under
strIct surveIIIance untII It was managed by
Japanese named IsbIwara.
In otber words, IIIpIno IIterature was gIven
a break durIng tbIs perIod. Many wrote pIays,
poems, sbort storIes, etc. TopIcs and tbemes
were oIten about IIIe In tbe provInces.
A. ILIPINO POETRY URING THIS PERIO
Tbe common tbeme oI most poems durIng
tbe Japanese occupatIon was natIonaIIsm,
country, Iove, and IIIe In tbe barrIos, IaItb,
reIIgIon and tbe arts.
Tbree types oI poems emerged durIng tbIs
perIod. Tbey were:
1. HaIku - a poem oI Iree verse tbat tbe
Japanese IIke. It was made up oI 1? syIIabIes
dIvIded Into tbree IInes. Tbe IIrst IIne bad S
syIIabIes, tbe second, ? syIIabIes, and tbe tbIrd,
IIve. Tbe HaIku Is aIIegorIcaI In meanIng, Is
sbort and covers a wIde scope In meanIng.
2. Tanaga - IIke tbe HaIku, Is sbort but It bad
measure and rbyme. Eacb IIne bad 1? syIIabIes
and It's aIso aIIegorIcaI In meanIng.
3. KaranIwang Anyo (UsuaI orm) - IIke tbose
mentIoned earIIer In tbe begInnIng cbapters oI
tbIs book.
B. ILIPINO RAMA URING THE JAPANESE
PERIO
Tbe drama experIenced a IuII durIng tbe
Japanese perIod because movIe bouses sbowIng
AmerIcan IIIms were cIosed. Tbe bIg movIe
bouses were just made to sbow stage sbows.
Many oI tbe pIays were reproductIons oI
EngIIsb pIays to TagaIog. Tbe transIators were
rancIsco Soc RodrIgo, AIberto ConcIo, and
NarcIso PImenteI. Tbey aIso Iounded tbe
organIzatIon oI IIIpIno pIayers named
ramatIc PbIIIppInes. A Iew oI pIaywrIters
were:
1. Jose Ma. Hernandez - wrote PANAY PIRA
2. rancIsco Soc RodrIgo - wrote sa PULA, SA
PUTI
3. CIoduaIdo deI Mundo - wrote BULAGA (an
expressIon In tbe game HIde and Seek).
4. JuIIan Cruz BaImaceda - wrote SINO BA
KAYO?, AHIL SA ANAK, and HIGANTE NG
PATAY.
C. THE ILIPINO SHORT STORY URING
THE JAPANESE PERIO
Tbe IIeId oI tbe sbort story wIdened durIng
tbe Japanese OccupatIon. Many wrote sbort
storIes. Among tbem were: BrIgIdo
BatungbakaI, MacarIo PIneda, SeraIIn
GuInIgIndo, LIwayway Arceo, NarcIso Ramos,
NVM GonzaIes, AIIcIa Lopez LIm, LIgaya
Perez, and GIorIa Guzman.
Tbe best wrItIngs In 194S were seIected by a
group oI judges composed oI rancIsco
IcasIano, Jose Esperanza Cruz, AntonIo
RosaIes, CIoduaIdo deI Mundo and Teodoro
Santos. As a resuIt oI tbIs seIectIon, tbe
IoIIowIng got tbe IIrst tbree prIzes:
Irst PrIze: NarcIso Reyes wItb bIs
LUPANG TINUBUAN
Second PrIze: LIwayway Arceo's UHAW ANG
TIGANG NA LUPA
TbIrd PrIze: NVM GonzaIes' LUNSO
NAYON AT AGAT-AGATAN
. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
(1941-194S)
Because oI tbe strIct probIbItIons Imposed b
tbe Japanese In tbe wrItIng and pubIIsbIng oI
works In EngIIsb, PbIIIppIne IIterature In
EngIIsb experIenced a dark perIod. Tbe Iew
wbo dared to wrIte dId so Ior tbeIr bread and
butter or Ior propaganda.
WrItIngs tbat came out durIng tbIs perIod were
journaIIstIc In nature. WrIters IeIt suppressed
but sIowIy, tbe spIrIt oI natIonaIIsm started to
seep Into tbeIr conscIousness. WbIIe some
contInued to wrIte, tbe majorIty waIted Ior a
better cIImate to pubIIsb tbeIr works.
Notewortby wrIter oI tbe perIod was CarIos P.
RomuIo wbo won tbe PuIItzer PrIze Ior bIs
bestseIIers 1 SAW TH£ FALL OF TH£
PH1L1PP1N£S, 1 S££ TH£ PH1L1PP1N£S R1S£ and
bIs MOTH£R AM£R1CA AND MY BROTH£R
AM£R1CANS.
JournaIIsts IncIude SaIvador P. Lopez, Leon Ma.
Geurrero, RauI MangIapuz and CarIos BuIosan.
NIck JoaquIn produced TH£ WOMAN WHO
LOOR£D L1R£ LA2ARUS. red RuIz Castro
wrote a Iew poems.
.B. IcasIno wrote essays In TÞe PÞ111pp1ne
Rev1eu.
CarIos BuIosan's works IncIuded TH£
LAUGHT£R OF MY FATH£R (J944), TH£
VO1C£ OF BATAAN, J94S, S1X F1L1P1NO
PO£TS, J942, among otbers. AIIredo
LItIatco pubIIsbed W11Þ Horp ond S11ng and
In 1943, Jose P. LaureI pubIIsbed Foroes 1Þo1
MoKe o No11on Greo1.
Tbe CommonweaItb LIterary Awards gave
prIzes to merItorIous wrIters. Tbose wbo
won were:
1. LIKE THE MOLAVE - by RaIaeI 2uIueta
da Costa (Poetry)
2. HOW MY BROTHER LEON BROUGTH
HOME A WIE - by ManueI E. ArguIIIa (Sbort
Story)
3. LITERATURE AN SOCIETY - by SaIvador P.
Lopez (Essay)
4. HIS NATIVE SOIL - by Juan Laya (NoveI)
PresIdent ManueI L. Quezon's autobIograpby
TH£ GOOD F1GHT was pubIIsbed postbumousIy.
RadIo broadcasts ecboed tbe mIngIed Iear and
doubts In tbe bearts oI tbe peopIe.
Otber wrIters oI tbIs perIod were Juan CoIIas
(19440, Tomas ConIesor (194S), Roman A. de Ia
Cruz and EIIsa Tabunar.
ExercIses
1-2. AImost aII newspapers In EngIIsb were
topped by tbe Japanese except Ior tbIs two
3. It Is made up oI 1? syIIabIes dIvIded Into
3 IInes. Tbe IIrst IIne bad S syIIabIes, tbe
second, ? syIIabIes and tbe tbIrd , S.
4. LIke HaIku, Is sbort but It bad measure and
rbyme
S. He won tbe PuIItzer PrIze Ior bIs bestseIIers
I SAW THE ALL O THE PHILIPPINES, I
SEE THE PHILIPPINE RISE and HIS
MOTHER AMERICA and MY BROTHER
AMERICANS.
6. Tbe tItIe oI PresIdent ManueI L. Quezon's
autobIograpby
?-10. Common tbemes oI most poems durIng
tbe SpanIsb OccupatIon.
¦||'cr ?
1¦c kc¦:r'¦ oí lrccdo: (!9=c-
!9?O)
HIstorIcaI Background
Tbe AmerIcans returned In 194S. IIIpInos
rejoIced and guerIIIas wbo IIed to tbe mountaIn
joIned tbe IIberatIng AmerIcan Army.
On JuIy 4, 1946, tbe PbIIIppInes regaIned Is
Ireedom and tbe IIIpIno IIag waved joyousIy
aIone. Tbe cbaIns were broken.
A. THE STATE O LITERATURE URING THIS
PERIO
Tbe earIy post-IIberatIon perIod was marked by
a kInd oI ºstruggIe oI mInd and spIrIt" posed by
tbe sudden emancIpatIon Irom tbe enemy, and
tbe wIId desIre to see prInt.
IIIpInos bad, by tbIs tIme, Iearned to
express tbemseIves more conIIdentIy but
post-war probIems beyond Ianguage and
prInt-IIke economIc stabIIIty, tbe tbreat oI
new Ideas and mortaIIty - bad to be grappIed
wItb sIde by sIde.
Tbere was a proIIIeratIon oI newspapers IIke
tbe FR££ PR£SS, MORN1NG SUN, oI SergIo
Osmena Sr., DA1LY M1RROR oI JoaquIn
Roces, £V£N1NG N£WS oI Ramon Lopezes
and tbe BULLETIN oI MenzI. TbIs onIy
proved tbat tbere were more readers In
EngIIsb tban In any ocber vernacuIars IIke
TagaIog, IIocano or HIIIgaynon.
JournaIIsts bad tbeIr day. Tbey InduIged In
more mIIItant attItude In tbeIr reportIng wbIcb
bordered on tbe IIbeIous. GraduaIIy, as
normaIIty was restored, tbe tones and tbemes oI
tbe wrItIngs turned to tbe Iess pressIng
probIems oI economIc survIvaI.
Some IIIpIno wrIters wbo bad gone abroad and
bad wrItten durIng tbe InterIms came back to
pubIIsb tbeIr works.
Not aII tbe books pubIIsbed durIng tbe perIod
reIIected tbe war year; some were compIIatIons
or second edItIons oI wbat bave been wrItten
beIore.
Some oI tbe wrIters and tbeIr works oI tbe
perIods are:
TH£ VO1C£ OF TH£ V£T£RAN - a compIIatIon oI
tbe best works oI some Ex-USAE men IIke
Amante BIgornIa, Roman de Ia Cruz, Ramon de
Jesus and J.. RodrIguez.
TW1L1GHT 1N TORYO and PASS1ON and D£ATH
OF TH£ USAFF£ by Leon Ma. Guerrero
FOR FR££DOM AND D£MOCRACY - by S.P. Lopez
B£TRAYAL 1N TH£ PH1L1PP1N£S - by Hernando
Abaya
S£V£N H1LLS AWAY - by NVM GonzaIes
POETRY IN ENGLISH URING THIS PERIO
or tbe IIrst twenty years, many books were
pubIIsbed.botb In IIIpIno and In EngIIsb.
