DIGITAL FM RECEIVER

S.KARTHIK D.E.E.E.,D.I.S.,B.E.

Aim Of the Project
 To develop a Digital FM receiver using

VHDL.  To optimize the design of PLL and NCOs.  To minimize the gate count and area.

Introduction
 FM signals can be demodulated using

various techniques such as, Differentiator and Envelope Detector, Zero Crossing Detector, Phase Lock Loop (PLL).

 The design of the Digital FM Receiver

circuit in this project uses Phase Locked Loop (PLL) as the main core.

PLL
 PLL demodulators are widely used in

today’s communication systems because of their superior performance, ease of alignment, and ease of implementation using inexpensive integrated circuits. VCO tracks the instantaneous frequency of the input signal.

 If PLL is locked to a FM signal, the

Working Principle
 Frequency

modulated input signal is assumed as a series of numerical values (digital signal) via 8-bit of analog to digital conversion (ADC) circuit.

 The FM Receiver gets the 8 bit signal every

clock cycle and outputs the demodulated signal.

Architecture Description
 The system of Digital FM Receiver consists of a

digital PLL cascaded with digital low pass filter.  The important blocks in the Digital FM receiver are, Phase detector. A Low pass filter. An Error amplifier. A VCO/ NCO.

Block Diagram

Phase Detector
 Phase detector compares the phase and

frequency of the incoming signal to that of the output of the VCO/NCO.  If the two signals differ in frequency an error voltage is generated.  It is basically a multiplier.

Loop Filter
 Loop filter will remove the high frequency

component.  The difference frequency component is amplified and then applied as control voltage to the VCO.

VCO
 A voltage-controlled oscillator or VCO is

an electronic oscillator designed to be controlled in oscillation frequency by a voltage input.  It is a free running oscillator and operates at a set of frequency.  It can be shifted to either side by applying a DC control voltage.

NCO
 A numerically controlled oscillator (NCO) or

digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) is an electronic system for synthesizing a range of frequencies.  DCOs have been used as cheap replacements for VCOs.
 Numerical Controlled Oscillator (NCO) will take the

corrective error voltage, and then shift its output frequency from its free-running value to the input signal frequency and thus keep the PLL in lock.

Merits
 NCOs are phase continuous and are better

than VCOs.  Since the NCO is highly linear, it is possible to realize high linear FM demodulators.

Applications
 With the advanced technology,

FM detectors using PLL are widely used in various FM communication systems.

Design Flow

HDL to be used

VHDL-93(IEEE Std. 1076-1993) or VERILOG(IEEE Std. 1364).

FPGA to be used

 ALTERA CYCLONE II. (or)  XILINX SPARTAN II XC2S200.

Works done

 Collected related materials.  Attended ALTERA demo.

Future works
 Algorithmic Survey.  To optimized the multiplication operation

used in the phase detector component.  Develop HDL coding.  Functional simulation and logic verification.  Synthesis.  Implementation on FPGA.  Backend if possible.

References

 Michel.

C. JeruchimSimulation Of Communication Systems Modeling, Methodology and Techniques.  Simon Haykin – Communication Systems.  D. Roy Choudhury – Linear Integrated Circuits.

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