Mobile Station States in IS-95A

by Rahul Chauhan

Mobile Station States
On power Up

MS Initialization

Unable to receive Paging Channel

Mobile station has acquired timing System

MS Idle State
Receives an ack for Access Channel message other than ORM and PRM MS receives a message on the paging channel requiring a ack;originates a call or performs registration.

M

System Access State

Released traffic channel

.

Assigned a traffic channel.

MS Traffic State

Note : Transitions arising from error conditions are not shown in the diagram.

CDMA Message Structure
Field Bits 8 3 3 1 1 3 3 4 8 x MSID_LEN 2 0 or 18 0 or 8 4 4 3 8 8 1 6

The figure shows the Registration Message Structure which is sent on the Access Channel.A typical variable length PDU in IS95A. Points to Note : • MSG_TYPE which uniquely identifies a message and helps in parsing.In IS-2000 this 8bit field is split into a 2 bit field PD(protocol descriptor) and 6 bit message identifier MSG_TYPE.In IS-2000 PD is (01)binary. •To ensure no messages are not missed, all CDMA messages bear serial numbers and important messages contain a bit requesting acknowledgment.The slide window of 7 is used for transfer of information. •Addressing fields identify the type of addressing to be used. •Authentication information to prevent spurious users from accessing the resources of the network.If the values in the PDU match the values generated at the BS,access is allowed.

MSG_TYPE (‘00000001’) ACK_SEQ MSG_SEQ ACK_REQ VALID ACK ACK_TYPE MSID_TYPE MSID_LEN MSID AUTH_MODE AUTHR RANDC COUNT REG_TYPE SLOT_CYCLE_INDEX MOB_PREV SCM MOB_TERM RESERVED

Messages Sent in Initialization and Idle States
Pilot Channel
No Messages

Sync Channel
Sync Channel Msg BTS

Paging Channel
Access Parameters Msg System Parameters Msg CDMA Channel List Msg Extended System Parameters Msg Extended Neighbor List Msg Global Service Redirection Msg Service Redirection Msg SSD Update Msg Null Msg General Page Msg Order Msg

Access Channel
Registration Msg Order Msg
• Mobile Station Acknowledgment • Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation many others…..

•Base Station Acknowledgment •Lock until Power-Cycled • Maintenance required many others…..

Channel Assignment Msg Feature Notification Msg Authentication Challenge Msg Status Request Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Data Burst Msg

Origination Msg Page Response Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg Status Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Data Burst Msg

Messages in Traffic State
Forward Traffic Channel
Order Msg
• Base Station Acknowledgment • Base Station Challenge Confirmation • Message Encryption Mode

Reverse Traffic Channel

Alert With Information Msg Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Msg Service Option Control Msg Status Request Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Msg Extended Handoff Direction Msg Neighbor List Update Msg In-Traffic System Parameters Msg Service Request Msg Service Response Msg Service Connect Completion Message Service Option Control Message Status Response Msg Flash With Information Msg Data Burst Message Pilot Strength Measurement Msg Handoff Completion Msg Origination Continuation Msg Authentication Challenge Response Msg TMSI Assignment Completion Message Send Burst DTMF Msg Parameters Response Message Power Measurement Report Msg Order Message
• Mobile Sta. Acknowledgment •Long Code Transition Request • SSD Update Confirmation • Connect

Authentication Challenge Msg TMSI Assignment Msg Send Burst DTMF Msg Set Parameters Msg Power Control Parameters Msg. Retrieve Parameters Msg Analog Handoff Direction Msg SSD Update Msg Mobile Station Registered Msg

On power up or

MS Initialization State
System Determination Substate CDMA System selected Does system selection.Updates the registration parameters ZONE_LIST(SID,NID).Update the value of CDMABAND and CDMACH.Enters the next state if the selected system is a CDMA system. •The mobile station shall tune to the CDMA Channel number equal to CDMACHs. •Searches for Pilot in T20ms •Receives the Sync Channel Message in T21ms. •Compares the value of MOB_P_REV and sets the value of PRAT. •The mobile station synchronizes its long code timing and system timing to those of the CDMA system, using the PILOT_PNs, LC_STATEs, and SYS_TIMEs. •Set PAGECHs to the Primary Paging Channel. MS Idle State
Note : Transitions arising from error conditions are not shown in the diagram.

from any other state

Acquisition failure Protocol mismatch
The following values are updated from the Sync Channel Message: Protocol revision level (P_REVs = P_REVr) Minimum protocol revision level (MIN_P_REVs = MIN_P_REVr) System identification (SIDs = SIDr) Network identification (NIDs = NIDr) Pilot PN sequence offset (PILOT_PNs = PILOT_PNr) Long code state (LC_STATEs = LC_STATEr) System Time (SYS_TIMEs = SYS_TIMEr) Paging Channel data rate (PRATs = PRATr)