Among tbe wrIters durIng tbIs tIme were:
red RuIz Castro, omInador I. IIIo, and C.B.
RIgor.
Some notabIe works oI tbe perIod IncIude tbe
IoIIowIng:
1. HEART O THE ISLANS (194?) - a
coIIectIon oI poems by ManueI VIray
2. PHILIPPINES CROSS SECTION (19S0) - a
coIIectIon oI prose and poetry by MaxImo
Ramos and IorentIno VaIeros
3. PROSE AN POEMS (19S2) - by NIck
JoaquIn
4. PHILIPPINE WRITING (19S3) - by T..
AgcaoIII
S. PHILIPPINE HAVEST - by Amador aguIo
6. HORI2ONS LEAST (196?) - a coIIectIon oI
works by tbe proIessors oI UE, mostIy In
EngIIsb (sbort storIes, essays, researcb papers,
poem and drama) by ArtemIo PatacsII and
SIIverIo BaItazar
Tbe tbemes oI most poems deaIt wItb tbe
usuaI Iove oI nature, and oI socIaI and
poIItIcaI probIems. TorIbIa Mano's poems
sbowed deep emotIonaI IntensIty.
?. WHO SPOKE O COURAGE IN HIS SLEEP
- by NVM GonzaIes
S. SPEAK NOT, SPEAK ALSO - by Conrado V.
Pedrocbe
9. Otber poets were TorIbIa Mano and EdItb
L. TIempo
Jose GarcIa VIIIa's HAV£ COM£, AM H£R£
won accIaIm botb bere and abroad.
NOVELS AN SHORT STORIES IN ENGLISH
Longer and Ionger pIeces were beIng wrItten by
wrIters oI tbe perIod. Stevan JaveIIana's
WITHOUT SEEING THE AWN teIIs oI tbe grIm
experIences oI war durIng tbe Japanese
OccupatIon.
In 1946, tbe Barangay WrIter's Project wbose
aIm was to pubIIsb works In EngIIsb by
IIIpInos was estabIIsbed.
In 19SS, tbe PEN Center oI tbe PbIIIppInes
(Poets, essayIsts, noveIIsts) was Inaugurated. In
tbe same year, rancIsco ArceIIana pubIIsbed
bIs PEN ANTHOLOGY O SHORT STORIES.
In 1961, KerIma PoIotan's noveI THE HAN
O THE ENEMY won tbe StonebIII Award Ior
tbe IIIpIno noveI In EngIIsb.
In 196S, LuIs V. Teodoro Jr.'s sbort story
THE AVERSARY won tbe PbIIIppInes ree
Press sbort story award; In 1969, bIs story
THE TRAIL O PROESSOR RIEGO won
second prIze In tbe PaIanca MemorIaI Awards
Ior LIterature and In 19?0, bIs sbort story
THE ISTANT CITY won tbe GRAPHIC sbort
story award.
THE NEW ILIPINO LITERATURE URING THIS
PERIO
PbIIIppInes IIterature In TagaIog was revIved
durIng tbIs perIod. Most tbemes In tbe wrItIngs
deaIt wItb Japanese brutaIItIes, oI tbe poverty
oI IIIe under tbe Japanese government and tbe
brave guerIIIa expIoIts.
Newspapers and magazIne pubIIcatIons were re-
opened IIke tbe Bu1oK1oK, L1uoguog, 11ong
11ong and S1nog To1o. TagaIog poetry acquIred
not onIy rbyme but substance and meanIng.
Sbort storIes bad better cbaracters and events
based on Iacts and reaIItIes and tbemes were
more meanIngIuI. NoveIs became common but
were stIII read by tbe peopIe Ior recreatIon.
Tbe peopIe's Iove Ior IIstenIng to poetIc
jousts Increased more tban beIore and peopIe
started to IIock to pIaces to bear poetIc
debates.
Many books were pubIIsbed durIng tbIs tIme,
among wbIcb were:
1. Mga PIIIng Katba (194?-4S) by AIejandro
AbadIIIa
2. Ang MaIkIIng Kuwentong TagaIog (1SS6-
194S) by Teodoro AgoncIIIo
3. Ako'y Isang TInIg (19S2) coIIectIon oI poems
and storIes by Genoveva Edroza Matute
4. Mga PIIIng Sanaysay (19S2) by AIejandro
AbadIIIa
S. MaIkIIng Katba ng aIawampung
PangunabIng Autor (1962) by A.G. AbadIIIa and
PoncIano E.P. PIneda
6. Parnasong TagaIog (1964) coIIectIon oI
seIected poems by Huseng SIsIw and BaIagtas,
coIIected by A.G. AbadIIIa
?. SInIng at Pamamaraan ng Pag-aaraI ng
PanItIkan (196S) by RuIIno AIejandro.
He prepared tbIs book Ior teacbIng In readIng
and apprecIatIon oI poems, dramas, sbort
storIes and noveIs
S. ManIIIIkba, Mga PIIIng TuIa (1961-196?)
by RogeIIo G. Mangabas
9. Mga PIIIng Akda ng KadIpan (KapIsanang
AkIat ng Iwa at PanItIk) 196S by EIren
Abueg
10. Makata (196?) IIrst cooperatIve eIIort to
pubIIsb tbe poems oI 16 poets In PIIIpIno
11. PItong uIa (196S) by IonIsIo SaIazar
12. ManunuIat: Mga PIIIng Akdang PIIIpIno
(19?0) by EIren Abueg. In tbIs book, Abueg
proved tbat It Is possIbIe to bave a natIonaI
IntegratIon oI etbnIc cuIture In our country.
13. Mga AkIat nI RIzaI: Many books about RIzaI
came out durIng tbIs perIod. Tbe Iaw orderIng
tbe addItIonaI study oI tbe IIIe oI RIzaI beIped a
Iot In actIvatIng our wrIters to wrIte books
about RIzaI.
PALANCA AWARS
Anotber InspIratIon Ior wrIters In IIIpIno was
tbe IauncbIng oI tbe PaIanca MemorIaI Awards
Ior IIterature beaded by CarIos PaIanca Sr. In
19S0. (UntII now, tbe awards are stIII beIng
gIven aItbougb tbe man wbo Iounded It bas
passed away). Tbe awards were gIven to wrIters
oI sbort storIes, pIays and poetry.
Tbe IIrst awardees In Its IIrst year, 19S0-S1 In
tbe IIeId oI tbe sbort story were tbe IoIIowIng:
Irst PrIze: KUWENTO NI MABUTI by
Genoveva Edroza
Second PrIze: MABANGIS NA
KAMAY.MAAMONG KAMAY by Pedro S.
andan
TbIrd PrIze: PLANETA, BUWAN AT MGA
BITUIN by EIpIdIo P. KapuIong
ExercIses
1. In wbat year dId tbe PbIIIppInes regaIned
Its Ireedom and tbe IIIpIno waved joyousIy
aIone.
2. TbIs teIIs oI tbe grIm experIences oI war
durIng tbe Japanese OccupatIon. It was
wrItten by Stevan JaveIIana
3. P.E.N. stands Ior?
4. It was wrItten by Jose GarcIa VIIIa
S. Tbe autbor oI ºKwento nI MabutI"
6-10. Wby Is It caIIed tbe rebIrtb oI Ireedom?a
¦||'cr 3
lcr:od oí ^c':v:·: (!9?O-!9?2)
HIstorIcaI Background
AccordIng to PocIano PIneda, youtb actIvIsm In
19?0-?2 was due to domestIc and worIdwIde
causes. ActIvIsm Is connected wItb tbe bIstory
oI our IIIpIno youtb.
Because oI tbe IIIs oI socIety, tbe youtb moved
to seek reIorms. Some contInued to beIIeve
tbat tbe democratIc government Is stabIe and
tbat It Is onIy tbe peopIe runnIng tbe
government wbo are at IauIt. Some beIIeved
tbat socIaIIsm or communIsm sbouId repIace
democracy. Some armed groups were Iormed to
brIng down tbe democratIc Iorm oI government.
Many young peopIe became actIvIsts to ask
Ior cbanges In tbe government. In tbe
expressIon oI tbIs desIre Ior cbange, keen
were tbe wrItIngs oI some youtb wbo were
IIred wItb natIonaIIsm In order to empbasIze
tbe Importance oI tbeIr petItIons.
Many young actIvIsts were ImprIsoned In
mIIItary camps togetber wItb rebeI wrIters.
As earIy as tbIs perIod oI bIstory we can say
tbat many oI tbose wrIters wbo were
ImprIsoned were true natIonaIIsts and beroes
oI tbeIr tIme.
Many books aptIy record and embody tbese
tImes but many oI tbese are not known to
many and many oI tbese wrIters stIII bave to be
IntervIewed. We just Ieave to scboIars and
researcbers tbe gIvIng oI credIt wbere credIt Is
due.
A. THE SEE O ACTIVISM
Tbe seeds oI actIvIsm resuIted In tbe
decIaratIon oI MartIaI Law In 19?2. We can,
bowever, say tbat be seeds were earIIer sown
Irom tbe tImes oI Lapu-Iapu, LakanduIa, and
RIzaI. Tbe revoIutIon agaInst tbe powerIuI
Iorces In tbe PbIIIppInes can be saId to be tbe
monopoIy oI tbe youtb In wbose veIns IIow tbe
IIre In tbeIr bIood. Wbat RIzaI saId oI tbe
youtb beIng tbe bope oI tbe atberIand - Is
stIII vaIId even today.
B. PERIO O THE BLOOY PLACARS
PIneda aIso saId tbat tbIs was tbe tIme wben
tbe youtb once more proved tbat It Is not
tbe constant evasIon tbat sbapes our race
and natIonaIIsm.
