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Borosil Mansingh Survismeter: Green &

Sustainable Technological breakthrough in


Pharmaceutical Industries
Prof. Man Singh, Dean
School of Chemical Sciences
Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar
Email: mansingh50@hotmail.com
Presentation on: Resource Saving Device
for pharmaceutical QC, formulation &
Applications
24
th
Dec 2010 Hotel Pride, Ahmadabad
Singapore Patent: 126089 granted on 28
th
Jul 2008


How come BMS an asset to Pha-ceutical science
Pha-ceutics/pharmacy opens all options to turn a new
chemical entity into medication
If is safe & effective
It is a science of dosage form design
Since many chemicals show pha-cological properties
But a raw chemical is of no use
Thus formulation of drug molecule into a dosage
form is required for pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics,
pharmacoepidemiology, pharmaceutical formulation &
technology
Molecular interaction engineering, intermolecular activities &
activation are foundation of pha.ceutical sciences



Physicochemical Indicators: PCI
Formulation needs stable & acceptable drug
It has several substances apart from drug itself
So QC is must to ensure drug compatibility with them
Pre-formulation need PC & chemicomechanical study
of drug for choosing ingredients
E.g. Protein pre-formulation needs solubilization
under stress: Freeze, temperature, shear stress for
degradation & formulation
For bioavailability & activity of drug
PCI sense stability data like disintegration @



Why are PCI essential for drug QC
Drug is in association of inactive additives for
consistent drug dosage
E.g. tablet with uniform appearance, acceptable taste,
hardness, disintegration be maintained
Diluents, longer stability of formulations
loading ratio of active drug w.r.t. total contents is a
highly sensitive formulation
Stability is essential but if it is not then invalid
results are obtained in clinical trials
It is also impossible to administer actual dose
Hence PCI infer structural changes in IMF, IMA
Drug stability for efficiency
Under temperature, humidity, oxidation, photolysis-
UV or visible lights is analyzed for degradation
Also to check unwanted interactions in preparation &
container
Test for plastic container stability is done to prevent
ingredients adsorption on it
Interaction with plasticizers, lubricants, pigments,
stabilizers leach out of plastic
Adhesives for container are ensured for not leaching
through plastic container into preparation/packing
Cohesive, frictional, friccohesity, van der Waals
forces are analyzed for QC





Molecular activities for drug efficiency
Drug substance must be soluble in aqueous medium
at a controlled @
Particle size affect dissolution
Fast dissolution is not ideal as slow dissolution @
As it can prolong a duration of action & also avoid
initial high plasma level
Study of active ingredient is must
Spherical particle shape is advantageous for drug
formulation
Hence molecular activities do control QC
Surface area along surface energy is analyzed

Frequent formulation tests need eco-friendly dev
Several molecular activity based data: Surface
tension, interfacial tension, wetting coefficient, surface
area, particle size, viscosity & friccohesity act as most
authentic PCI for pharmaceutical applications
Their frequent individual measurement with usual
method for analytical tests
Need manifolds experimental resources,
infrastructural support, skilled manpower, time
utilization
It wastes huge chemicals & laboratory infrastructure
causing pollution on discharge
Borosil offers a cutting edge & sustainable device
Fundamental concept: Electrostatics induce PCI
Cohesive force =
(
(

= =
+
+
2 2
0
4
1
pm
pm pm
w
w w
pm w nimf
r
q q
r
q q
F F F
tc
> Adhesive force
Adhesive force >
Surface tension
Non-wetting surfaces: Lotus
leave, Teflon surface, glossy
surface, Interacting
non-corrosive surface
Wetting surface: low quality
paints, earth surface, metallic
surfaces-NSS, ordinary paper,
corrosive surface

Inventions Create Human Histories:
R4M4 Tech: A step forwards
Pharmaceutical
world
R
4