Pilot Channel Acquisition Substate

Acquires Pilot Channel Sync Channel Acquisition Substate

Receives Sync Channel Message

Timing Change Substate

Mobile Station Idle State
"Idle" phone is plenty busy!
·While a mobile is latched to a particular network, for most of the time is in the idle state. Being in this state the mobile monitors the Paging Channel. If there is a procedure that requires to be carried out for a message received on Paging Channel, the mobile enters the System Access State. ·Paging Channel messages or user actions can cause the mobile to go from idle state to System Access State. ·So in this state the mobile station can receive messages, receive an incoming call (mobile station terminated call), initiate a call (mobile station originated call), initiate a registration, or initiate a message transmission. ·The mobile constantly turning parts of itself on and off; on to perform vital functions and off again to save power so that the battery lasts longer. This periodic on and off of the mobile transceiver is called slotted mode of operation.It the mobile listens to all slots it is in non-slotted mode of operation. ·The mobile can operate in the slotted mode only in the idle state.While performing idle handoff the mobile has to be in non-slotted mode of operation.

Mobile Station Idle State - 2
While in the Mobile Station Idle State, the mobile station shall perform the following procedures:
·The mobile station shall perform Paging Channel monitoring procedures . ·The mobile station shall perform message acknowledgement procedures . ·The mobile station shall perform registration procedures . ·The mobile station shall perform idle handoff procedures . ·The mobile station shall perform the Response to Overhead Information Operation the mobile station receives a system overhead message (System Parameters Message, CDMA Channel List Message, Extended System Parameters Message, Neighbor List Message, Global Service Redirection Message, or Access Parameters Message). · The mobile station shall perform the Mobile Station Page Match Operation whenever it receives a General Page Message, Page Message, or Slotted Page Message. · The mobile station shall perform the Mobile Station Order and Message Processing ·Operation whenever a message or order directed to the mobile station is received other than a General Page Message, Page Message, or Slotted Page Message. ·The mobile station shall perform the Mobile Station Origination Operation 5 if directed by the user to initiate a call. ·If the mobile station supports Data Burst Message transmission, it shall perform the ·Mobile Station Message Transmission Operation if directed by the user to transmit a message. ·The mobile station shall perform the Mobile Station Power-Down Operation if directed by the user to power down.

System Access State
In the System Access State the MS uses the Open Loop Power Control.
From MS in Idle State

Update Information Overhead Substate

MS remains in Update Information Overhead Substate and monitors the Paging Channel till it has the current set of overhead messages.

MS Order/Message Response Substate

Received General Received a Message or User generated Data Page Message Order requiring a Ack. Or Burst Message Response User initiated Registration access a Call

Registration Access Substate

Page Response Substate

In this state the MS listens on the Paging channel and responds on the Access Channel associated to the Paging Channel to which listens.The Access Channel is allocated on fair contention by using Slotted ALOHA.
To MS in Idle State

MS Message Transmission Substate

MS Origination Attempt Substate

To MS on Traffic Channel State

Note : Transitions arising from error conditions are not shown in the diagram.

MS Control on Traffic Channel State

From System Access State

Traffic Channel Initialization Substate

MS Terminated Call,when MS receives Base Station Ack. Order

Waiting for Order Substate
Receives Release Order MS receives AWI

MS Originated Call,when MS receives Base Station Ack. Order

After the of every call the MS goes to System Determination Substate. •It searches again for the best pilot on the present frequency I.e. CDMACH. •Read Sync Channel W32. •Goes to Idle State and listens to Paging Channel.

Receives Release Order

Waiting for Mobile Station Answer Substate
MS user answers call.

Conversation Substate
MS user initiates a disconnect or MS receives Release Order.

MS receives AWI

Release Substate

Note:Substate transitions due to error conditions are no shown.

To System Determination Substate of MS Initialization State.

1. How Mobile Selects CDMA Carriers ?
Reverse Link Frequencies Forward Link Frequencies (Mobile Transmit) (Base Station Transmit) 800 MHz. Cellular Spectrum
835 845 849 870 880

824 MHz.
825

890

894

A
A
1850MHz.

B
846.5

Paging, ESMR, etc.

A
869

B
891.5

D

B

E F

1900 MHz. PCS Spectrum unlic. unlic. C A data voice
1910MHz. 1930MHz.

D

B

E F

C
1990 MHz.

FREQUENCY LISTS:
HISTORY LIST
Last-used: Freq/SID x Freq/SID y Freq/SID z Freq/SID t Freq/SID u etc.

PREFERRED ROAMING LIST
Freq/SID 1 Freq/SID 2 Freq/SID 3 Freq/SID 4 Freq/SID 5 etc.

–Power up: self diagnostics, battery check —Find a frequency with CDMA RF •last frequency used? other recent history? •home market? preferred roaming list? ˜Scan all PN offsets (Pilot W0), find best Ec/Io meaning of better strength ™Lock Traffic Correlators on best PN offset, read the sync channel (W32) •learn true PN offset, SID/NID, time & leap seconds, Long Code state, paging channel šRead the Paging Channel (W1): collect all the current configuration messages.This process is called collection.The configuration messages are repeated on the Paging channel every 1.28 seconds. •System Parameters Message •Extended System Parameters Message •Access Parameters Message •CDMA Channel List Message •Extended Neighbor List Message •Global Service Redirection Message ›Register if required œNow you’re ready to operate!