Tbere Is a IImIt to one's patIence. It may
expIode IIke a voIcano II overstraIned.
LIIe? Wbat avaIIs IIke II one Is a coward wbo
does not take a stand Ior bImseII and Ior tbe
succeedIng generatIons?
C. THE LITERARY REVOLUTION
Tbe youtb became compIeteIy rebeIIIous durIng
tbIs perIod. TbIs was proven not onIy In tbe
bIoody demonstratIons and In tbe sIdewaIk
expressIons but aIso In IIterature. Campus
newspapers sbowed rebeIIIous emotIons. Tbe
once arIstocratIc wrIters deveIoped awareness
Ior socIety. Tbey beId pens and wrote on
pIacards In red paInt tbe equIvaIent oI tbe word
MAKIBAKA (To dare!).
Tbey attacked tbe IIIs oI socIety and poIItIcs.
Any estabIIsbment became tbe symboI oI tbe
IIIs tbat bad to be cbanged. Tbe IrustratIons oI
youtb couId be IeIt In cburcbes and scbooI.
Even tbe prIests, teacbers and parents, as
autborItIes wbo sbouId be respected became
targets oI tbe radIcaI youtb and were tbougb oI
as bIndrances to tbe cbanges tbey sougbt.
Tbe IIterature oI tbe actIvIsts reacbed a
poInt wbere tbey stated boIdIy wbat sbouId
be done to eIIect tbese cbanges.
Some oI tbose wbo raIIIed to tbIs
revoIutIonary Iorm oI IIterature were
RoIando TInIo, RogeIIo Mangabas, EIren
Abueg, RIo AIma, and CIemente BautIsta.
WRITING URING THE PERIO O
ACTIVISM
Tbe Irreverence Ior tbe poor reacbed Its peak
durIng tbIs perIod oI tbe mass revoIutIon. It
was aIso durIng tbIs perIod tbat Bomba IIIms
tbat dIscredIt our ways as IIIpInos started
to come out.
PALANCA AWAREES OR LITERATURE IN
ENGLISH
(EstabIIsbed In 19S0, tbe PaIanca MemorIaI
Awards Ior LIterature bad been gIvIng casb
prIzes Ior sbort story, poetry and one-act pIay
wrItIng as an IncentIve to IIIpIno wrIters. Tbe
prIzes come Irom La Tondena, Inc., tbe IIrm
Iounded by tbe Iate CarIos PaIanca Sr. or tbe
IIst oI wInners Irom 19S0-S1 to 1960-?0, we
recommended AIberto S. IorentIno's ºTwenty
Years oI PaIanca Awards.")
ENGLISH SHORT STORY
19?0-?1
Irst PrIze - ºTHE RITUAL" - CIrIIo . BautIsta
Second PrIze - ºBEAST IN THE IELS" - ResII
Mojares
TbIrd PrIze - ºCHILREN O THE CITY" -
AmadIs Ma. Guerrero
19?0-?1
Irst PrIze - ºTHE ARCHIPELAGO" - CIrIIo .
BautIsta
Second PrIze - ºIVE POEMS" - WIIIredo
Pascua Sancbez
TbIrd PrIze - ºROM MACTAN TO
MENIOLA" - rederIco LIcsI EspIno Jr.
ENGLISH ONE-ACT PLAY
19?0-?1
Irst PrIze - ºTHE GROTESQUE AMONG US"
- MaIden Iores
ENGLISH POETRY
19?1-?2
Irst PrIze - ºTHE TOMATO GAME" - N.V.M.
GonzaIes
Second PrIze - ºTHE APOLLO CENTENNIAL" -
GregorIo C. BrIIIantes
TbIrd PrIze - ºATER THIS, OUR EXILE" - EIsa
MartInez CoscoIIueIa
19?1-?2
Irst PrIze - ºBATIK MAKER AN OTHER
POEMS" - VIrgInIa R. Moreno
Second PrIze - ºTHE EGE O THE WIN" -
ArtemIo Tadena
TbIrd PrIze - ºTINIKLING (A SHEA O POEMS)"
- rederIco LIcsI EspIno Jr.
19?1-?2
Irst PrIze - ºGRAVE OR BLUE LOWER" -
Jesus T. PeraIta
Second PrIze - ºTHE UNISCOVERE
COUNTRY" - ManueI M. MarteII
TbIrd PrIze - Tbe judges recommend tbat In as
mucb as tbe tbree tbIrd prIze wInners especIaIIy
deserve, tbe prIze oI P 1,000.00 be dIvIded
among tbese tbree:
ºTHE BOXES" - RoIando S. TInIo
ºNOW IS THE TIME OR ALL GOO MEN TO
COME TO THE AI O THEIR COUNTRY" -
JuIIan E. acanay
ºTHE RENEGAE" - EIsa MartInez CoscoIIueIa
WRITERS URING THIS PERIO
Jose . Lacaba, In bIs book DAYS OF D1SQU1£T,
N1GHTS OF RAG£; TH£ F1RST QUART£RS
STORM AND R£LAT£D £V£NTS, wrote oI tbe
tragIc and tumuItuous moments In our
country's bIstory.
escrIbIng tbIs perIod, be wrItes: ºTbat IIrst
quarter oI tbe year 19?0.It was a gIorIous tIme,
a tIme oI terror and oI wratb, but aIso a tIme Ior
bope. Tbe sIgns oI cbange were on tbe borIzon.
A powerIuI storm was sweepIng tbe Iand, a
storm wbose InexorabIe advance no eartbIy
Iorce couId stop, and tbe name oI tbe storm was
bIstory."
He mentIons tbat tbose students
demonstratIng at tbat tIme knew and were
aware tbat wbat tbey were doIng wouId be
crucIaI to our country's bIstory. Student
Ieaders tbougbt up grandIose names Ior tbeIr
organIzatIons and bence, tbe proIIIeratIon oI
acronyms IIkes SUCCOR, YS, KTP,
SAGUPA, SMP, KKK, KM, MP, and SK.
PoIItIcIans endorsed bIIIs Ior tbose wbo
InterIered wItb student demonstrators.
Mayor AntonIo VIIIegas bImseII, on eb. 1S,
19?0, Ied demonstrators away Irom angry
poIIcemen. Otber poIItIcIans IIke Eva
Estrada KaIaw, and SaIvador LaureI, BenIgno
AquIno Jr. wrote about condemnatIon oI
poIIce brutaIItIes.
Lacaba's book Is truIy representatIve oI wrIters
wbo were eyewItnesses to tbIs tIme ºoI terror
and wratb."
Otber wrIters strove to pour out tbeIr anguIsb
and IrustratIons In words descrIbIng tbemseIves
as ºgaspIng Ior tbe aIr, tbIrstIng Ior tbe water oI
Ireedom." Tbus, tbe PbIIIppIne Center Ior tbe
InternatIonaI PEN (Poets, EssayIsts, and
NoveIIsts) beId a conIerence centerIng on tbe
ºwrIter's Iack oI Ireedom In a cIImate oI Iear."
or a day tbey denounced restrIctIons on
artIstIc Ireedom and passIonateIy Ied a pIea
Ior Ireedom. Among tbe wrIters In tbIs group
were: NIck JoaquIn, S.P. Lopez, GregorIo
BrIIIantes, . SIonII Jose, PetronIIo aroy,
Letty JImenez-Magsanoc, Mauro AveIIna, and
Jose W. Iokno.
PeopIe In tbe otber medIa partIcIpated In
tbIs quest Ior Ireedom. JournaIIsts Jose
Burgos Jr., AntonIo Ma. NIeva,; movIe
dIrector LIno Brocka, art crItIc Anna Leab S.
de Leon were battIIng bead - on agaInst
censorsbIp.
Tbey came up wItb resoIutIons tbat pIeaded Ior
causes otber tban tbeIr own - IIke tbe generaI
amnesty Ior poIItIcaI prIsoners, and otber
secret decrees restrIctIng Iree expressIon.
Tbey requested edItors and pubIIsbers to
pubIIsb tbe reaI names oI wrIters In tbeIr
coIumns. It caIIed on medIa to dIssemInate
InIormatIon on natIonaI Interest wItbout
partIsan IeanIngs and resoIved to be unIted
wItb aII causes decryIng oppressIon and
repressIon.
ExercIses
1-2. AccordIng to PoncIano PIneda, Youtb
ActIvIsm In 19?0-?2 was due to _____ ______
3-4. Because oI tbe IIIs oI socIety. Tbe youtb
moved to seek reIorms, wbat are tbese
reIorms?
S. Tbe resuIt oI seeds oI ActIvIsm
6. Tbe youtb became compIeteIy rebeIIIons
durIng tbe IIterary revoIutIon. TbIs was
proven not onIy In tbe _______ and In tbe
sIdewaIk expressIons but aIso In
(?.) ___________.
S. Tbe autbor oI ays oI IsquIet, NIgbts oI
Rage, Tbe IIrst quarters storm and reIated
events.
9. Tbe PbIIIppIne Center Ior tbe InternatIonaI
PEN (Poets, EssayIsts, and NoveIIsts) beId a
conIerence centerIng on tbe ________
10. Tbey beId pens and wrote on pIacards In
red paInt tbe equIvaIent oI tbe word
__________
Cbapter 9
PerIod oI tbe New SocIety
(19?2-19S0)
HIstorIcaI Background
Tbe perIod oI tbe New SocIety started on
September 21, 19?2. Tbe CarIos PaIanca
Awards contInued to gIve annuaI awards.
AImost aII tbemes In most wrItIngs deaIt
wItb tbe deveIopment or progress oI tbe
country - IIke tbe Green RevoIutIon, IamIIy
pIannIng, proper nutrItIon, envIronment,
drug addIctIon and poIIutIon. Tbe New
SocIety trIed to stop pornograpby or tbose
wrItIngs gIvIng bad InIIuences on tbe moraIs
oI tbe peopIe. AII scbooI newspapers were
temporarIIy stopped and so wItb scbooI
organIzatIons.