Reduce
Reuse
Recycle
Redesign
Hilarious &
Exciting for
M4
Multipurpose
Multidimensional
Multitasking
Multitracking
Enables analysts, users, researchers,
R & D, QC, formulation & new developments
Measures Fundamental Physicochemical
Quality Control Indicators [PQCI]
1. Surface tension (10
-2
mN/m) or energy
(10
-2
mJ/m
2
)
2. Interfacial tension IFT (10
-2
mN/m)
3. Wetting coefficient (10
-10
kg/Ns)
4. Surface area ( 10
-2
m
2
/mol)
5. Viscosity ( 10
-4
mPa.s)
6. Activation energy ( 10
-4
mJ/mol
2
)
7. Friccohesity ( 10
-6
s/m) Dual Force Theory
8. Molecular interacting efficiency



Data Measuring Limits (DML)
MV & HV models
1. Surface tension :10 to 200 10
-2
mN/m
2. IFT: 0.5 to desired 10
-2
mN/m
3. Wetting coeff.: 0 to desired 10
-10
kg/Ns
4. Surface area: 0 to desired 10
-2
m
2
/mol
5. Viscosity:(MV) model: 0 to 300 10
-4
cP
(HV) model: 100 to 2000 10
-4
cP
6. Activation energy: Based on MV & HV data
7. Hydrodynamic volume: Proteins, drugs
8. Friccohesity
Conceptual & Working Theory
Loop Air Pressure Monitoring [LAPM]
Bypassing Liquid Potential Energy [BLPE]
Gravitational & Non-G Operation [GO, NGO]
On & Off Junctions [OOJ] & piston pump operate
Survismeter 5 loops & 5 functional bulbs [FB]
FB holds sample at different potential energies
OOJ encloses loop to functionalize experiments
Reservoir bulb [RB] pools up sample & bypasses to
loops
Unequal pressure in loops & RB become operational
where AP = 0 & pressure gradient generated


Nomenclature & Genesis
Natural science & pronunciation convenience
[Pagan Theory]: Hyphenated Tech
Sur: Derives from surface tension, interfacial tension,
cohesive force, wetting coefficient
Vis: Viscosity, frictional forces, Newtonian & non-
Newtonian liquids, solvent binding & carrying, shear
stress
Meter: Quantity assessment for non-ideal analysis
Theory: Potential Energy & Liquid Distribution
Equilibrium [PELDE] in closed carburetor
Friccohesity [s m
-1
] Frictional & Cohesive forces

Concept
,
Physicochemical data calculations
.
0
0
0

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n
0
0 0
q

q
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t
t
2
1
-
i
) x - (x
1
1

=
n
i
n
s

q q
A
t
h
t
h
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
2 2
Surface tension
Interfacial
Tension
( )
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
= o o 1 0012 . 0
0 0
0
n
n
t
B
t
t

\
|
|
|
.
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
HDL
HDL
LDL HDL HDL
IFT
n

LDL in HDL
air in
n
Viscosity
Wetting coefficient
Friccohesity
Magneto Rheological Fluid: MRF
MRF is smart in carrier fluid like oil with intacted
CBF (covalent bonding force)
Apparent viscosity increased with magnetic field to a
point of viscoelastic solid
Viscoelasticity materials (VEM) exhibit both viscous
& elastic nature on deformation
Viscous, honey resists shear flow & strain linearly
with time on applying a stress
Elastic materials strain instantaneously on stretching
& quickly return to original state on removing a stress
Elasticity is due to bond stretching in lattice
MRF could enhance efficiency of formulations
binding, breaking, assimilation, association, dissociation,
adhesivity, movement, bond formation, electronic shift,
Newtonian & non-Newtonian liquids,
dispersion forces, intoxication, protein unfolding
Wetting-drug disintegration, dewetting, energy liberation,
entropy, curing, water effects
Oil/fat-water, mixing with surfactant mutual mixing, LLI-
IFT, salting out, (NH
4
)
2
(SO
4
) separate out protein
Surface activity, surface area (1/, m
2
/mol), IFT, wetting
coefficient (WC), viscosity (N s m
-2
), dipole moment range
Herbal anti-wrinkle creams, cosmetics, soaps, detergent,
inks, sol gels.
Boosts up major pharmaceutical applications
Extreme QC for medium to avoid recipe reaction with
fillers, coating, thin film forming material as PQCI
No complex formation, optimization of binding
forces, dissolution, absorption of drugs
For batch to batch QC, fillers ointments
QSAR: quantitative structure-activity relationship
Biological activity or chemical reactivity is
quantitatively expressed as molecule conc. for certain
biological response
PCI/structures are noted as numbers/quantitative
structure-activity relationship for biological response
of chemical structures


