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J. P. Forth

Types of columns

• Short columns. Effective length/h < 12 (approx) • Non-slender columns If λ ≤ λlim • Slender columns If λ ≥ λlim • λlim – Slenderness limit defined in EC2 – Not included in this course.

Short columns. Eventually the compressive strength of the column is exceeded and the column fails. • Consider a squat column subject to an increasing axial load. Effective length/h < 12 (approx) h Lo .

• Effective length of a column – Equivalent length of a pin-ended strut subject to the same load and of identical cross section. • Deflected shape depends on if structure is braced or not .Effective length of columns. • Effective length depends on – Deflected shape of the element – End restraints • It is distance between points of contra flexure.

Braced structure N This section behaves as a pin ended strut N Pin ended strut l Points of contraflexure l0 l0 = l N Braced – fixed ends N Braced – pinned ends .

Unbraced structure – all support conditions. • Only one point of contraflexure exists between element ends. N Virtual point of contraflexure N sidesway Point of contraflexure N Floor height = l l0 This section will behave as a pin ended strut N .

Theoretical conditions Braced frame Unbraced frame .Code requirements – effective length.

Condition 3. this should be designed to carry moment in order to satisfy this condition. [l0 = l x factor].85 0.9 0. The Concrete Centre 2006. Column connected monolithically to beams on each side that are at least as deep as the overall depth of the column in the plane considered. See .8 0.8 0. Column connected monolithically to beams on each side that are shallower than the overall depth of the column in the plane considered by generally not less than half the column depth.0 Key. . Table taken from Institution of Structural Engineers.95 3 (pinned) 0.75 0. End condition at top 1 (rigid) 2 (intermediate) 3 (pinned) End condition at bottom 1 (rigid) 0. IStructE 2006. Condition 2. Column connected to members that do not provide more than nominal restraint to rotation. When the column is connected to a foundation. Condition 1.“How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 : Columns – Moss R and Brooker O.95 1.90 2 (intermediate) 0.Simplified method of determining effective length. Manual for the design of concrete structures to Eurocode 2.

Strain limited to εc3 =0. Slenderness ratio (λ) < 12 Whole section is under compression.1 of EC2) Failure by concrete crushing .0175 (See table 3.Short column design • Compressive strength – Based on concrete and steel reinforcement in the column • No moment effects included • Short columns : – – – – – Rare.

Short columns 0.00175 .0035 0.

Non slender columns Columns subject to axial load and bending moments • Not a short column • Non-slender in dimension (If λ ≤ λlim) • In this course – All columns are nonslender or short • Most common forms of column. .

thin in one direction and subject to increasing axial load. • Sideways deflection increases the moment at any section by :• axial load x lateral deflection • Madditional = Na • Usually effect of deflections are small so ignored. a N . • Increasing the load increases deflection until bending failure occurs.Slender columns N • Consider column . • At a critical load column begins to bend sideways about the weaker axis. • Where it is significant. the element is described as being slender. • Column is said to have buckled.

• M – N relationships are based on the following variables • : N. b. BS8110 used cube strength. M. • Simplest method of determining area of reinforcement needed in symmetrically reinforced columns is to produce what are termed M – N curves or relationships. • EC2 cylinder strengths are used. . and provided correct design axial load and bending moment are known charts will give reasonable values. fck. h and d2.Determining the steel required in a column. • If correct partial factors γc and γs are used for steel and concrete. • Graphical solution of symmetrical columns.

Section is load N Relationship εcu3 = 0. Moment enables us to find As reaches its max.Typical M – N relationship. Nbal value Mbal at an axial load of Nbal 0. Tensile strain in steel Function reaches 0.section is comp. ε = 0.002175 Function of For axial loads < Nbal the moment capacity Moment M increases then steadily reduces as N exceeds Nbal Εcu3 = 0.0027 . strain in concrete compressed face limited to εc3 (see Table 3.0035 ‘balanced’. Steel strain on the other face becomes tensile.00175 c3 M increased more – comp.0035.0035 0. Further increase M. increases on most Comp.1 EC2). (Single branch of M – N relationship shown) As M increases so No moment . strain in pure compression. strain reaches limiting value 0. conc.002175 of Axial (yield).