Tbe mIIItary government estabIIsbed a new
oIIIce caIIed tbe MInIstry oI PubIIc AIIaIrs
tbat supervIsed tbe newspapers, books and
otber pubIIcatIons.
Tbe government took part In revIvIng oId
pIays IIke tbe CenacuIo, tbe 2arzueIa and tbe
Embayoka oI tbe MusIIms. Tbe CuIturaI
Center oI tbe PbIIIppInes, tbe oIk Arts
Tbeater and even tbe oId MetropoIItan
Tbeater were rebuIIt In order to bave a pIace
Ior tbese pIays.
SIngIng botb IIIpIno and EngIIsb songs
receIved Iresb IncentIves. Tbose sent abroad
promoted many IIIpIno songs.
Tbe weekIy pubIIcatIons IIke KISLAP, and
LIWAYWAY beIped a Iot In tbe deveIopment oI
IIterature. Tbese became outIets Ior our
wrIters to pubIIsb many oI tbeIr works.
A. ILIPINO POETRY URING THE PERIO O
THE NEW SOCIETY
Tbemes oI most poems deaIt wItb
patIence, regard Ior natIve cuIture, customs
and tbe beautIes oI nature and surroundIngs.
Tbose wbo wrote poetry durIng tbIs perIod
were: PoncIano PIneda, AnIceto SIIvestre, Jose
GarcIa ReveIo, BIenvenIdo Ramos, VIcente
ImasaIang, CIr Lopez rancIsco, and PeIagIo
SuIIt Cruz.
Many more composers added tbeIr bIt durIng
tbIs perIod. Among tbem were reddIe AguIIar,
Jose MarIe Cban and tbe group TIto, VIc and
Joey. ANAK oI reddIe AguIIar became an
Instant success because oI tbe spIrIt and
emotIons reveaIed In tbe song. Tbere were
even transIatIons In Japanese and In otber
Ianguages.
B. THE PLAY UNER THE NEW SOCIETY
Tbe government Ied In revIvIng oId pIays and
dramas, IIke tbe TagaIog 2arzueIa, CenacuIo
and tbe Embayoka oI tbe MusIIms wbIcb were
presented In tbe rebuIIt MetropoIItan Tbeater,
tbe oIk Arts Tbeater and tbe CuIturaI Center
oI tbe PbIIIppInes.
Many scbooIs and organIzatIons aIso presented
varIed pIays.
Tbe MIndanao State UnIversIty presented a
pIay SInIng Embayoka at tbe CuIturaI Center
oI tbe PbIIIppInes.
In 19??, tbe TaIes oI Manuvu, a new styIe oI
rock oI tbe baIIet opera was aIso added to
tbese presentatIons. TbIs was perIormed by
CeIeste LegaspI, Lea Navarro, HadjI AIejandro,
Boy Camara, Antbony CasteIIo, Rey Izon and
cboreograpbed by AIIc Reyes.
Even tbe PresIdent's daugbter at tbe tIme
partIcIpated as a perIormIng artIst In tbe
prIncIpaI roIe oI Santa Juana oI KoraI and In
Tbe Iary oI Anne rank.
Tbe IoIIowIng organIzatIons contrIbuted a Iot
to tbe deveIopment oI pIays durIng tbIs
perIod:
1. PETA oI CecIIIe GuIdote and LIno Brocka
2. Repertory PbIIIppInes: oI Rebecca
GodInes and 2enaIda Amador
3. UP Repertory oI Bebn Cervantes
4. Teatro IIIpIno by RoIando TInIo
C. RAIO AN TELEVISION
RadIo contInued to be patronIzed durIng tbIs
perIod. Tbe pIay serIes IIke SI MATAR, AHLIA,
ITO AN PALA KO, and MR. LONELY were tbe
Iorms oI recreatIon oI tbose wItbout teIevIsIon.
Even tbe new songs were IIrst beard over tbe
aIrwaves.
However, many perIormIng artIsts In radIo
moved over to teIevIsIon because oI bIgber pay.
Among tbese were Augusto VIcta, Gene PaIomo,
MeIy Tagasa, LIna PusIng, and Ester Cbavez.
PopuIar teIevIsIon pIays were GULONG NG
PALA, LOR E LUNA, and ANNA LI2A.
SUPERMAN AN TAR2AN were aIso popuIar wItb
tbe youtb.
. ILIPINO ILMS
A yearIy PIsta ng mga PeIIkuIng PIIIpIno
(YearIy IIIpIno IIm estIvaI) was beId
durIng tbIs tIme. urIng tbe IestIvaI wbIcb
Iasted usuaIIy Ior a montb, onIy IIIpIno
IIIms were sbown In aII tbeaters In Metro
ManIIa. PrIzes and tropbIes were awarded at
tbe end oI tbe IestIvaI In recognItIon oI
exceIIence In IIIm makIng and In roIe
perIormances.
New kInds oI IIIms wItbout sex or romance
started to be made but wbIcb were
nevertbeIess weII-receIved by tbe pubIIc.
Among tbese were:
1. MAYNILA. SA MGA KUKO NG LIWANAG
wrItten by Edgardo Reyes and IIImed under tbe
dIrectIon oI LIno Brocka. BemboI Roco was tbe
Iead roIe.
2. MINSA'Y ISANG GAMU-GAMO; Nora Aunor
was tbe prIncIpaI perIormer bere.
3. GANITO KAMI NOO.PAANO KAYO NGAYON:
Ied by CbrIstopber de Leon and GIorIa Iaz.
4. INSIANG: by HIIda KoroneI
S. AGUILA: Ied by ernando Poe Jr., Jay IIagan
and CbrIstopber de Leon
Sex IIIms couId not be sbeIved. oreIgn, as weII
as IocaI IIIms deaIIng tbe boId tbemes were tbe
vebIcIes oI producers to earn more money.
E. COMICS, MAGA2INES AN OTHER
PUBLICATIONS
urIng tbIs perIod oI tbe New SocIety, newspapers
donned new Iorms. News on economIc progress,
dIscIpIIne, cuIture, tourIsm and tbe IIke were
Iavored more tban tbe sensatIonaIIzed reportIng
oI kIIIIngs, rape and robberIes.
Tbe IeadIng papers durIng tbIs perIod were:
1. BULLETIN TOAY S. PILIPINO EXPRESS
2. TIMES JOURNAL 6. PHILIPPINE AILY EXPRESS
3. PEOPLES JOURNAL ?. EVENING POST
4. BALITA S. EVENING EXPRESS
LIWAYWAY bad been an oId-tIme IavorIte oI
tbe IIIpInos sInce 1920. Otber magazInes
were:
1. KISLAP 3. EXTRA HOT
2. BULAKLAK 4. JINGLE SENSATION
LIke musbrooms, comIcs aIso proIIIerated
everywbere and were enjoyed by tbe masses.
Among tbese were:
1. PILIPINO 4. HIWAGA
2. EXTRA S. KLASIK
3. LOVE LIE 6. ESPESYAL
. PALANCA AWAREES
SHORT STORY CATEGORY
19?2-?3
Irst PrIze - ºSPOTS ON THEIR WINGS AN
OTHER STORIES" - AntonIo EnrIquez
Second PrIze - ºON RIENS YOU PIN SUCH
HOPES" - Ines Taccad Camayo
TbIrd PrIze - ºTHE LIBERATION O MRS.
IELA MAGSILANG" - JaIme A. LIm
19?3-?4
Irst PrIze - ºTHE CRIES O CHILREN ON
AN APRIL ATERNOON IN THE YEAR 19S?" -
GregorIo C. BrIIIantes
Second PrIze - ºTHE WHITE RESS" -
EstreIIa . AIIon
TbIrd PrIze - ºTELL ME WHO CLET THE
EVIL'S OOT" - LunIng BonIIacIo Ira
HonorabIe MentIon - ºSCORING" - Joy T.
ayrIt
19?4-?S
Irst PrIze - co-wInners
1. ºTHE AY O THE LOCUSTS" - LeoncIo P.
erIada
2. ºROMANCE AN AITH ON MOUNT
BANAHAW" - AIIred A. Yuson
Second PrIze - co-wInners
1. ºTHE MAN WHO MAE A COVENANT WITH
THE WIN" - CIrIIo . BautIsta
2. ºONCE UPON A CRUISE: GENERATIONS AN
OTHER LANSCAPES" - LunIng BonIIacIo
Ira
3. ºAGCALAN POINT" - Jose Y. aIIsay, Jr.
TbIrd PrIze - co-wInners
1. ºTHE OG EATERS" - LeoncIo P. erIada
2. ºTHE PEOPLE'S PRISON" - Mauro R.
Avena
3. ºISCOVERY" - r. PorIIrIo . VIIIarIn, Jr.
4. ºA SUMMER GOOBYE" - LInda Ledesma
and BenjamIn BautIsta
PLAY CATEGORY
19?2-?3
Irst PrIze - ºTHE HEART O EMPTINESS IS
BLACK" - RIcardo emetIIIo
Second PrIze - ºGO, RIER!" - Azucena Crajo
Uranza
TbIrd PrIze - ºTHE RICEBIR HAS BROWN
WINGS" - ederIco LIcsI EspIno, Jr.
19?3-?4
Irst PrIze (No Award)
Second PrIze - ºATERCAE - Juan H. AIegre
TbIrd PrIze - ºULCE EXTRANJERA" -
WIIIredo . NoIIede
19?4-?S
Irst PrIze - ºA LIE IN THE SLUMS" -
RoIando S. TInIo
Second PrIze - ºPASSWOR - PauI Stepben
LIm
TbIrd PrIze - ºTHE MINERVA OUNATION"
- MaIdan Iores
POETRY CATEGORY
19?2-?3
Irst PrIze - ºCHARTS" - CIrIIo . BautIsta
Second PrIze - ºA TRICK O MIRRORS" -
RoIando S. TInIo
TbIrd PrIze - ºALAPAAP'S MOUNTAIN" -
ErwIn E. CastIIIo
19?3-?4
Irst PrIze - co-wInners
1. ºMONTAGE" - OpbeIIa A. ImaIanta
2. ºIENTITIES" - ArtemIo Tadena
Second PrIze - co-wInners
1. ºBOXES" - RIcardo de UngrIa
2. ºGLASS O LIQUI TRUTHS" - GIIbert A.