Syrup routine volume formation for syrups

Oil-water emulsion, colloids, lotions, Listerine,
Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, a value fixed in
advanced for syrups
Gels, sterilization
F & D : Formulation & development
Solubilzation
Drug receptor interaction
Drug protein interaction
Drug binding
Surface area
Potential gradient driven activities
Active ingredient activities due to activation energy,
particle hydration as it is least active
why do you feel thirsty just after salty food intake but
not water sweet items
QC of pha-ceutical expicient, wetting agents for drug,
micro emulsion, molecular force control
Surfactant as additives in pharmaceutical liquids,
emulsifier, rheological study of pharmaceutical
liquids, semisolids, pesticides,
Poorly wettable drugs surfactant addition based on
law of mass action: Le chatelier actions
Potential gradient driven action

Anti-wrinkle/nasolabial folds cream formulation
Unequal molecular force distribution (MFD) for
creating active, efficient drugs
Since MFD is not equal in suspension & force
interface works as crack theory due to least CF
Suspension are not stable & settled with time as two
unequal forces vectors works together
Hence friccohesity is great phenomenon
Anti-wrinkle/nasolabial folds creams unequal force
For scanning KCl aqueous gel solution with
conducting properties
spreading capacity in cosmetics
Flocculants
Viscosity control mechanical mixing & sedimentation
of 0.1 m particles in water with negative electrostatic
charge repel each other
Coagulants neutralize electrostatic charge &
particles collide & agglomerate together with Van der
Waals's forces
Larger & heavier particles are not flocs
Flocculants or flocculating or flocking agents do
flocculation in colloids & other suspended particles in
liquids to aggregate forming a floc
Surface are and particle size are determined with
survismeter

Applications of flocculants
Flocculants purify water by sedimentation or filtering
smaller particles
Are used in swimming pool or drinking water to
remove turbid/cloud causing microscopic particles
Flocculants are multivalent cations: Al
3+,
Fe
3+
, Ca
2+
&
attract x
-
particles & molecules
Reduce barriers to aggregation
pH, temperature, salinity form insoluble hydroxides
precipitating forming long chains or meshes
Long-chain polymer flocculants are polyacrylamides,
a sold flocculant as good business supplied in dry or
liquid form in flocculation


Flocculants
Common liquid polyacrylamide is supplied as
emulsion with 10-40% active & rest a carrier fluid,
surfactants & latex
Emulsion polymers need activation to invert emulsion
& allow electrolyte groups to be exposed
Flocculants: alum, aluminum chlorohydrate,
aluminum sulfate, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide,
iron (II) sulfate, iron (III) chloride, polyacrylamide,
sodium aluminate, sodium silicate


Spreadability analysis
Sunscreen creams, anti-sunburn skin-care preparation
must form continues thin film with higher spreadibility
Hence high quality biosufacatnst are added
Iodine tincture with heating holding capacity
Cold cream making continuous thin film with holding
moisture so that skin does not crack
Moistening creams in summer
Edible oil trans is cancerous (max 2.5%) & cis non-
cancerous, different molecular structure with different
friccohesity



Fermentation checking, similarly bioremediation
,
Fermentor
On going fermentation process
for checking production of
biosurfactants
Department of
Biochemical
Engineering
& Biotechnology
IIT-Delhi
Basically Survismeter is a dream project
Piston
pump
Pressure
regulator
New pha-ceutical products formation: magnetic effect
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B6
High reversibility
Critical point
in alignment
Constant value

Solid behavior
Heterocity causes more shear in B1

Poly-N-vinyl pyrrolidone oximo-L-Valyl-Siliconate





M. Singh, G. Vani, Bull Korean Chem Soc 31, 1869, 2010
Excellent model
of molecular motions
Highly useful
for acoustics, biosensors
structural
protein unfolding
H
Atomic
tier structure
POVS
H
American Society for Testing & Materials
In ASTM standards q = centipoise (cP)
1 p = 1 g cm
-1
s
-1
=10
-3
kg 10
2
m
-1
s
-1

