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N n= + Ne2 1

n is the sample size N is the population size e is the margin of error

Margin of Error e

N n= + Ne2 1

e is the margin of error The margin of error is a value which quantifies possible sampling errors.

Sampling error means that the results in the sample differ from the target population because of the luck of the draw.

GMA! GMA!

Sampling Error

Suppose in a sample of 100 people who intend to vote, 55 (55%) said they will vote for GMA while 45 (45%) said they will vote for ERAP.

What does this imply?

ERAP! ERAP!

Sampling Error

This implies that majority of the voters including people not included in the sample but who will vote in the election will vote for GMA. No!

Do you agree?

Yes!

Sampling Error

What if by chance majority in the 100 samples will vote for GMA while majority in the population will vote for ERAP?

Why not?

There might have sampling errors?

No!

Sampling Error

No!. Sampling errors does not make surveys useless.

That is why e is very important!

The role of margin of error is to summarize the strength of the information in a survey.

Margin of Error

The laws of probability make it possible for us to calculate intervals of the form:

Such intervals are sometimes called 95% confidence intervals and would be expected to contain the true value at least 95% of the time.

Margin of Error

GMA! (55%)

Suppose in the GMA-ERAP poll e is +/-10%. Therefore a 95% confidence interval for the percentage supporting GMA is 55% - e to 55% + e. That is

55% - 10% to 55% + 10%, or simply 45% to 65% This implies that in the population, ERAP! the support for GMA could range from 45% to 65%. (45%)

Margin of Error

GMA! (55%)

While a 95% confidence interval for the percentage supporting ERAP is 45% - e to 45% + e. That is 45% - 10% to 45% + 10%, or simply 35% to 55%

This implies that in the population, ERAP! the support for ERAP could range from 35% to 55%. (45%)

Sampling Error

Suppose now the survey is on 1000 people who intend to vote, 550 (55%) said they will vote for GMA while 450 (45%) said they will vote for ERAP.

ERAP! ERAP! What is the 95% confidence interval for the proportion of support for the two candidates?

Example 1:Find n if N = 10,000 & e = 5%

Example 2:Find n if N = 10,000 & e = 1%

What happened to your n when you decreased e?

Why?

Does the number of sample help in reducing errors in research?

Sampling Techniques

Sampling Techniques

I. Probability Sampling: Samples are chosen in such a way that each member of the population has a known though not necessarily equal chance of being included in the sample.

Sampling Techniques

II. Non-Probability Sampling: Each member of the population does not have a known chance of being included in the sample. Instead, personal judgment plays a very important role in the selection.

Sampling Techniques

I. Probability Sampling

1. Simple random sampling: All members of the population has a chance of being included in the sample Ex. Lottery sampling & using the table of random numbers 2. Systematic sampling: It selects every Kth member of the population with the starting point determine at random. Ex. Selecting every 4th member of N = 100 with 5 as a random start gives us: 5, 9, 13,

Sampling Techniques

I. Probability Sampling

3. Stratified random sampling: This is used when the population can be sub-divided into several smaller groups or strata, and then samples are randomly selected from each stratum.

Sampling Techniques

I. Probability Sampling

3. Stratified random sampling

Ex.

Strata High Income Average Income Low Income No. of Family/Percentage 1,000 0.2 or 20% 2,500 0.5 or 50% 1,500 0.3 or 30% N = 5,000

Sampling Techniques

3. Stratified random sampling

Strata High Income Average Income No. of Family/Percentage/n 1,000 0.2 or 20% .2(200) = 40 2,500 0.5 or 50% .5(200) = 100

Low Income

.3(200) = 60 n = 200

What if we want to draw n = 200, using equal allocation, how many from each group should be included?

Sampling Techniques

II. Non-Probability Sampling

1. Convenience sampling: It is used because of the convenience it offers to the researcher.

Sampling Techniques

II. Non-Probability Sampling

2. Quota sampling: This is very similar to the stratified random sampling. The only difference is that the selection of the members of samples is not done randomly. Ex. To get the most popular noontime show, each field researcher is given a quota of 200 viewers per area.

Sampling Techniques

II. Non-Probability Sampling

3. Purposive sampling: Choosing the respondents on the basis of predefined criteria laid down by the the researcher. Ex. Suppose the research is about the level of maturity of teenage parents. Of course only teenage parents will be the respondents.

STATISTICS

Week 2

DATA GATHERING

Techniques

1. The Direct of Interview Method: In this method, the researcher has a direct contact with the respondents.

Ex. A researcher would interview respondents regarding their stand or view on a particular issue.

Warning! This method is costly and time consuming.

DATA GATHERING

Techniques

2. The Indirect or Questionnaire Method: The researcher gives or distributes the questionnaire to the respondents either by personal delivery or by mail. Ex. A researcher makes a survey regarding the opinion of CSB students on the implementation of dress code. Warning! The researcher cannot expect that all distributed questionnaires can be retrieved because some respondents simply ignore them.

DATA GATHERING

Techniques

3. The Registration Method: This method of gathering data is governed by laws.

Ex. If a researcher wants to know the number of registered cars, s/he just have to go to the Land Transportation Office; the list of registered voters in the Philippines is found at the COMELEC; etc

Take Note! This method of collecting data is the most reliable because this is enforced by laws.

DATA GATHERING

Techniques

4. The Experimental Method: This method of gathering data is used to find out cause and effect relationships.

Ex. The researcher wants to know if Online Statistics will increase the academic performance of the students. What s/he has to do is to get two Statistics classes of equal intelligence. Give ordinary classroom lecture in one group while the other will be enrolled online. At the end of the term, give the same test to both groups, compare their scores and by the use of some statistical tools, find out if their academic performance are significantly different.

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