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Midterm

Midterm
Multiple choice on scantron/bring #2 pencil Major concepts moreso than details Reviewing LECTURES is key PPT files
background & extra in Chapters 1, 3-4, 9, 20 in Longley et al.

Will not include


Web Sites of the Week (WSWs) Labs

Learning Assessment/Practice Questions on class web site

GIS Data Capture:


Getting the Map into the Computer
Chapter 9, Longley et al.

Overview
Introduction Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Error and accuracy

Data Collection
Can be most expensive GIS activity Many diverse sources Two broad types of collection
Data capture (direct collection) Data transfer

Two broad capture methods


Primary (direct measurement) Secondary (indirect derivation)

Data Collection Techniques


Field/Raster Object/Vector Primary
Digital remote sensing images Digital aerial photographs GPS measurements including VGI Survey measurements Topographic surveys Toponymy data sets from atlases

Secondary

Scanned maps DEMs from maps

Stages in Data Collection Projects


Planning

Evaluation

Preparation

Editing / Improvement

Collection / Transfer

Primary Data Capture


Capture specifically for GIS use Raster remote sensing
e.g., SPOT and IKONOS satellites and aerial photography, echosounding at sea Passive and active sensors

Resolution is key consideration


Spatial Spectral, Acoustic Temporal

Vector Primary Data Capture


Surveying
Locations of objects determines by angle and distance measurements from known locations Uses expensive field equipment and crews Most accurate method for large scale, small areas

GPS
Collection of satellites used to fix actual locations on Earths surface Differential GPS used to improve accuracy

Total Station

GPS Handhelds
geographic coordinates text

photos

video

audio

Bluetooth, WiFi

cell towers +/- 500 m


Google db of tower locations

Wi-Fi +/- 30 m GPS +/- 10 m


iPhone uses reference network Skyhook servers and db

Graphic courtesy of Wired, Feb. 2009

Power to the People:VGI & PPGIS


Volunteered Geographic Information
Wikimapia.org Openstreetmap.org Aka crowdsourcing

Public Participation GIS


GEO 599, Fall 2007 Papers still online at dusk.geo.orst.edu/virtual/

Example:

A Boon for International Development Agencies


Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Robert Soden, www.developmentseed.org

International Development, Humanitarian Relief


Mogadishu, Somalia

Robert Soden, www.developmentseed.org

Haiti Disaster, MapAction.org

Citizen Sensors

UCLA Center for Embedded Networked Sensing, http://peir.cens.ucla.edu

Societal Issues (privacy, surveillance, ethics) e.g., Google StreetView

Google Maps Mania Blog

Early and late May 2008

More surveillance (electronic, video, biological, chemical) integrated into national system

From Chris Peterson, Foresight Institute As presented at OSCON 2008, Portland

From Chris Peterson, Foresight Institute As presented at OSCON 2008, Portland

Graphic: Gina Miller

Sewer monitoring has begun

The test doesnt screen people directly but instead seeks out evidence of illicit drug abuse in drug residues and metabolites excreted in urine and flushed toward municipal sewage treatment plants.
From Chris Peterson, Foresight Institute As presented at OSCON 2008, Portland

Secondary Geographic Data Capture


Data collected for other purposes, then converted for use in GIS Raster conversion
Scanning of maps, aerial photographs, documents, etc. Important scanning parameters are spatial and spectral (bit depth) resolution

Scanner

Vector Secondary Data Capture


Collection of vector objects from maps, photographs, plans, etc. Photogrammetry the science and technology of making measurements from photographs, etc. Digitizing
Manual (table) Heads-up and vectorization

Digitizer

GEOCODING
spatial information ---> digital form capturing the map (digitizing, scanning) sometimes also capturing the attributes mapematical calculation, e.g., address matching
WSW

The Role of Error


Map and attribute data errors are the data producer's responsibility, GIS user must understand error. Accuracy and precision of map and attribute data in a GIS affect all other operations, especially when maps are compared across scales.

Accuracy
closeness to TRUE values
results, computations, or estimates

compromise on infinite complexity


generalization of the real world difficult to identify a TRUE value

e.g., accuracy of a contour


Does not exist in real world Compare to other sources

Accuracy (cont.)
accuracy of the database = accuracy of the products computed from database e.g., accuracy of a slope, aspect, or watershed computed from a DEM

Positional Accuracy
typical UTM coordinate pair might be: Easting 579124.349 m Northing 5194732.247 m If the database was digitized from a 1:24,000 map sheet, the last four digits in each coordinate (units, tenths, hundredths, thousandths) would be questionable

Positional Accuracy
A useful rule of thumb is that positions measured from maps are accurate to about 0.5 mm on the map. Multiplying this by the scale of the map gives the corresponding distance on the ground.
Map scale 1:1250 1:2500 1:5000 1:10,000 1:24,000 1:50,000 1:100,000 1:250,000 1:1,000,000 1:10,000,000 Ground distance corresponding to 0.5 mm map distance 62.5 cm 1.25 m 2.5 m 5m 12 m 25 m 50 m 125 m 500 m 5 km

Testing Positional Accuracy


Use an independent source of higher accuracy:
find a larger scale map (cartographically speaking) use GPS

Use internal evidence: digitized polygons that are unclosed, lines that overshoot or undershoot nodes, etc. are indications of inaccuracy sizes of gaps, overshoots, etc. may be a measure of positional accuracy

Precision
not the same as accuracy! repeatability vs. truth not closeness of results, but number of decimal places or significant digits in a measurement A GIS works at high precision, usually much higher than the accuracy of the data themselves

Accuracy vs. Precision

Accuracy vs. Precision

Components of Data Quality


positional accuracy attribute accuracy logical consistency completeness lineage