1 p = 0.1 kg m
-1
s
-1
= 0.1 Pascal
1 cP=[(0.1)/100] Pa s = 0.001 Pa.s,10
-3
= milli (m)
1 cP = 1 mPa s = 0.001 Pa s
q water =8.9010
-4
Pa s = 8.9010
-3
dyn s/cm
2
=
0.890 cP at 25C
q water at 20C = 1.0020 cP = 0.001002 kg/m s
q blood 37C = 3 to 4 cP, almost 3 to 4 times of water
q glycerol = 1490 cP, q honey = 2,000-10,000 cP,
castor oil 985 cP, corn syrup 1.3806 1380.6 cP
Blood q higher than water ?
q water = 0.8903 cP
Blood q modulates tissue perfusion, C. Lenz et al

Health Care Industry
Blood q reducing drugs: Pentoxifylline (Trental) &
oxypentifylline; physician prescribes
Anticoagulants: Warfarin (Coumadin), blood thinners
or clot inhibitors
Calcium channel blockers: Diltiazem (Cardizem), to
treat high blood pressure
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors:
Enalapril (Vasotec), used to treat high blood pressure



MRF of Aqueous protein mixtures
Singh M, Bull J. Chem. Edu. 18,2009, 172
Why does egg
on boil becomes
brittle: IMF
Not necessarily MRF
on magnetic does
Synovial fluid-SF in synovial joints cavities
SF is non-Newtonian flow
viscosity coefficient is not constant & fluid is not
linearly viscous
SF is thixotropic, viscosity decreases & fluid thins
over a period of continued stress
Normal SF contains 3 to 4 mg/ml hyaluronan
hyaluronic acid
D-N-acetylglucosamine joined by alternating beta-1,4
& beta-1,3 glycosidic bonds
Hyaluronan increase viscosity & elasticity of
cartilages & lubricate surfaces



MRF: molecular energetics & stronger H bonding

Glycerol, sorbitaol, carboxymethyl cellulose bind water,
hydrodynamic volume = ([].M), infers gelation
Metallic toxicity, detoxification, AG=-[2.303nRTlog (/
0
)]
Molecular potentialities, biophysics, colloidal sciences,
AG=-2.303nRTlog [], []=intrinsic viscosity
Emulsions & rheology of biomacromelcules, activation
energy (E*)
log()=log A-(E*/R)1/T, slope= E*/R, R=8.314 J mol
-1
k
-1

Entropic driven dents for resolving cholesterol deposition
k stability constant: AG=-2.303nRTlog (/
0
)
log k = AG/(2.303nRT), antilog gives k value
Entropy AS=(AG/A), AH (enthalpy change) =AG+TAS


Food Rheology: FR
FR is useful in food processing for QC/QA due to
consistency in flow, A(IMF) = 0, NI
Consistency & degree of fluidity infer storing
duration, stability & texture
For unadulterated & fresh food q & are
reproducible at desired interval of time
Consumer acceptability depends on textures:
Like how spreadable & creamy a food product is
Thickeners-starch, gel, proteins in aqueous increase q
without modifying taste
Increase stability & maintain suspension of added
ingredients

Food thickeners FT
FT are polysaccharides: Starches, vegetable gums,
pectin & proteins
Flavorless starch: Arrowroot, cornstarch, katakuri
starch, potato starch, sago, tapioca
Vegetable gums: Alginin, guar gum, locust bean gum,
xanthan gum
Proteins: Collagen, egg whites, furcellaran, gelatin
Sugars: Agar & carrageenan
Sodium pyrophosphate acts on casein in milk in
preparation of instant pudding & are
functional flours

Functional flour
Functional flour are produced from cereals: wheat,
maize, rice
with specific heat treatment increase stability,
consistency,
Acidic pH, sterilization, freeze conditions, help
industries to formulate fresh food for final consumer
Thickening agents like gelling are additives in
cosmetics as personal hygiene products
Are used to thicken & stabilize liquid solutions,
emulsions, & suspensions
FT are polysaccharides (starches, vegetable gums,
pectin, proteins)

Micelles, Softanol 90, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether,
C12-14, m+n=11
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005
% conc.
s
u
r
f
a
c
e