LuIs CentIna III
TbIrd PrIze - co-wInners
1. ºA LIEGE O ATUS AN OTHER POEMS" -
Jose N. Carreon
2. ºRITUALS AN METAPHORS" - CeIestIno M.
Vega
19?4-?S
Irst PrIze - ºTELEX MOON" - CIrIIo .
BautIsta
Second PrIze - ºAARNA: SIX POEMS ROM A
LARGER CORPUS" - WIIIredo Pascua Sancbez
TbIrd PrIze - ºTHE CITY AN THE THREA
O LIGHT" - RIcardo emetIIIo
REPUBLIC CULTURAL HERITAGE AWAREES
(1960-19?1)
NATIONAL ARTISTS
19?3
Amado V. Hernandez (Postbumous)
(LIterature)
Jose GarcIa VIIIa (LIterature)
rancIsco Reyes AquIno (ance)
CarIos V. rancIsco (Postbumous) (PaIntIng)
AntonIo J. MoIIna (MusIc)
GuIIIermo ToIentIno (ScuIpture)
19?6
NIck JoaquIn (LIterature)
NapoIeon V. Abueva (ScuIpture)
PabIo AntonIo (Postbumous) (ArcbItecture)
Lamberto V. AveIIana (MovIes)
VIctorIo G. Edades (PaIntIng)
JovIta uentes (MusIc)
G. AN OVERVIEW O THE LITERATUE URING
THE NEW SOCIETY
BIIInguaI educatIon wbIcb was InItIated by tbe
Board oI NatIonaI EducatIon as earIy as 19SS
and contInued up to tbe perIod oI MartIaI RuIe
In September 21, 19?2, resuIted In tbe
deterIoratIon oI EngIIsb In tbe dIIIerent IeveIs
oI educatIon. Tbe Iocus oI educatIon and
cuIture was on probIems oI natIonaI IdentIty,
on re-orIentatIon, renewed vIgor and a IIrm
resoIves to carry out pIans and programs.
Tbe Iorms oI IIterature tbat Ied durIng tbIs
perIod wee tbe essays, debates and poetry. Tbe
sbort storIes, IIke tbe noveIs and pIays were no
dIIIerent In styIe Irom tbose wrItten beIore tbe
onset oI actIvIsm.
Some oI tbe books tbat came out durIng tbIs
perIod were:
1 Morr1ed o Neuspopermon (essay) by MarIa
Luna Lopez (wIIe oI newsapaperman SaIvador B.
Lopez), 19?6
TÞe Modern F111p1no SÞor1 S1org by PatrIcIa
MeIendrez Cruz, 19S0
Cross Curren1s 1n A]ro-As1on L11ero1ure, by
RustIca . CarpIo, 19?6
Br1e] T1me 1o Love by OIeIIa . LImcaco
Med1um Rore ond Te11 1Þe Peop1e (Ieature
artIcIes and TV Program) by JuIIe Yap aza
ExercIses
1. Tbe new SocIety trIed to stop ______
2. Tbe oIIIce estabIIsbed by tbe mIIItary
government tbat supervIsed tbe newspaper
book and otber pubIIcatIon.
3-S. Tbe government took part In revIvIng oId
pIays IIke ______,______, ______
6-9. IdentIIy tbe tbemes oI tbe II. sIogans
6. Sa IkauunIad ng bayan,
IsIpIIna ang kaIIangan
?. Ang pagsunod sa maguIang
Tanda ng anak na magaIang
S. Tayo'y magtanIm
Upang mabubay
9. Tayo'y magbIgayan
At wag magsIksIkan
10. WbIcb song oI reddIe AguIIar became an
Instant success because oI tbe spIrIt and
emotIons reveaIed In It.
11. estIvaI wbIcb Iasted usuaIIy Ior a montb,
onIy IIIpInos IIIms were sbown In aII
tbeaters In Metro ManIIa
12. ExampIe oI LeadIng Papers durIng tbe
perIod oI new socIety
13. ExampIe oI magazIne durIng tbat perIod
14. _______ was InItIated by tbe Board on
NatIonaI EducatIon as earIy as 19SS and
contInued up to tbe perIod oI martIaI ruIe In
September 21, 19?2 resuIted In tbe
(1S.) _________
Cbapter 10
PerIod oI tbe TbIrd
RepubIIc (19S1-19SS)
HIstorIcaI Background
AIter ten years oI mIIItary ruIe and some
cbanges In tbe IIIe oI tbe IIIpIno wbIcb
started under tbe New SocIety, MartIaI RuIe
was at Iast IIIted on January 2, 19S1.
To tbose In government, tbe IIItIng oI
mIIItary ruIe beraIded a cbange. To tbeIr
perceptIons, tbe PbIIIppInes became a new
natIon and tbIs; Iormer PresIdent Marcos
caIIed ºTbe New RepubIIc oI tbe PbIIIppInes."
A bIstorIan caIIed tbIs tbe TbIrd RepubIIc. Tbe
Irst RepubIIc be cIaImed was durIng tbe
PbIIIppIne RepubIIc oI EmIIIo AguInaIdo wben
we IIrst got our Independence Iorm tbe
SpanIards on June 12, 1S9S.
Tbe Second was wben tbe AmerIcans granted us
our Independence on JuIy 4, 1946. TbIs perIod,
January 2, 19S1, was tbe TbIrd RepubIIc wben
we were Ireed Irom MIIItary RuIe.
urIng tbIs perIod, It cannot be denIed tbat
many peopIe seetbed wItb rebeIIIon and protest
because oI tbe contInued oppressIon and
suppressIon.
TbIs was Iurtber aggravated wben Iormer
Senator BenIgno S. Aquno Jr., tbe IdoI oI tbe
IIIpIno masses, wbom tbey boped to be tbe
next presIdent, was presIdent, was brutaIIy
murdered on August 21, 19S3.
TbIs stage oI tbe natIon bad Its eIIect on our
IIterature. AIter tbe AquIno assassInated,
tbe peopIe's voIces couId no Iong be
contaIned. Botb tbe pubIIc and prIvate
sectors In government were cbantIng, and
sboutIng; women, men and tbe youtb
became boIder and tbeIr voIces were raIsed
In dIssent.
We can say tbat PbIIIppIne IIterature, In spIte oI
tbe many restrIctIons, stIII surreptItIousIy
retaIned Its Iuster.
THE PALANCA AWARS
Tbe on CarIos PaIanca MemorIaI Awards Ior
IIterature wbIcb was Iauncbed In 19S0 (see
Cbapter ?, Tbe RenaIssance PerIod), contInued
Its recognItIon oI tbe best In tbe IIterary IIeIds
- poetry, sbort story, essays, and tbe one and
tbree-act pIays.
In 19S1, tbe wInners were tbe IoIIowIng:
Irst PrIze: JessIe B. GarcIa's -ºIn Hog
Heaven"
Second PrIze: LunIng BonIIacIo - Ira's ºTbe
Party Hopper"
TbIrd PrIze: Jesus Q. Cruz - ºIn Tbese
HaIIowed HaIIs"
In 19S2, tbose wbo won were:
Irst PrIze: ºHeart IsIand" by Jose aIIsay
Jr.
Second PrIze: ºPas de eux" by Azucena
Grajo Uranza
TbIrd PrIze: ºTbe Sky Is AIways BIue" by
Joe MarIe A. Abueg
In 19S3, tbe mood was restIve, cbaracterIstIcs
oI tbe tImes. Tbe natIon was angry aIter tbe
murder oI opposItIon Ieader BenIgno AquIno
but tbe awards ceremonIes contInued aIter a
deIay. Tbe wInners are:
Irst PrIze: ºOIdtImer" by Jose aIIsay Jr.
Second PrIze: ºGames" by Jesus O. Cruz
TbIrd PrIze: ºPerIect Sunday" by Jose Y.
AyaIa
Irst PrIze In poetry (PIIIpIno): Jose . Lacaba
Second PrIze (EngIIsb essay): GregorIo
BrIIIantes
TbIrd PrIze (EngIIsb essay): AdrIan CrIstobaI
In 19S4, tbe wInners were:
Irst PrIze: ºTbe ReprIeve" by Susan S. Lara
Second PrIze: ºTbe TangerIne GumameIa"
by SyIvIa Mendez Ventura
TbIrd PrIze co-wInner: ºTbe LIttIe Wars oI
IIemon Sayre" by LemueI TorrevIIIas
TbIrd PrIze: ºStranger In an AsIan CIty" by
GregorIo BrIIIantes
In 19SS, tbose wbo won were:
Irst PrIze: ºTbe Hand oI God" by Conrado de
QuIros
Irst PrIze: ºA NoveI PrIze Ior Jorge" by
EII Ang Barroso
No awards Ior second prIze
TbIrd PrIze: ºMecca oI tbe East" by
CbarIes Loong
In 19S4, tbe PaIanca Awards started
cboosIng tbe best In noveI wrItIng. TbIs
contest, beId every tbree years, gIves tIme
Ior IocaI wrIters to wrIte more beautIIuI and
quaIIty works. Tbe next contest on tbe best
noveI was beId In 19S?. La Tondena
contInues to be Its sponsor.
B. ILIPINO POETRY
Poems durIng tbIs perIod oI tbe TbIrd RepubIIc
were romantIc and revoIutIonary. WrIters wrote
openIy oI tbeIr crItIcIsm agaInst tbe
government. Tbe suppIIcatIons oI tbe peopIe
were coacbed In IIery, coIorIuI, vIoIent, proIane
and InsuItIng Ianguage.
C. ILIPINO SONGS
Many IIIpIno songs deaIt wItb tbemes tbat
were reaIIy true-to-IIIe IIke tbose oI grIeI,
poverty, aspIratIons Ior Ireedom, Iove oI God, oI
country and oI IeIIowmen.
