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a presentation on Automated Control of Power Generation at BAJAJ HINDUSTHAN SUGAR Ltd. Kinauni, Meerut.

By-

Ramakant. Shivam Yadav.

BHL : Overview
Bajaj Hindusthan Limited(BHL),a part of Bajaj Group, is Indias number one sugar and ethanol manufacturing company.
Bajaj Hindusthan Limited (BHL) was incorporated on 23rd November, 1931 under the name - The Hindusthan Sugar Mills Limited - on the initiative of Jamnalal Bajaj a disciple and adopted son of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1967, a new Company - Sharda Sugar & Industries Limited was established as a subsidiary of Hindusthan Sugar Mills Limited. In the year 1988, The Hindusthan Sugar Mills Limited was renamed as Bajaj Hindusthan Limited and shortly thereafter in 1990, Sharda Sugar & Industries Limited was amalgamated with Bajaj Hindusthan Limited.

Overview contd.

The Company embarked on an aggressive Greenfield expansion drive in 2003-2007, starting with a plant at Kinauni, near Meerut (UP). This facility commenced commercial production in November 2004. Today, with its sugar manufacturing facilities across ten locations in UP, BHL has a cane crushing capacity of 96,000 tcd and is also the country's largest ethanol producer with an output of 480 KL/ day. The Company's total bagasse based power generation capacity is 430 MW. After meeting its own energy needs, the Company has a surplus of 105 MW. It has already begun to supply a significant part of this surplus power to the UP state grid.

Power Generation : Boilers & Turbines

4 Water tube boilers are used for generating steam. 4 turbines are used to generate power,1 for each boiler.3 out of 4 turbines generate a power of 10MW and the remaining turbine generates a power of 5 MW.

Capacity - 40 TPH. Output pressure - 22 kg/cm2 . Temperature - 300 C. Fuel - Bagasse & Coal.

Capacity - 45 TPH. Output Pressure 30 kg/cm2. Temperature 350 C. Fuel Coal.

Boiler-1
Capacity - 90 TPH. Output pressure 45 kg/cm2. Temperature - 415 C. Fuel Coal.

Boiler-2
Capacity - 90 TPH. Output Pressure 45 kg/cm2. Temperature 415 C. Fuel Coal.

Boiler-3

Boiler-4

Power Generation Control & Monitoring


Distributed Control System(DCS) Programmable Logic Controllers(PLC) Pressure Reducing & desuperheating System(PRDS)

Distributed Control System

A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central in location but are distributed throughout the system with each component subsystem controlled by one or more controllers. The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for communication and monitoring. A DCS typically uses custom designed processors as controllers and uses both proprietary interconnections and communications protocol for communication. Input and output modules form component parts of the DCS.

The processor receives information from input modules and sends

information to output modules. The input modules receive information from input instruments in the process and transmit instructions to the output instruments in the field. Computer buses or electrical buses connect the processor and modules through multiplexer or demultiplexers. Buses also connect the distributed controllers with the central controller and finally to the Human-Machine Interface(HMI) or control consoles. Elements of a distributed control system may directly connect to physical equipment such as switches, pumps and valves or may work through an intermediate system such as a SCADA. DCS for controlling the boiler parameters are installed near the turbines. Any regulation in the voltage generated by the turbine can be achieved by altering the boiler output to turbine.

Programmable Logic Controllers(PLCs)

A PLC is an industrial computer used to monitor inputs, and depending upon their state make decisions based on its program or logic, to control (turn on/off) its outputs to automate a machine or a process. PLC controller is usually the central part of any process control system. PLCs make use of : Processing Unit: For processing the instructions Input and Output. Memory Unit : For storing the reference values of the parameters. Input/Output Unit : For input/output operations of the parameters.

PLCs are used to control the operating conditions of the boilers.

This is brought about by a number of actuators, like current to pnuematic converters & vice-versa, current to displacement converters & vice-versa, employed along with the boilers to control the process of production of steam. PLCs are used because of certain Advantages of PLC control : * PLCs have a rugged design and they can withstand vibrations, temperature, humidity, and noise. * PLCs provide interfacing for inputs and outputs already inside the controller. Therefore external interfacing devices need not to be used which unnecessarily increase the cost of installation as well as the PLC system. * PLCs can be easily programmed and have an easily understood programming language.

Typical PLC Screen

Elements shown on PLC Screen : 1. Output Steam Pressure. 2. Relative Graph of Throttle and Pressure in the boiler. 3. Current Pressure inside the boiler. 4. Values of Set points. 5. Current Throttle. 6. Pressure and Supply Controls. 7. Switch for sounding the alarm. 8. Boiler Steam Flow rates. 9. Current Temperature of the contents of Boiler. The above parameters can be easily monitored and controlled with the help of PLC systems. The provision of an alarm sounding system ensures the safety of the plant, while the set points can also be altered as per the requirements.

Pressure Reducing & desuperheating System (PRDS)

PRDS is a pressure reducing and de-superheating system in single valve with an efficient mixing of steam with spray water. PRDS has a high turndown ratio of 40 : 1 i.e. the output pressure and temperature conditions are reduced 40 times the input pressure and temperature conditions. The use of a PRDS system is necessary in a power generation plant as the steam output from the boiler is at a very high temperature and pressure. In PRDS valve, the pressure of the input steam is reduced by increasing the cross-sectional area of the valve, with the broader end towards the ouput.

After this,spray water is injected at the Vena contracted region immediately after the pressure reduction. This is a highly turbulent zone and since steam is at an adiabatically cooled condition, the spray water evaporates spontaneously.
Thus the steam is effectively de-superheated bringing down its

temprature is considerably before it is fed to the turbines.

Reduction of noise level due to mist formation by water is an added advantage.


This is the most effective way of desuperheating since steam temperature, after pressure reduction, is not allowed to recover back. The PRDS used in the plant converts 22 kg/cm2, 30kg/cm2 & 45 kg/cm2 steam pressure from the boilers to 9.5 kg/cm2, 11 kg/cm2, 15 kg/cm2 respectively.

Typical PRDS Valves :

A typical PRDS valve has a linear characteristic. Modified characteristics can be obtained through specially designed valves. The water used as spray water should be of boiler feed quality.

The locations for the temperature and pressure sensors should be located at 11m and 1.5 m from the valve for accurate temperature and pressure measurements of the input as well as output steam. Minimum Controllable temperature should be saturation temperature + 7 C so that the valve is able to produce the rated temperature of the steam at output. In the plant the PRDS valves were used for following purposes : Single stage pressure reduction for normal duty conditions. High pressure drops with multi stage trims. Pressure Balanced trims to achieve low thrust requirements.

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