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

m
N
/
m
Aq-Bovine serum albumin
Aq-Softanol 90
CH
3
-(CH
2
)
m
-CH-(CH
2
)
n
-CH
3
O-(CH
2
-CH
2
O)
x
H
Nonionic surfactants, emulsifier
defoaming agent, spreader, detergents, uses-
textile, agriculture, pulp & paper, etc.
scouring agent, emulsion polymerization,
dispersant,
Surfactants & dendrimeres for MRF
Surfactant: Alky chain (hydrophobic) & functional
group (hydrophilic) Anionic, Cationic, Nonionic:
Industrial inputs*





Dodecylbenzensulfonicacid
DBSA anionic

Tetramethylammonuimhydroxide
TMAH Cationic

Carboxymethyl
cellulose (CMC),
glycerol (longer
flower life),
polyoxyethylen,
butanol, pentanol
nonionic
Monitoring of
molecular surfaces
Studies are required for comparative
agglomeration
Molecular radii: r A
0
(10
-10
nm)
(/
0
)=2.5 , volume fraction, Einstein eqn
in 1 Poise =1 g cm
-1
s
-1
,

p & Pascal-sec: P=0.1kg m
-1
s
-1
= 1
Pa s,1 cP (centi p)= 0.001 Pa s = 1 mPa s
= (4/3)tr
3
Nc, N=6.022x10
23
is Avogadro number, c is
recipe concentration
Entanglement of herbal molecule HV=[]M

c, mol/L
Molecular binding
Ideal or inviscid liquid
Molecular fragmentation
Binding influence
activities of
molecules like
impurities change
properties
Quality of herbal formulations must have critical compositions
for maximum potential
PVP-Oxime interaction mechanism, self H-Bonding
H
2
C CH
2
H
2
C
N
(CH CH
2
)n
N O H
CH
2
H
2
C
CH
2
N
(CH
N O H
CH
2
H
2
C
CH
2
N
N O H
H
2
C CH
2
H
2
C
N
(CH CH
2
)n
N O H
CH
2
)n
(CH CH
2
)n
hydrogen
bonding
H
2
C CH
2
H
2
C C
N
(CH CH
2
)n
O
Industrial Applications
Molionic (molecular & ionic) like blood, serum,
biofluids, glucose water, electoral, herbal mixture,
medicines Chavanprash
Molecular mixtures: Glucose-water, amino acid-
water, protein-water, benzene-acetone
Ionic mixtures: NaCl-water, NH
4
Cl-water, salts-water
Zwitterionic mixtures: Amino acids,
Industrial solvents: Tetrachloroethylene in dry
cleaning & toluene, turpentine in paint thinners
Stabilizers butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),
carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), tooth paste, digital
inks, blends
A A
2
0* bulk
> A
2
0* sur
activation energies
.
-120
-112
-104
-96
-88
-80
-72
-64
-56
-48
-40
-32
-11000
-10700
-10400
-10100
-9800
-9500
-9200
-8900
-8600
-8300
Activation energy
in surface
reorinetation on
LHS Y-axix
Activation energies
in bulk
reorientation on
RHS Y-axix
A A
2
0* bulk
> A
2
0* sur

Dendrimers, dialkylmalonate esters bifurcations,
binding & transporting capacities for anticancer
drugs
High potential, surface area, wider interstices
Surround cancerous cells, toxic metals, optimize free
radicals, unfold protein, interact with weakly active
cholesterol
Maximum
stretching
Drug binders MRF
starch
dextrose
D-fructose
Magnetic dose
Critical Tn Concentration (CTC)
Variation differs than MRF
Magnetic dose
Biocompatible surfactants, EDTA anionic surfactant
0.580
0.585
0.590
0.595
0.600
0.605
0.610
0.615
0.620
0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
mol/kg
v
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
i
e
s
,