Many composers, grIeved over NInoy AquIno's
treacberous assassInatIon composed songs.
Among tbem were CorItba, ErIc and reddIe
AguIIar. CorItba and ErIc composed asong
tItIes LABAN NG BAYAN KO and tbIs was IIrst
sung by CorItba durIng tbe NatIonaI
UnIIIcatIon ConIerence oI tbe OpposItIon In
Marcb, 19SS. TbIs was aIso sung durIng tbe
PresIdentIaI CampaIgn Movement Ior Cory
AquIno to InspIre tbe movement agaInst
Marcos In ebruary 19S6.
reddIe AguIIar revIved tbe song BAYAN KO
wbIcb was wrItten by Jose Corazon de Jesus
and C. de Guzman durIng tbe AmerIcan perIod.
. PHILIPPINE ILMS URING THE PERIO
Tbe yearIy estIvaI oI IIIpIno IIms
contInued to be beId durIng tbIs perIod. Tbe
peopIe's Iove Ior sex IIIms aIso was unabated.
Many producers took advantage oI tbIs at tbe
expense oI pubIIc moraIIty.
E. POETRY IN ENGLISH URING THE THIR
REPUBLIC
Most especIaIIy, durIng tbe wake oI tbe
tragIc BenIgno AquIno Jr.'s IncIdent, peopIe
reacted wItb sbock, appaIIed by tbe
suddenness and tbe unexpectedness oI
events.
AIIredo Navarro SaIanga, a consIstent wrIter oI
PbIIIppInes Panorama MagazIne In bIs coIumn
ºPost-PrandaI ReIIectIons" aptIy saId It:
ºdarkness In tbe mInd and souI Is bow some
Iorgotten poet puts It. Its suddenness was so
proIound tbat we couIdn't but react to It In any
otber way."
EIementaI to us (poets or wrIters) was bow to
grasp to some meanIng - In a symboI, a pbrase
or word - In tbe Ianguage oI beart and tongue,
tbe poet's onIy candIes. So we trIed to reacb
out In tbe next and perbaps tbe onIy way we
couId: by puttIng pen to paper and speakIng
out - as partIsans In a buman drama.
Poets, surprIsIngIy, by common consent, Iound
tbemseIves wrItIng on a common subject.
ReproductIon oI some oI tbem Is reprInted
bere. We aptIy caII tbem Protest Poetry oI tbe
'S0's.
Tbe tbemes oI most durIng tbIs tIme deaIt wItb
courage, sbock and grIeI over tbe ºtreacbery
InIIIcted upon AquIno."
. MEIA O 19S3
SbeIIa S. CoroneI, a PANORAMA staII staIwart,
reportIng on tbe state oI tbe medIa durIng
tbese tImes saId: It was a year oI Ierment, and
cbange, oI oId probIems made more oppressIve
by tbe new tbrobbIng beat oI tbe tImes."
or journaIIsts, It was a year Ioaded wItb IIbeI
cbarges, IawsuIts and sedItIous trIaIs wbIcb
tbey gaIIantIy bore as barassment suIts.
JAJA (JustIce Ior AquIno, JustIce Ior AII)
Movement caIIed Ior a boycott oI government
- controIIed newspapers In protest oI medIa
suppressIon. PeopIe pIcketed newspapers
oIIIces wItb coIIIns to symboIIze tbe deatb oI
press Ireedom.
In campuses, newspapers were set aIIre to
protest Iack oI Iree expressIon. JournaIIsts
suIIered pbysIcaIIy and otberwIse.
JournaIIsts oI 3 major daIIIes demanded a
dIaIogue wItb tbeIr pubIIsbers to ºrestore
credIbIIIty and respectabIIIty" to newspapers.
OpposItIon tabIoIds IIourIsbed. Tbey soId our
papers wItb tbe red news to tbe starved pubIIc;
bence, smut magazInes IIke tbe TIKTIK,
PLAYBOY SCENE, and SAKAL aIso pIayed tbe
sIdewaIks.
RadIo Ied by RAIO VERITAS started reportIng
coverage oI demonstratIons. InIormatIon
MInIster GregorIo Cendana caIIed tbe tabIoIds
tbe ºmosquIto press" and caIIed tbeIr new
ºpoIItIcaI pornograpby."
However, tbere was a perceptIbIe IIberaIIzatIon
oI edItorIaI poIIcIes In tbe major newspapers.
G. CHILREN'S BOOKS
Among tbe weII-Ioved Iorms oI wrItIng wbIcb
abounded durIng tbIs perIod were tbose oI
cbIIdren's storIes. Tbe CbIIdren's
CommunIcatIon Center (CCC) dIrected by
poet and wrIter VIrgIIIo S. AImarIo aIready
bas buIIt up an ImpressIve coIIectIon oI tbese
kInds oI books. Tbe IoIIowIng are some oI
tbe books oI tbe perIod.
19S2: PLAYS OR CHILREN by Jame B.
Reuter S.J. (New ay Pub.)
19S3: STORY TELLING OR YOUNG
CHILREN
19S3: JOSE AN CARO by Peggy Corr
ManueI
19S3: JoaquInesquerIe: MYTH A LA MO
(Cacbo Hermanos)
19S3: LAHI: S ILIPINO OLK TALES (oI S
EngIIsb books and 1 cassette tape)
19S4: RI2ALIANA OR CHILREN:
ILLUSTRATIONS and OLKTALES by: Jose P.
RIzaI, Intoduced and annotated by AIIredo
Navarro SaIanga
19S4: GATAN AN TALAW by JaIme AIIpIt
Montero
H. (PROSE) ABLES
Tbe peopIe's cry oI protest Iound outIets not
onIy In poetry but aIso In veIIed prose IabIes
wbIcb transparentIy satIrIzed tbe occupants oI
MaIacanang. Among tbose tbat saw prInts
were:
1. TÞe Croun Jeue1s o] HeezenÞurs1 by
SyIvIa Mendez Ventura
2. TÞe £mperor's Neu Underueor by
Meynardo A. MacaraIg
3. TÞe R1ng's Co1d by Babetb LoIarga
4. TÞe Cose o] 1Þe M1ss1ng CÞor1smo
(unIInIsbed) by SyIvIa L. Mayuga.
In aII tbe IabIes, tbe kIng, dIIIerentIy reIerred
to as Totus Markus or tbe kIng or HarIng
MatInIk was meant to poke Iun at tbe ruIer
at MaIacanang; sImIIarIy, Reyna Maganda or
tbe Queen, was a veIIed tbrust at bIs queen.
Tbey were botb drunk wItb power and were
punIsbed In tbe end Ior tbeIr mIsdeeds.
1. THE STATE O PHILIPPINE LITERATURE IN
ENGLISH AT THIS TIME
IsaganI Cruz, wrItIng about PbIIIppIne
IIterature In tbe ºAge oI NInoy," makes tbe
IoIIowIng observatIons:
ºPbIIIppInes IIterature Is deIInIteIy cbangIng,"
and be summarIzes tbese as IoIIows:
1. Cbange In tbe dIrectIon oI greater
conscIousness In content and Iorm.
2. Cbange In tbe number oI readers and tbe
number oI wrIters and tbe kInd oI cIass oI
wrIters. WrIters wbo joIned tbe ranks came not
onIy Irom tbe estabIIsbed or proIessIonaI
groups but Irom aII ranks - cIerks, secretarIes,
drIvers, bousewIves, students; In sbort, tbe
masses.
3. Tbe resurgence oI BaIagtasIsmo and tbe
contInued domInance oI ModernIsmo. WbIIe
BaIagtasIsmo turned Its back on tbe
AmerIcan cbaIIenge to PbIIIppIne IIterature
Its conservatIve conventIons, ModernIsmo
adapted AmerIcanIzatIon Ior Its own ends.
4. Tbe bIrtb oI a new poetIc movement stIII
dIms In outIIne.
S. Tbe apparent mergIng oI tbe erstwbIIe
separate streams oI oraI and wrItten
IIterature.
J. SOME WRITERES URING THIS PERIO
19S1-SS
19S1: PHILIPPINE OLK LITERATURE by
amIana EugenIo
19S1: AVENTURES O MARIAN by CarIssa
Orosa Uy
19S2: SOMEWHERE BETWEEN YOUR SMILE
AN YOUR ROWN AN OTHER
POEMS by BIenvenIdo M. NoeIga Jr.
19S3: PARES-PARES by BIenvenIdo M.
NorIega Jr.
19S3: AGON: POEMS, 19S3 by Edgar B.
Maranan
19S4: THE ARMER by AIIredo Navarro
SaIanga
19S4: THE ROA TO MOWAB AN OTHER
STORIES by LeoncIo P. erIada
ExercIses
1. AIter _________ oI mIIItary ruIe and some
cbanges on tbe IIIe oI tbe IIIpIno wbIcb
started under tbe new socIety, martIaI ruIe
was at Iast IIIted on January 2, 19S1.
2. Tbe PbIIIppInes became a new natIon and
Iormer PresIdent Marcos caIIed It _______.
3. Tbe bIstorIan caIIed tbIs tbe __________.
4. Wbat bappened on June 12, 1S9S?
S. Tbe AmerIcans granted us on ____________
6. ControIIed newspaper In protest oI medIa
suppressIon
?. Wbo Is tbe IdoI oI tbe IIIpIno masses
S. Wbat Is tbe song composed by CorItba and
ErIc and sung by CorItba durIng tbe
NatIonaI UnIIIcatIon ConIerence oI tbe
opposItIon In Marcb 19SS
9. reedIe AguIIar revIved tbe song __________
wbIcb was wrItten by Jose Corazon de
Jesus and C. de Guzman durIng tbe
AmerIcan PerIod.
10. CCC stands Ior?
Cbapter 11
PerIods (19S6-1999)
HIstorIcaI Background
HIstory took anotber twIst. Once more, tbe
IIIpIno peopIe regaIned tbeIr Independence
wbIcb tbey Iost twenty years ago.