• When N > Nbal the element will fail by compression. • Hence limits are placed on how high the strain is allowed when axial loads exceeded Nbal. • When N < Nbal there will be an initial tensile failure with yielding of the steel on the tension face.00175). Axial load N Beam / Column relationship COLUMNS BEAMS Moment .Observations from the graph.0035) to εc3 (0. • In this branch of the curve the permissible strain in the concrete varies from εcu3 (0.

40 .Design Charts – Symmetric RC elements. 25. N 1 Vertical Axis bh f ck (3) h ( 4) As d2 d M 1 Horizontal axis 2 bh f ck b Equations (3) and (4) enable useful design charts for concrete of characteristic strengths of 20. 35. . Steel stresses are expressed as a factor of fyk. Area of reinforcem ent As f yk bhfck Chart of N/(bhfck) vs M/(bh2fck) is produced with each line of the curve representing a proportion of Asfyk/(bhfck).45 and 50MPa to be produced. Factors range from 0 -1. 30.

20 0.10 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.45 0.3 1.Design Chart fck < 50MPa.2 0.3 0.1 As f yk bhf ck 0 0.2 ck 1.7 N/(bhf ) 0.0 0.4 0. d2/h = 0.7 0.1 1.6 0.6 0.25 0.1 0.4 1.15 0.3 0.9 1.1 Indicative – Not for design 1.5 As f yk bhf ck M/(bh2fck) .5 0.30 0.0 0.35 0.05 0.9 0.0 0.5 h As d2 b 0.

no steel is required according to theory but in practice the code specifies a minimum quantity. • Calculate the value of N/bhfck and M/bh2fck. .52.6 and 0. • Find their intersection point and interpolate between the lines. • Shaded region .5 and 0. • Say 0. In this instance 0.Using design charts.2. • Unknown is As.6 so Asfyk/(bhfck) = 0.

Columns • • • • Provided larger column dimension not greater than 4 times the smaller : Longitudinal reinforcement Minimum bar diameter 12mm according to UK National Annex.Maximum and minimum limits for reinforcement .002 Ac whichever is the greater Where :fyd is the design yield strength of the reinforcement NEd is the design axial compression force .min. Minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement As.min • • • • 0. As .10N E d f yd or 0.

04 Ac outside lap locations unless it can be shown that the integrity of concrete is not affected. • 0.max should be :• 0.08 Ac at laps. • As. and that the full strength is achieved at ULS.max. • Ensure also concrete can be easily placed .Columns • Maximum longitudinal reinf. As.Maximum and minimum limits for reinforcement .

400 mm .Columns Transverse reinforcement • Diameter of the transverse reinforcement (links. • Spacing of the transverse reinforcement along the column should not exceed :• . whichever is the greater.Maximum and minimum limits for reinforcement .the lesser dimension of the column • . loops or helical spiral reinforcement) should exceed 6 mm or one quarter of the maximum diameter of the longitudinal bars.20 times the minimum diameter of the longitudinal bars • .

Example • Rectangular column has b = 300mm. • Cover = 40mm. • Axial load is 3240kN and BM about h is 200kNm. h = 500mm. • What area of steel is required in mm2. 20mm bars. fck = 35MPa. .

N/bhfck = 3240 000/(300 x 500 x 35) = 0. Design Chart follows 4.Solution 1. fck < 50MPA. Select appropriate design chart. 2.1 3. d2 = 40 + 20/2 = 50mm.0762 . Therefore d2/h = 50/500 = 0. M/(bh2fck) = 200 x 106/(300 x 5002 x 35 = 0.617 1.

• As = (0. • Asfyk/(bhfck) = 0.30. • Therefore.Solution • Using design chart.3 x 300 x 500 x 35)/500 • = 3150mm2 .

Design Chart for Example .

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