N

s
/
m

s
q
u
a
r
e
Aq-EDTA
Aq-Borax
Aq-Ninhydrin
frictional force with ninhydrin is weaker, sprays
with no clump & lower conc. has weaker forces,
higher EDTA conc. form clumps

borax shows reverse action
Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate
Chelation Therapy
C
10
H
10
CaN
2
Na
2
O
8
calcium disodium prevents
calcium depleting in body
Anti-smart fluid
Anti-MRF
SEM pepsin micrograph without electromagnetic dose
SEM pepsin at electromagnetic dose of 2.5 Ampere &
63 Gauss
,
Pepsin with 0.005g% FeCl
3
at similar electromagnetic dose
FF are nanoparticles, suspended by Brownian motion
& not settle under normal conditions
Surface area (1/t, cm
2
/mol), doses effects on 0.05 g%
pepsin at 1.0, 1.8, 2.1, 2.5 Amp at 22, 35, 47, 63 Gauss
with time interval (h, sec), respectively
-7787
-6770
-6252
-5809
-8200
-7700
-7200
-6700
-6200
-5700
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Gauss
S
u
r
f
a
c
e

a
r
e
a
ST (A) = - 2.303 RT log c
() surface excess conc. 1/ is surface area
R = 8.314 J/mol/K, T= 294.15 K,
Surface area,cm
2
/mol, m
2
/mol
=26.084 - 0.5388G + 0.0026G
2
(Standard Equation)
NeemAzadirachta indicaoil-dewetting with
cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)
CPC in mouthwashes, toothpastes
(sodium fluoride-NaF & sodium
monofluorophosphate-Na
2
PO
3
F)
antiseptic
Only oilCPC =
0.0005%
0.001%
0.0015% CPC
Disruption of intermolecular
MRF: Antioxidant/pro-oxidant: Structural change
Molecular weight of extracted macromolecule-Mark Houwink
Sakurada Equation, Log [] =log k+ a log M
Highly useful for free radicals (HOCl,
.
O
2-
(superoxide),
.
OH)
2 Fe
3+
+ H
+
(ascorbate) 2 Fe
2+
+ dehydroascorbate
2 Fe
2+
+ 2 H
2
O
2
2 Fe
3+
+ 2 OH + 2 OH
-










Biosurfactant on broth fermentation, yeast forms few
biosurfactant that influence process, intermittent study

Dehydro
acorbate
Ascorbate
Acid ion
MRF: Antinutrients, metal chelating from herbal food
Phytic acid [PA] is in hulls of nuts, seeds, grains but
cooking food slightly reduces PA, sprouted food with skin
is good
PA is a chelator of minerals Ca
2+
,Mg
2+
, Fe
3+
, Zn
2+
& causes
mineral deficiencies in people lead to osteoporosis
IMF drastic
change
With much
structural
interactions
Frictional,
cohesive,
adhesive
forces
interesting
Osteoporosis
a bone disease
accessible to
increased risk
of fracture
So bone
mineral
density
(BMD)

Talk on Survismeter, Govt. V.Y.T.PG. Auto College
Durg Chhattisgarh 26
th
Feb 2010 Prof. Man Singh
demo
,
,
Paints & Pigments
Polymers
Foods
Inks
Bisleries
Supercritical solvents
Textile
Beverages
Pesticides
Soap & Detergent
Cosmetics
Fuel &Petroleum
The experimenter is
ensuring perfect sample
preparation for surface
tension, interfacial
tension, wetting
coefficient, viscosity &
friccohesity with
Survismeter

Solvents pharmaceuticals
Materials exponentially revolutionized- polymers,
cosmetics, inkjet, inks, printing, lotions, mist spray,
fumigation, pesticides, insecticides, petroleum & oils,
soaps, detergents, syrups, sol-gels, solvents, fuels,
textile spinning, paper technology, drugs, baby food,
VOCs, cancerous VOCs, polychlorinated biphenyls-
PCB, area
On going processes- Fermentation, Polymerization,
Reaction kinetics, protein unfolding, disintegration etc
Surface tension, IFT, viscosities are frequently
measured for Quality Control & Formulation
Wider industrial applications
Nail polish, tattoos, deodorants, scents, fragrant,
volatile flavor, coating, polishing [release VOC,
thinners-ethers acetone, hexane ethanol, benzene,
shiners, CCl
4
]
Emerging fields of printing, calendaring, dry
cleaning, textile, cleaning-drying, households, interior
decorations, floriculture, fumigation, sprayants
These highly specified applications with highest QC
& Chemical Formulation
Their surface application need highly controlled
Friccohesity for better efficiency & durability
Hospital cleaning Valued Added Product
Attached with Laundry-Machines for checking
washing efficiency of detergents at spot with
different water quality
Low surface tension takes less water & time in
washing clothes, consumes less electricity
Attached as useful product with kitchen to ensure
ST for saving water and detergent too
Similarly with dry-cleaning mixtures
Also spray paint mixtures, floor washing
detergents, Toiletries etc
Chromatographic separation
Separation column
Friccohesity vs g % of resins
0.01180
0.01230
0.01280
0.01330
0.01380
0.01430
0.01480
0.01530
0.01580
0.0005 0.0025 0.0045 0.0065 0.0085 0.0105
g % of resins
F
r
i
c
c
o
h
e
s
i
t
y
,