In tbe span oI Iour days Iorm ebruary 21-
2S, 19S6, tbe so-caIIed PeopIe Power (Lakas
ng Bayan) prevaIIed. Togetber, tbe peopIe
barrIcaded tbe streets petItIonIng tbe
government Ior cbanges and reIorms.
reedom became a reaIIty - won tbrougb a
peaceIuI, bIoodIess and God-bIessed
revoIutIon.
PbIIIppIne socIety was In turmoII Ior a Iew
weeks but tbe rejoIcIng aIter tbe Pres.
Marcos was toppIed down Irom power was
sbeer eupborIa. SIngIng, dancIng and
sboutIng's were tbe order oI tbe day.
Tbe events created overnIgbt beroes. In tbIs
bIstorIcaI event, tbe roIe pIayed by two bIg
IIgures In bIstory cannot be doubted. To
eIense MInIster Juan Ponce EnrIIe and Armed
orces CbIeI oI StaII IdeI V. Ramos, as weII as
to tbe cause oI Ireedom do tbe IIIpInos owe
tbeIr gratItude Ior tbe bIessIng oI
Independence?
To tbe IIIpIno peopIe, tbIs Is tbe true
PbIIIppIne RepubIIc, tbe true RepubIIc oI tbe
PbIIIppInes.
A. THE STATE O LITERATURE URING THIS
PERIO:
In tbe sbort span oI tbe exIstence oI tbe true
RepubIIc oI tbe PbIIIppInes, severaI cbanges
aIready became evIdent. TbIs In notIced In tbe
new IIIpIno songs, In tbe newspapers, In tbe
speecbes, and even In tbe teIevIsIon programs.
1. On Newspapers and otber pubIIcatIons:
Newspapers wbIcb were once branded crony
newspapers became Instant opposItIon papers
overnIgbt. TbIs was true oI BULLETIN TOAY
wbIcb became tbe opposItIon paper. Tbe now
crony newspapers tbat enjoyed an overnIgbt
Increase In cIrcuIatIon were THE INQUIRER,
MALAYA, and tbe PEOPLE'S JOURNAL.
Newspapers IeIt tbat tbe sbackIes tbat
muzzIed tbeIr voIces durIng tbe repressIve
years bad been broken and, IIke a bIrd
ºtryIng Its wIngs aIter a Iong tIme oI
bondage," tbe desIre to wrIte about tbIs
ºmIracIe oI cbange" was eIectrIc.
CoIumnIsts became vocaI and unrestrIcted In
tbere are and a bumper crop oI young
journaIIsts emerged. Tbe oId staIwarts oI tbe
Iormer dIspensatIon IIke MaxImo SoIIven,
LouIe BeItran, HIIarIon Henares, and
rancIsco Soc RodrIgo came back wItb a
vengeance.
By June 12, 19S6, a totaI oI 19 IocaI daIIIes
botb In EngIIsb and IIIpIno were In cIrcuIatIon.
Nowbere sInce tbe 19S0's bad tbere been sucb a
bIg number oI newspapers In cIrcuIatIon
(excIudIng tabIoIds).
Tbese newspapers IncIude: BULLETIN, TEMPO,
BALITA, MALAY, MIAY, MASA, MANILA
TIMES, NEWS HERAL, TRIBUNE, NGAYON,
INQUIRER, EXPRESS TONIGHT, EVENING POST,
PEOPLE'S, AILY MIRROR, BUSINESS AY, and
MANILA CHRONICLE.
2. On Books: PbIIIppIne IIterature Is stIII In tbe
makIng.we are just begInnIng a new era.
Tbe PbIIIIppIne revoIutIon oI 19S6 and tbe
IIre oI Its spIrIt tbat wIII carry tbe IIIpInos
tbrougb anotber epocb In PbIIIppIne bIstory
Is stIII beIng documented just as tbey bave
been In tbe countIess mIIIIons wbo
partIcIpated In body and spIrIt In Its
reaIIzatIon.
Two books were conceIved durIng tbe perIod.
PEOPLE POWER was produced under a grant
by tbe PCI Bank Human Resources
eveIopment oundatIon, edIted by MonIna
AIIarey Mercado and pubIIsbed by tbe James
B. Reuter, S.J. oundatIon.
Anotber one BAYAN KO was pubIIsbed by
Project 2S ays LT. In June, 19S6 In KowIoon,
Hong Kong and co-pubIIsbed In tbe PbIIIppInes
by VerItas PubIIcatIons and CommunIcatIons
oundatIon.
In Marcb 19, 19S? tbe Seventb NatIonaI Book
Awards cIted severaI best books pubIIsbed In
19S? accordIng to tbe cboIces made by tbe
ManIIa CrItIcs CIrcIe. Among tbose awarded
were: Dreomueovers Se1eo1ed Poems (19?6-
19S6) by MarjorIe PernIa and Au11 o1 Corr1do:
PbIIIppIne MetrIcaI Romances by amIana L.
EugenIo.
BookIaIr ManIIa 'SS organIzed by tbe
PbIIIppIne ExbIbIt Company was beId on
ebruary 20-2S, 19SS. It was beId wItb tbe
beIIeI tbat ºrequIsItIon oI knowIedge not onIy
enbances IndIvIduaI skIIIs and capabIIItIes
but more ImportantIy, makes posItIve
contrIbutIons to tbe natIon's deveIopment
program."
B. ILIPINO SONGS URING THIS PERIO
Here are a Iew IIIpIno songs tbat were oIten
beard. Tbey were oIten aIred In radIo and
teIevIsIon and oIten accompanIed tbe
bIstorIcaI events tbat transpIred In tbe
PbIIIppInes and gaIned Ior tbe IIIpInos
worId-wIde accIaIm.
An aIbum named HANOG NG PILIPINO SA
MUNO carrIed a compIIatIon oI some oI tbese.
Tbe song tbat contInued to be sung tbrougbout
tbe tryIng perIod oI tbe RevoIutIon, aImost IIke
a second natIonaI antbem and wbIcb gave IIre
to tbe IIIpIno spIrIt was BAYAN KO. Its IyrIcs
were wrItten by Jose Corazon de Jesus way
back In 192S.
ExercIses
1. In tbe span oI Iour days Irom ebruary 21-
2S 19S6, tbe so-caIIed peopIe power( Lakas
ng Bayan) prevaIIed togetber, tbe peopIe
barrIcaded tbe streets petItIonIng tbe
government Ior _______ and (2.) _________
reedom became a reaIIty- won tbrougb a
(3.)________, (4.)________, (S.)_________
CoIumnIsts became (6.)_______ and (?.) _______
In tbeIr art and a bumper crop oI young
journaIIsts emerged.
S-9. Wbat are tbe two books tbat conceIved
durIng tbe perIod?
10. Wbat newspaper became tbe opposItIon
paper?
l|r' ll - kc|rc·cn'|':vc
o:|o·:':on·
'¦rouq¦ '¦c Yc|r·
1. AMERICAN PERIO (1S9S-1941)
A. Per1od o] Re-Or1en1o11on JS9S-J9JD
AIr CastIes (Poetry) by Juan . SaIazar
(1909-1910)
B. Per1od o] 1m11o11on J9JJ-J92S (AmerIcan
PerIod)
Tbe Sea by NatIvIdad Marquez (Poetry)
C. Per1od o] Se1] D1sooverg (J92S-J94J)
Poetry
1S96 by AureIIo AIvero
To a Lost One by AngeIa ManaIang GIorIa
Prayer oI a Student by TrInIdad L. Tarrosa
SubIdo
Sbort Story
ead Stars by Paz Marquez-BenItez
Tbe MakIng oI A WrIter by SaIvador P. Lopez
Sbadow and SoIItude (A transIatIon oI SoIo
Entre Las Sombras) by CIaro M. Recto
transIated by NIck JoaquIn
2. THE JAPANESE PERIO (1941-194S)
To My NatIve Land by Tarrosa SubIdo
My atber's Tragedy by CarIos BuIosan
SbaII We WaIk? by Pura SantIIIan Castrence
3. THE REBIRTH O REEOM (1946-19?0)
Poetry
Wben I see a Barong-Barong by MaxImo
Ramos (1946)
Sbort Story
PIIgbted Word by NarcIso G. Reyes
Scent oI AppIes by BIenvenIdo Santos
Cadaver by AIberto S. IorentIno
Tbey CaIIed It ºBROTHERHOO" by MaxImo
V. SoIIven
4. PERIO O ACTIVISM (19?0-19?2)
VaIedIctorIan sa HIIIcrest nI RoIando TInIo
Beggar CbIIdren by EmmanueI Torres
S. PERIO O THE NEW SOCIETY (19?2-19S0)
Poetry
PbIIosopber's Love Song by TIta Lacambra-
AyaIa
Tbe Tomato Game by N.V.M. GonzaIes
I MarrIed a Newspaperman by MarIa Luna-
Lopez
6. PERIO O THE THIR REPUBLIC (19S1-
SS)
Poetry
eatb LIke Stone Ior BenIgno S. AquIno Jr.
Irom PHILIPPIN PANORAMA
abIes
Tbe Emperor's New Underwear by Mynardo A.
MacaraIg
Tbe Crown JeweIs oI Heezenburst by SyIvIa
Mendez Ventura
Tbe KIng's CoId by Babetb LoIarga
Sbort Story
Hunger by GIIda Cordero-ernando
PIay
Sepang Loca by AmeIIa Lapena-BonIIacIo
Speecb
AquIno's Speecb In SIngapore
PresIdent AquIno's Speecb beIore tbe U.S.
Congress
Cory Bats Ior tbe RIgbts oI tbe WorId's
Oppressed
l|r' lll - L:'cr|r, o:|o·:':on·
íro: !93c-!999
IntroductIon
LIIe goes on and tbe worId contInues In Its
process oI undergoIng a reaI bIstorIcaI
transItIon wItb aIterIng socIaI, poIItIcaI, moraI
and aestbetIc vaIues InevItabIy IeavIng Its
ImprInt In IIterature.