2. How Mobile Selects CDMA Carriers ?

On power on,the mobile uses proprietary algorithms to select a carrier intended for them to use.The MS uses the above procedure whenever it has to select a CDMA system.

CDMA Forward Traffic Channels
Pilot Paging Traffic Traffic Traffic Traffic Sync Traffic Traffic Traffic Traffic Traffic Traffic Walsh 0 Walsh 1 Walsh 6 Walsh11 Walsh19 Walsh20 Walsh32 Walsh37 Walsh41 Walsh42 Walsh55 Walsh56 Walsh60 Pilot Channel Walsh Code 0 The Pilot is a beacon which does not contain a character stream. It is a timing source used in system acquisition and as a measurement device during handoffs. SYNC: WALSH CODE 32 This carries a data stream of system identification and parameter information used by mobiles during system acquisition Paging Channel W1-W7 There can be from one to seven paging channels as determined by capacity needs.They carry the overhead messages,pages, call setup messages and orders. Forward Traffic Channel Renaming Walsh Codes. The traffic channels are assigned to individual users to carry call traffic. All remaining Walsh codes are available, subject to overall capacity limited by noise. Note: A Forward Channel is identified by: •. its CDMA RF carrier Frequency •. the unique Short Code PN Offset of the sector •. the unique Walsh Code of the user

CDMA Reverse Traffic Channels
Access Reverse Traffic ACCESS CHANNELS are used by mobiles not yet in a call; to transmit registration requests, call setup requests, page responses, order responses, and other signaling information • an access channel is really just a public long code offset unique to the BTS sector • Access channels are paired to Paging Channels.Each paging channel can have up to 32 access channels.

TRAFFIC CHANNELS are used by individual users during their actual calls to transmit traffic to the BTS • a reverse traffic channel is really just a user-specific public or private Long Code mask • there are as many reverse Traffic Channels as there are CDMA phones in the world! A Reverse Channel is identified by: •. its CDMA RF carrier Frequency •. the unique Long Code PN Offset of the individual handset

ACCESS 98/05/24 23:14:10.427 [PCH] PARAMETERS MSG_LENGTH = 184 bits MSG_TYPE = Access Parameters Message MESSAGE PILOT_PN = 168 Offset Index
ACC_MSG_SEQ = 27 ACC_CHAN = 1 channel NOM_PWR = 0 dB INIT_PWR = 0 dB PWR_STEP = 4 Db NUM_STEP = 5 Access Probes Maximum MAX_CAP_SZ = 4 Access Channel Frames Maximum PAM_SZ = 3 Access Channel Frames Persist Val for Acc Overload Classes 0-9 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 10 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 11 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 12 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 13 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 14 = 0 Persist Val for Acc Overload Class 15 = 0 Persistance Modifier for Msg Tx = 1 Persistance Modifier for Reg = 1 Probe Randomization = 15 PN chips Acknowledgement Timeout = 320 ms Probe Backoff Range = 4 Slots Maximum Probe Sequence Backoff Range = 4 Slots Max. Max # Probe Seq for Requests = 2 Sequences Max # Probe Seq for Responses = 2 Sequences Authentication Mode = 1 Random Challenge Value = Field Omitted Reserved Bits = 99

Phone Operation on Access Channel. •The behavior of the mobile while using the Access
Channel is determined by the Access Parameter Message. •MS transmission on the Access Channel using a random access procedure.The parameters to this procedure are supplied by the Access Parameters Message. •Phones access the BTS by “probing” at power levels determined by a procedure. •Within an Access attempt, Access probes are grouped into access group sequences.

A Successful Access Attempt
Access Channel Msg Success! BTS an Access Probe a Probe Sequence an Access Attempt MS Probing

Phone Operation on Access Channel -2

Access Channel Attempts

Phone Operation on Access Channel -3
Begin PROBE=0,SEQ=0 Access Successful
YES Ack. Received Increase transmit power by PWR_STEP dB Transmit probe on Access Channel RA at system timing plus RN chips.Set TA

PN Randomization

YES Access Channel Response NO

Timer TA expired

NO

Wait RT slots

If beginning of slot generate RP.
Wait RT slots RP < P YES Generate random number RA between 0 and ACC_CHAN Initialize Transmit Power. Generate random number RT between PROBE_BKOFF +1 YES NO

PROBE = PROBE +1
YES PROBE < = NUM_STEP

Generate random number RT between PROBE_BKOFF +1

SEQ= SEQ +1

SEQ <= MAX_REQ_SEQ MAX_RSP_SEQ

NO

Access Failure. Enter SDS

Access Procedure

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful