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PRIMARY MEMORY

MALINI MOHAN S1 MBA

Memory is a part of computer

system that is used for the storage and subsequent retrieval of data and instructions. The computer has to store the data to be processed, instructions for and results after data processing.

Memory is divided into a number of identical cells

of equal size. Identified with an address or location in memory. Control unit can call a specific piece of information by the address or location of the cells. Information or data is called by means of its address. Data are stored in binary form. Each of the cells is further broken down into smaller parts known as bits. Bit is a binary digit which is either 0 or 1.

CELL 0
CELL 1 CELL 2 ..

MEMORY STORAGE OF A DIGITAL COMPUTER

CHARACTERISTICS OF MEMORY SYSTEM


Location. Capacity.

Method of accessing.

Sequential access 2. Random access Speed. 1. Access time 2. Memory cycle time 3. Transfer rate Volatility 1. Volatile memory 2. Non-volatile memory
1.

BITS
Data are represented

in a computer system either by the presence or absence of electronic or magnetic signals in the media it uses. Electronic devices such as transistors used in computers function most reliably when operated as switches, that is either in a conducting mode (on)nor in a non-conducting mode (off). All data to be stored and processed in computers are transformed or coded as strings of two symbols. These symbols are 0 and 1 popularly known as binary digits or BITS.

BYTE / NIBBLE
Byte is a group of 8 bits. In binary one byte is capable of

representing

numbers from 0 to 255. One byte is the smallest unit which can represent a data item or a character. A nibble is a string of 4 bits.

MEASUREMENT UNITS
Data are stored inside the computer in binary

form. Coded as strings of two symbols 0 or 1. One byte can store one character. Smallest unit is byte. Bigger units are Kilo Byte (KB), Mega Byte (MB), Giga Byte (GB), and Tera Byte (TB).

MEMORY ORGANISATION
Computer stores data and programs in memory. Memory of a computer can be classified into the following.
oPrimary (main) memory. oSecondary (auxiliary)memory oCache memory.

PRIMARY MEMORY
Central storage unit of the computer

system. The program of instructions has to be stored in the main memory in order to make it work automatically. This memory stores instructions waiting to be obeyed by other components of the CPU, instructions currently being obeyed, data awaiting processing, data currently being processed and processed data awaiting output.

Main memory is the computers chalkboard,

in that it is used for temporary storage during the course of a computation.

CHARACTERISTICS OF MAIN MEMORY


Fast access- can transfer a data to or from main

memory in less than a billionth of a second. Random access- main memory is a random access memory. Moderate capacity Volatility Cost per bit of storage Location- always placed along with the main board of the computer unit.

TYPES OF MAIN MEMORY


Built as a part of CPU.

Semi conductor

materials are used for manufacturing the main memory of a computer.

MAIN MEMORY

Main Memory

Magnetic Core Memory

Semi Conductor Memory

Magnetic Bubble Memory

Charge Coupled Devices

MAGNETIC CORE MEMORY


Was introduced in 1955 and was used till 1975.

Ferro magnetic ring with a hole in the center.


Low cost Low power consumption Low generation Durability

of heat

Non-viability
Slow speed operational problems.

SEMI CONDUCTOR MEMORY


Basic unit of any semi conductor memory is the

memory cell capable of storing one binary digit. Memory being formed by fabricating many cells on a single silicon chip. Individual chips are arranged in groups to form a memory module which can be plugged into the computer. These are smaller, better and faster than cores.

DIFF. B/W MAGNETIC CORE


MAGNETIC CORE
Non volatile Relatively large access time Relatively large and heavy High power consumption Moderately priced Destructive read out Limited range of read and write cycle times Best for large memories

&

SEMI CONDUCTOR MEMORY


SEMI CONDUCTOR
Volatile Short access time Relatively small and light Low power consumption depends on technology Non-destructive read out Wide range of read and write cycle times Best for small or medium sized memories.

MAGNETIC BUBBLE MEMORY


MBM stores data in form of magnetic bubbles in

a specially grown crystalline or magnetic material. Bubbles are cylindrical magnetic domains whose polarization is opposite to that of the thin magnetic film in which they are embedded. MBM was developed in Bell Laboratories, USA.

MAJOR MERITS AND DEMERITS


High capacity. Long time.

Low cost.
Non-volatile. Low power

consumption. Radiates less heat than other storage devices.

CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES (CCD)


Invented by Bells Lab in early 1970s.

Stores data as packets of charges within a

semiconductor chip without using a transistor as a memory element. The circuitory used to store, move and access the packets of data also reside on the same chip.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CCDS
Faster than MBM.

Volatile.
Low power consumption. High density. Data are stored in terms of charges on capacitors.

TYPES OF SEMICONDUCTOR MEMORY

Main memory based on semiconductor technology is broadly classified into two : Random Access Memory (RAM) Read Only Memory (ROM)

RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)


Read / write memory.

Main memory

that can be written into it or read

from it. A stored word can accessed from RAM in a given amount of time. RAM is used for storing application programs or for starting immediate results during program execution. RAM is volatile.

ADVANTAGES OF
Can be updated and corrected.

RAM

Serve as a temporary data storage.

Do not require lead time like ROMs or longing

programs like PROMs. No special programming equipment is needed like PROMs.

TYPES OF RAM
STATIC RAM (SRAM)

DYNAMIC RAM (DRAM)

STATIC RAM (SRAM)


Data elements are stored using traditional flip-

flop logic gate configurations. Will hold data as long as power is supplied. SRAMs are volatile and allow the storage of data in the memory array.

MERITS AND DEMERITS OF


MERITS

SRAM

DEMERITS

Faster No need to refresh.

More expensive. Low density.

Does not need

continuing power.

DYNAMIC RAM (DRAM)


Semi conductor

integrated circuits that operate like a bark of capacitors. Volatile in nature and also requires periodic refresh signals.

MERITS AND DEMERITS OF


MERITS

DRAM

DEMERITS

Cheaper. High density.

Slower. Needs continous

power.

READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)


Memory which is permanently programmed

and

can be read. No information can be written into ROM. Is employed to store the programs required permanently called the firmware. Non-volatile. ROMs are created with programs already embedded in them, by a process called burning.

ROM can be classified into,


Programmable

ROMs (PROM) Erasable Programmable ROMs (EPROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable (EEPROM) Flash EEPROM or Flash Memory

PROM Version of ROM that cannot be changed during normal operation but can be programmed under special conditions. Data cannot be erased either deliberately or accidently event when the electric power goes off. PROMs are non-volatile.
EPROM Can be erased by exposing it to UV light. Non-volatile memory. Popular EPROM are MOSFET transistors.

EEPROM
Can be erased and programmed many times. Heavy current intensity is used to alter the trapped electrons on the memory cell. Electrically Changeable / Alterable Programmable ROM (EAPROM)

Flash EEPROM or Flash Memory


Erased and reprogrammed in blocks instead of one byte as in EEPROM. Faster.

ADVANTAGES OF
Non-volatile.

ROMS

More reliable than RAM because their circuitory is

simple. Static and do not require refresh. Easier to interface than RAM and they cant be changed accidently. Cheaper than RAMs. Available in sizes larger than RAMs. Easy to test because their contents are always known and can be varied.