s
/
m
R1(0.5:16:1)
R2(1:16:1)
R3(0.5:10:1)
high resolution due
force coefficient
high
resolution
due force
coefficient
Distinguishes
mass ratios
Viscosity vs g% of resins
0.823
0.853
0.883
0.913
0.943
0.973
1.003
1.033
1.063
1.093
0.0008 0.0028 0.0048 0.0068 0.0088 0.0108
g % of resins
V
i
s
c
o
s
i
t
y
,

0
.
1

k
g
/
m

s
e
c
0.5 M : 16 F : 1 PVP
1 M : 16 F : 1 PVP
0.5 M : 10 F : 1 PVP
Does not distinguishes
mass ratios

,
Breakage & fabrication cost 80%
Lab infrastructural expenditure 95%
Glass, blowing gases, O
2
, LPG, manpower 97%
Prevent heat emission to environment 95%
Transport, maintenance, operation 95%
Chemicals & solvents 98%
Promote green chemistry & technology
Inspires youngsters to learn science
Users time, water, cleaning reagents 98%
Experimental human efforts 98%
Electricity [oven, exhaust fan, tube light etc] 98%
Philosophy of Survismeter
Value Scientific Dreams for new frontiers
Modernize, reorient & fascinate science
User friendly
Hazards free
Environmental friendly
Affordable & simple science
Prevent washing reagents-chromic acid, sulfuric acid
H
2
SO
4
as polluting effluents
Efficient & attractive
Generate newer analytical tool like Friccohesity for
Surfactants, molecular efficiencies in applications

Singapore Govt. IPR

Air filter for SOx, COx, NOx, HCl, H
2
O, VOCs, COCs,
polychlorinated biphenyls, SPM
Biofluids,
biomolecules
even nitrogen
Environment is
allowed

Radon in air
So filter device is must
suspended carbon matriculates

Acid, alkali
moistened air,
as acid rain, So
filter device is
must


Singh M. Bulg. J. Chem.
Edu. 18, 2009, 172

Filter for high
quality air,
free of SPM,
Co
x
,No
x
, SO
x

Piston pump-
silicon tube for
UO for pressure
gradient, to lift
sample up from
reservoir bulb
CPU-control
pressure unit
I
F
T

c
a
p
i
l
l
a
r
y

Used in beverage industries for QC
Improve Stability & Shelf life using
biocompatible biopolymers
Xanthan
Bean
gum
Pectin
Starch
Cellulose gel
Critical tn Concentration (CTC)


Significantly indispensable from ink
industries
Gum (pectin rich): A suspension agent of ink
to solublize insoluble pigments
Copper sulphate: As coloring agent for ink
Red wine: A continuous medium
Tannin
The Survismeter decides their chemical ratios
using tn factor
The tn incorporates all operational forces in the
mixtures to get most stable ink
Density decreasing additives of
biocolloids & cosmetics
Surface tension, interfacial tension , viscosity,
wetting coefficient illustrate QC & Chemical
Formulation &
Spreading & continuous film forming nature
Starch: binding properties
Proteins: suspension
Butylene Glycol: stabilization
Cellulose acetate phthalate CAP: binding
Cellulose acetate butylate CAB : binding


Indispensable from detergent industries for
QC & CF
Few additives for QC/CF
Sodium tallowate - foaming agent
Cocamido propyl betaine - foaming agent
Sodium hydroxide
Cellulose- whitener
Few additives in soap industry
Glycerol
Sodium hydroxide
Foaming agent
Whitener
In cosmetic industry for QC & CF
Few additives
Glycerol
Wax
Butylene Glycol
Cetyl alcohol - emulsion
stabilizer; viscosity increasing
agent

