# ESSENTIALS OF MARKETING RESEARCH

Hair/Wolfinbarger/Ortinau/Bush

Explain the role of sampling in the research process Distinguish between probability and nonprobability sampling Understand the factors to consider when determining sample size Understand the steps in developing a sampling plan

Sampling is the process of selecting a small number of elements from a larger defined target group of elements such that the information gathered from the small group will allow judgments to be made about the larger groups .

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Population Element Defined target population Sampling unit Sampling frame .

Sampling error is any type of bias that is attributable to mistakes in either drawing a sample or determining the sample size .

Define the Population of Interest Identify a Sampling Frame (if possible) Select a Sampling Method Determine Sample Size Execute the Sampling Plan .1. 3. 2. 4. 5.

Some Bases for Defining Population: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Geographic Area Demographics Usage/Lifestyle Awareness . and Research Design.  Population of interest is entirely dependent on Management Problem. Research Problems.

See Survey Sampling International for some good examples http://www. cities. houses.surveysampling.com/ .) from which units to be sampled can be selected. Sample frame error occurs when certain elements of the population are accidentally omitted or not included on the list. etc.    A list of population elements (people. Difficult to get an accurate list. companies.

Probability sampling Nonprobability sampling .

Probability Nonprobability  Simple random  Convenience sampling sampling  Systematic random  Judgment sampling sampling  Quota sampling  Stratified random  Snowball sampling sampling  Cluster sampling .

Simple random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which every unit has an equal nonzero chance of being selected .

Systematic random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which the defined target population is ordered and the sample is selected according to position using a skip interval .

     1: Obtain a list of units that contains an acceptable frame of the target population 2: Determine the number of units in the list and the desired sample size 3: Compute the skip interval 4: Determine a random start point 5: Beginning at the start point. select the units by choosing each unit that corresponds to the skip interval .

Stratified random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which the population is divided into different subgroups and samples are selected from each .

   1: Divide the target population into homogeneous subgroups or strata 2: Draw random samples fro each stratum 3: Combine the samples from each stratum into a single sample of the target population .

Convenience sampling relies upon convenience and access Judgment sampling relies upon belief that participants fit characteristics Quota sampling emphasizes representation of specific characteristics Snowball sampling relies upon respondent referrals of others with like characteristics .

Research objectives Degree of accuracy Resources Time frame Knowledge of target population Research scope Statistical analysis needs .

◦ Desired degree of accuracy. ◦ Desired level of confidence. Answer depends on: ◦ How different or dispersed the population is. .   How many completed questionnaires do we need to have a representative sample? Generally the larger the better. but that takes more time and money.

 Common Methods: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Budget/time available Executive decision Statistical methods Historical data/guidelines  See Table .

   Variability of the population characteristic under investigation Level of confidence desired in the estimate Degree of precision desired in estimating the population characteristic .

surveysystem. click here: http://www.CL)([P x Q]/e2) For a simple sample size calculator.htm .com/sscalc.Probability Sampling and Sample Sizes  When estimating a population mean n = (Z2B.CL)(σ2/e2)  When estimates of a population proportion are of concern n = (Z2B.

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