# Stanford Geostatistical Earth Modeling Software

SGeMS :: SNESIM
@ Austin, Texas, 2007

Training image (TI)
A training image is a visually explicit model of heterogeneity/ continuity without any attempt at local accuracy
 Geological analogs, outcrops  Sequence stratigraphy  Object-based modeling  Process-based modeling  Physical rule-based modeling

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

A TI generator is available in SGeMS, coded by Amisha Maharaja

2

Original MPS implementation
Pixel-based approach building on sequential simulation paradigm
(Journel, Srivastava, 1992)

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Simulation grid Look for patterns matching the conditioning data
u3

Training image

u4

u?
u1

u2

Updated simulation ? u?

P(sand)=3/4 P(shale)=1/4 Draw simulated value

Go to next grid node along random path...

• Stochastic (multiple realizations) • Easy to condition (pixel-based) • General (not specific to channels) • But slow

3

Introduction of search tree

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

(Strebelle, 2000)

Store and classify occurrences of all training patterns (for a given data search neighborhood or data template) Construction requires scanning training image only once (fast) Read the facies probabilities from search tree during simulation
1 4 u 2 3

 

4

Single grid algorithm
Generic sequential simulation algorithm • • •
multiple-point Relocate any hard data to grid cells if required data event

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Define a random path Loop over all grid cells • Extract local data event (B) with a template B=any data and previously simulated values • Read P(A|B) from search tree • Draw from P(A|B) a value • Add that value to the data set
?

5

Single-grid unconditional simulation
Simulation (250X250) TI (250X250) 80 condition data (9X9) 120 seconds

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

150 condition data (12X12) 450 seconds
(P4, 3GHz CPU, 512 RAM)
6

Multiple-grid approach

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Full Empty Coarse grid template Fine grid template

In 1994, Tom Tran suggested multiple-grids as a solution :: Instead of using one large and dense template, utilize a series of cascading coarse grids and sparse templates.
7

Multiple-grid approach

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Coarse grid

Fine grid

Scan the training image using the coarse template. Perform a coarse grid simulation. Copy the content of the coarse grid to the fine grid and perform another ( fine grid ) simulation.

8

Multiple-grid approach

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Coarse grid

Fine grid

Scan the training image using the coarse template. Perform a coarse grid simulation. Copy the content of the coarse grid to the fine grid and perform another ( fine grid ) simulation.

9

Multiple-grid approach

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Coarse grid

Fine grid

Scan the training image using the coarse template. Perform a coarse grid simulation. Copy the content of the coarse grid to the fine grid and perform another ( fine grid ) simulation.

10

Multiple-grid unconditional simulation
TI (250x250) 60 condition data 36 seconds (3 grids)

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

80 condition data, 1 grid 120 seconds

150 condition data 450 seconds (single grid) (P4, 3GHz CPU 512 RAM)

11

Exercise :: single/multiple grids
 Load “facies_5.prj” (3/5 facies TI)

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Single and multiple-grid unconditional simulation

 Load “facies_2.prj” (2 facies channel TI)

single and multiple-grid simulation with and without well data conditioning

12

Soft data integration
Tau model is used to integrate soft data (Journel, 2002)
Prior probability Training image Seismic data

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

P ( A) P( A | B ) P( A | C )

1 − P(A | B, C) x= P(A | B, C) 1 − P(A) a= P(A)
b= 1 − P(A | B) P(A | B)

1 P(A | B, C) = ∈ [ 0,1] 1+ x

x b c =    a a a

τ1

τ2

c=

1 − P(A | C) P(A | C)

13

Exercise :: soft data conditioning
 Load “facies_2.prj” (2 facies channel TI)

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

simulation conditional to soft data (Pmud, Psand)  10 simulations + E-type; compare to the soft data

14

Local non-stationary
Reference, p=0.375
250.000

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

sand

North

shale

0.0

0.0

East

250.000

True reference used as Ti

Non-stationary patterns can NOT be simulated by a non-stationary TI
15

Non-stationary :: rotate TI
250

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

original TI

Reservoir actual deposition direction

θ
Training image deposition direction

0

250

ne

w

TI

Rotate training image by θ to look for conditioning data

Build one searching tree for each rotation angle θ

16

Non-stationary :: rescale TI
250

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

original TI

500

new TI

X2

0

250

X0.5
125

new TI

125

500
17

Non-stationary example
(TI manipulation internally)

North

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Fluvial fan deposit simulation:
25 hard data
250. 200.
sand

Channel orientation 45o 0
o

Channel thickness x2 x1 x0.5

Seismic

25 hard data locations, p=0.40

150.

100.
shale

50.

90o
0. 50. 100. 150. 200. 250.

0.

250.000

Realization with fetures (p=0.41) Simulated realization

sand

shale

18
0.0 0.0

East

250.000

Non-stationary example
(TI manipulation externally)
250 100 250

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

250

100

250

R4 R1 R2 R3

100

100

100

R1

100

R1+R2

200

R1+R2+R3

300
19

Exercise :: rotation/affinity
 Load “fan_snesim.prj” (2 facies, 2D channel TI)

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Orginal TI → TI | ti3

Run SNESIM simulation on “sim_grid” conditioning to Hard + Soft (Pmud, Psand)  Use rotation and affinity region (TI manipulation internally)

20

Exercise :: rotation/affinity
 Load “fan_snesim.prj” (2 facies, 2D channel

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

TI)

Orginal TI → TI | ti3  Squeeze (2) → TI | ti4  Rotate 900 TI → TI | ti5  Rotate 900 TI + squeeze (2) → TI | ti6  Rotate 450 TI → TI | ti1  Rotate 450 + expansion (2) TI → TI | ti0  Rotate 450 + squeeze (2) TI → TI | ti2

Hard + Soft (Pmud, Psand) simulation
Use region (TI manipulation externally)
21

3D examples
3D 3 facies channel TI (150x195x30) SNESIM realization (100x130x10)

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

22

Summary
SNESIM Categorical variables (<5) Simple structures Honor hard, soft, geology Statistics Pixel-wise simulation Good target control Soft data as probability Non-stationary

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

Fast, but memory demanding
23

Subgrid
C A C C B C A C C B C C B A C A A A B C B C B C B C C A C A C A C A B C B C B C B C C A C A C A C A B C B C B C B C C A C A C A C A B C B C B C B C

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

A

C

3rd grid 2nd grid

A : 1st sub-grid B : 2nd sub-grid C : 3rd sub-grid

24

Subgrid
B A B A B A B A A A B A A B ? A B A A B A B A B B A B A B B A B B C B A C

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

3rd grid 2nd grid A : 1st sub-grid B : 2nd sub-grid C : 3rd sub-grid basic node added node
25

maximum number of conditioning data = 14 + 4

Subgrid 2
C A C A C A C A B C B C B C B C C A C A C A C A B C B C B C B C C A C A C ? A C A B C B C B C B C C A C A C A C A B C B C B C B C C B A C

SGeMS SHORT COURSE :: SNESIM

3rd grid 2nd grid A : 1st sub-grid B : 2nd sub-grid C : 3rd sub-grid basic node added node
26

maximum number of conditioning data = 14 + 4

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