Surface tensiometer, US Patent 4416148
Low surface tension kids science
,
agent, used in consumer products
toothpaste to prevent gingivitis
no extra benefit to health in other consumer products
Triclosan
Antibacterial
& antifungal


Polarization induces dispersion/mutual mixing

Electrostatic charges disperse as
( )
6
4
3

+
~ R
I I
I I
E
B A
B A
B A
AB
disp
o o
HCs-water IFT
%+
Air-water 72 0
Pentane-water 48 33
Hexane-water 47 35
Heptane-water 60 17
o= polarizability of A, B & I = ionization
M. Singh & H. Matsuoka, 2008, SRL,16,599, 2009
Parameters densities of critical solutions
.

B/t = 10
-7
& 0.0012(1-) = 10
-6
, hence

soln
=
0
+Ao +Bo
2

( ) | | tn
n t
0 0
0
o
o =

ref liquid
=
0

+ Ao
0
+ Bo
0
2
t & n measured with survismeter for
ref liquid whose data are known &
put in eqn 2 for o data for few
temperatures
Constants A & B are put in eqn 4
Eqn 1
Eqn 2
Eqn 3
Eqn 4, are used for & q
Surface protection in daily use
On glazed paper-no sticking, ink-optimum friction
Baby food-sticking in trachea, Friccohesity control
Lungs fluid ST 15-25 mN/m
Oil carburetor friction, Karl Benz (1885), initiated
carburetor for fuel distribution
It works on friccohesity avoiding friction fire
Apple, banana, guava become brownish on cutting
their Fe
n+
reacts as 4Fe+3O
2
= 2Fe
2
O
3

Natural surface protection from O
2,
H
2
O
Metallic surface coating, anti-rusting coats




Blood viscosity 7x higher than water
water vis = 0.8903 g cm
-1
s
-1
= N m
-2
s, 1 P = 1 g cm
1

s
1
, 1 p = 0.1 Pa.s, 1 cP = 1 mPa.s = 0.001 Pa.s
Blood viscosity modulates tissue perfusion: C. LENZ, A.
REBEL, K.F. WASCHKE, R.C. KOEHLER, & T.
FRIETSCH
*
Health Care Industry
Blood-viscosity reducing drugs: Pentoxifylline (Trental) &
oxypentifylline; physician prescribes
Anticoagulants: Warfarin (Coumadin), blood thinners or clot inhibitors
Calcium channel blockers: Diltiazem (Cardizem), to treat high blood
pressure
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: Enalapril (Vasotec),
used to treat high blood pressure



Philosophy of Survismeter
Value Scientific Dreams for new frontiers
Modernize, reorient & fascinate science
User friendly
Hazards free
Environmental friendly
Affordable & simple science
Prevent washing reagents-chromic acid, sulfuric acid
H
2
SO
4
as polluting effluents
Efficient & attractive
Generate newer analytical tool like Friccohesity for
Surfactants, molecular efficiencies in applications

Biocompatible surfactants of routine use
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
mol/kg
s
u
r
f
a
c
e

t
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

m
N
/
m
Aq-EDTA
Aq-Borax
Aq-Ninhydrin
O
O
O
indan-1,2,3-trione
O
O
H
2
O
OH
OH
Ninhydrin
Na
2
B
4
O
7
10H
2
O
[Na
4
B
5
(OH)]
2
-
Eyes washing
LLI Interaction distinguishing model of food salts
3.04
3.03
2.77
4.05
4.88
5.33
2.70
2.91
3.12
3.33
3.54
3.76
3.97
4.18
4.39
4.60
4.81
5.02
5.23
5.44
0.42 0.54 0.66 0.78 0.90 1.02
molality, mol/kg
I
F
T
,

m
N
/
m
IFT, mN/m, ammonium with isobutanol
IFT, mN/m, Sodium acetates with IB
Na cation with no H bonding with -OH of isobutanol with no mutual mixing.
ammonium cation with 4 H atoms causes H bonding with -OH of IB with
mutual mixing
+
NH
4

Na
+
------- H
2
O----HO-IB