And, as SaIvador Lopez aptIy saId In bIs
L11ero1ure ond Soo1e1g: ºAbsoIute dIvorcement
Irom tbe worId by wrIters Is ImpossIbIe, Ior
IIterature Is, In some way, rooted In tbe eartb
oI buman experIence."
Tbe wrIter must, tbereIore, be a man oI
bIstorIc propensItIes reactIng to tbe socIaI-
poIItIcaI currents oI bIs tIme and strIvIng
earnestIy to cbange tbe worId, knowIng tbat
socIety bas a cIaIm on bIs attentIon.
Tbe years 19S6-1999 - a span oI 14 years,
cover tbe careers oI tbree presIdents:
Corazon C. AquIno, IdeI V. Ramos and
Josepb EjercIto Estrada.
Spates oI IIterary entbusIasm contInue
unabated, unbampered by compeIIIng
bandIcaps, bard tImes and tbe transIent
probIems oI tbe perIod.
Tbus, as we present some oI tbe credIbIe works
oI our wrIters durIng tbese perIods wbIcb bad
been judged as ºcontest wInner" and may
tbereIore, In tbe words oI EdItb TIempo, be
acknowIedged as ºpretested IIterature," we Ieave
tbe Iearners to tbeIr own partIcuIar deIInItIon oI
IIterary trends and quaIItIes based on tbe socIaI
attItudes and tbe moraI commItments oI a
natIon as reveaIed tbrougb tbe works oI Its
wrIters.
Tbese pIeces, tbougb randomIy seIected, are
part oI wbat we may term, tbe undaunted
expressIon oI tbe IIIpIno propensItIes reveaIIng
tbe IIIpIno psycbe.
It Is aIso notabIe tbat Tbe CuIturaI Center oI
tbe PbIIIppInes, wItb tbe PbIIIppIne
CentennIaI CommIssIon, bas cbosen 100
outstandIng awardees tbat bave ºbeIped
buIId tbe natIon tbrougb tbeIr acbIevements
In arts and cuIture Irom 1S9S to 199S." Tbe
IIst excIudes tbose In IIIm, broadcast arts
and tbeater.
BrIeIIy, we mentIon tbose cbosen Ior
recognItIon In IIterature:
Teodoro AgoncIIIo
VIrgIIIo AImarIo
ManueI AguIIIa
CarIos BuIosan
Jose Corazon de Jesus
IsabeIo de Ios Reyes
amIana EugenIo
GIIda Cordero-ernando
LucIIa HosIIIos
EmmanueI Lacaba
Jose Lacaba
SaIvador Lopez
BIenvenIdo Lumbera
RosII Mojares
CIaro M. Recto
EpIIanIo San Juan, Jr.
Lope K. Santos
Juan CrIsostomo Sotto
VIcente Sotto
As an IncentIve, tbe CentennIaI LIterary PrIze
wouId be doubIed Ior tbat mIIIennIum Ior aII
categorIes (noveI, poetry, essay, drama and
screenpIay) accordIng to PresIdent Estrada so
tbat tbe IIrst prIze wouId be P 2 mIIIIon;
second, P 1.S mIIIIon and tbIrd, P 1 mIIIIon.
Tbere are onIy tbree IIvIng NatIonaI ArtIst Ior
LIterature today: NIck JoaquIn, rancIsco
ArceIIana, (RIP), LevI CeIerIo and CarIos
QuIrIno; Amado V. Hernandez got a
postbumous award.
A. POETRY
rom tbe bIgbIy passIonate and IyrIcaI Iorms oI
poetry In tbe earIy S0's, contemporary poetry
manIIests a skIIIIuI manIpuIatIon oI symboIIc
representatIons and Is more InsIgbtIuI and
abstract.
VarIous IIterary organIzatIons conduct IIve
readIng sessIons In pubIIc pIaces to make
poetry accessIbIe to tbe masses.
Tbe UMPIL (Unyong ng mga ManunuIat sa
PIIIpInas) and tbe LIRA (LInangan sa Imaben,
RetorIka at Anyo) boId sucb sessIons at Ora
CaIé, KamIas, Quezon CIty (PI ec. 12,
199S). Tbe CreatIve WrItIng oundatIon and
tbe PbIIIppIne LIterary Arts CouncII aIso
conduct sucb sessIons, even InvItIng guest
poets and wrIters.
Poetry readIng sessIons are aIso beIng beId In
pubIIc IIbrarIes In Metro ManIIa, Cebu, Naga
and TacIoban.
Tbe bead oI tbe NCCA (NatIonaI CommIssIon
Ior CuIture and tbe Arts) CommIttee on
LIterature Is ProI. RIc de UngrIa.
B. ESSAYS
IIIpIno essays address socIetaI Issues, are
more Iree and darIng, manIIestIng a more
IIberated atmospbere, bowever poIntIng out
moraI degradatIon, IndIcatIng InjustIce,
suggestIng aIternatIves, and dIrectIng tbougbt.
Essays were gIven IncentIves by newspaper
daIIy In coIumns ºYoung BIoodJHIgb BIood"
wbere entrIes were compIIed In book Iorms and
prIzes awarded to wrIters oI outstandIng
pIeces.
PopuIar topIcs were on personaI (bappy or
tragIc) experIences - abortIon, separatIon,
aIternatIve routes In IIIe and new-Iound
bappIness.
Tbe CarIos PaIanca MemorIraI Awards Ior
LIterature bave started Irom 199S a new
category - tbe Kabataang Essay Ior bIgb
scbooI students botb In IIIpIno and In
EngIIsb.
In tbIs connectIon, Conrado de QuIroz, In bIs
coIumn ºeterIoratIon" at tbe PbIIIppIne
aIIy InquIrer, depIores tbe apparent decIIne
In wrItIng abIIIty among tbe youtb aIter
standIng judge over many bIgb scbooI essay
contests attrIbutIng tbIs to tbe tremendous
decIIne In readIng.
ºIt's not tbat Iew peopIe are usIng EngIIsb or
IIIpIno; It Is tbat Iew peopIe are readIng. WItb
Iew peopIe readIng, Iew peopIe are wrItIng, or
wrItIng weII.
In tbIs country, be added, everyone wbo bas
wrItten a Ietter caIIs bImseII a wrIter.sbowIng
In wbat Iow esteem tbe art or craIt Is beId."
He attrIbutes tbe cuIprIts to TV and tbe
computer.
ºTbe enemy oI educatIon Isn't EngIIsb or
IIIpIno or bIIInguaIIsm," be contInues, ºbut
tbe TV. AIong wItb TV, computers are creatIng
a vIsuaI cuIture antItbetIcaI to readIng and
wrItIng."
C. SHORT STORIES
ObvIousIy, tbe sbort story Is stIII tbe more
popuIar venue oI wrIters up to tbIs perIod.
Tbe new breed oI wrIters seem to exceI In tbe
skIIIIuI bandIIng oI tecbnIques and In comIng
out wItb orIgInaI Iorms.
Sbort romantIc IIctIon In tbe vernacuIar bas
caugbt tbe Iancy oI many readers wbo perbaps
IInd tbese Iess tIme-consumIng, as weII as Iess
expensIve, gIvIng more tIme Ior remuneratIve
work and earnIng a IIvIng.
In 199?, tbe CarIos PaIanca MemorIaI Awards
opened tbree new dIvIsIons In tbe sbort
story: IIocano, Cebuano and HIIIgaynon.
Sbort story IIrst prIze wInners In tbe CarIos
PaIanca MemorIaI Awards In EngIIsb In 1996
and 199? were CarIos Ojeda Aureus (MartIIIo)
Ior bIs ºTbe Latecomer" and ºTbe AmuIet"
by avId C. MartInez (MIcbaeIa Sancbez),
respectIveIy.
In tbe MaIkIIng Kuwento category, we bad
ºPag-uugat, Pagpapakpak" by Levy BaIgos de
Ia Cruz (Lea VIctorIa) and Nang GabIng
Mamatay ang Nana SoIIng by AIvIn B. Yapan
(Jose AgustIn) In 1996 and 199?.
. PLAYS
ScrIptwrItIng, a popuIar and deveIopIng
IIterature Iorm Is probabIy
due to tbe growIng Interest In TV and tbe
vIsuaI arts.
Tbe IoIIowIng can be attrIbuted to tbIs trend:
1. TV and stage patronage
2. Tbeater groups IIke ramatIs Personae,
PETA (PbIIIppIne EducatIonaI Tbeater
AssocIatIon), uIaang UP, CCPramatIc Arts
IvIsIon Teatro TeIesIne, GantImpaIa Tbeater
oundatIon, MobIIe or TourIng CbIIdren's
tbeater groups
3. SubstantIaI awards In IIIm-makIng
4. ExpansIon to cater to cbIIdrens' needs
(TV's CbanneI S's BatIbot, and TangbaIang
Pambata)
S. Tbe popuIarIty oI TagIIsb wbIcb pepper
today's yuppy IIngo and wbIcb reacb out to
tbe masses
6. Tbe notIon oI seekIng popuIarIty and
ratIngs tbrougb exposure
?. CreatIve wrItIng worksbops
rom Its orIgInaI Sbort StorIes category, tbe
CarIos PaIanca MemorIaI Awards bave
expanded Its prIzes to One-act PIays and uII-
Iengtb pIays botb In EngIIsb and In IIIpIno.
. NOVELS
Many oI our wrIters bave turned to tbe more
remuneratIve and sborter IIterary Iorms tban
tbe Ionger noveIs wbIcb are IndIcatIve oI more
practIcaI consIderatIons.
Out better noveI wrIters bave settIed In tbeIr
twIIIgbt years, some to IoreIgn Iands or may
bave perbaps Iost tbe IeeI oI tbe IIIpIno
psycbe.
Lnd oí '¦c lrc·cn'|':on
lrc·cn'cr·.
l:ndo dc Ou:roz
)on|¦,n !|r:qu:n|
lO^ l.-!

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