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Ayush khare
W ulffuslon ls Lhe process by whlch aLoms or
molecules are LransporLed from a reglon of Lhelr
hlgher concenLraLlon Lo a reglon of lower
W lL occurs because of colllslon beLween molecules
ln llqulds and gases so as Lo malnLaln equlllbrlum
W lL even occurs once equlllbrlum ls esLabllshed
8uL Lhe neL flux of aLoms golng elLher lefL or rlghL
ls zero
ullluSlCn ln SCLluS
ulffuslon of lmpurlLy elemenLs ln Sl ls
lmporLanL ln SlC's
uopanL aLoms can be lnLroduced lnLo Sl by
ulffuslon from a chemlcal source ln vapor form
aL hlgh LemperaLures
ulffuslon from a doped oxlde source
lon lmplanLaLlon
Cne aspecL of dlffuslon ls Lo develop lmproved
models from experlmenLal daLa Lo predlcL
dlffuslon resulLs from LheoreLlcal analysls
W ulffuslon Lheorles have been developed from
Lwo ma[or approaches
W 1he conLlnuum Lheory soluLlon of llcks
slmple dlffuslon equaLlons wlLh approprlaLe
boundary condlLlons
W 1he aLomlsLlc Lheory whlch lnvolves
lnLeracLlons beLween polnL defecLs vacancles
and lnLersLlLlal aLoms
W AlLhough oLher meLhods are overLaklng
dlffuslon ln Lhe fleld of doplng yeL many
lnslghLs are belng developed ln Lhls fleld
8ASlC ullluSlCn 8CCLSS
W ulffuslon of lmpurlLles ls Lyplcally done by placlng
semlconducLor wafers ln a carefully conLrolled
hlghLemperaLure quarLzLube furnace and
passlng a gas mlxLure LhaL conLalns Lhe deslred
dopanL Lhrough lL
W 1he LemperaLure usually ranges beLween 800
and 1200C for slllcon and 600 and 1000C for
galllum arsenlde
W 1he number of dopanL aLoms LhaL dlffuse lnLo Lhe
semlconducLor ls relaLed Lo Lhe parLlal pressure
of Lhe dopanL lmpurlLy ln Lhe gas mlxLure
W An example of Lhe chemlcal reacLlon for
phosphorus dlffuslon uslng a llquld source ls
40Cl3+3C2 2203 +6Cl2 (1)
2203 + 3Sl 4 + 3Sl02 (2)
W 1he phosphorus ls released and dlffuses lnLo Lhe
slllcon and chlorlne gas ls venLed
W lor dlffuslon ln galllum arsenlde Lhe hlgh vapour
pressure of arsenlc requlres speclal meLhods Lo
prevenL Lhe loss of arsenlc by decomposlLlon or
W 1hese meLhods lnclude dlffuslon ln sealed
ampules wlLh an overpressure of arsenlc and
dlffuslon ln an openLube furnace wlLh a doped
oxlde capplng layer (eg slllcon nlLrlde)
A1CMlC MCuLLS Cl ullluSlCn ln SCLluS
W AL hlgh LemperaLures polnL defecLs exlsL ln a
slngle solld crysLal
W When a concenLraLlon gradlenL of lmpurlLy
aLoms exlsLs Lhese polnL defecLs affecL aLom
movemenL Lhrough dlffuslon
W When a nelghborlng aLom( elLher Lhe hosL or
Lhe lmpurlLy) mlgraLes Lo Lhe vacancy slLe lL ls
called dlffuslon by a vacancy
W An lnLersLlLlal aLom movlng from one place Lo
anoLher wlLhouL occupylng a laLLlce slLe ls
called Lhe lnLersLlLlal dlffuslon mechanlsm
W 1he acLlvaLlon energy requlred for
lnLersLlLlal dlffuslon ls lower Lhan LhaL
requlred for vacancy dlffuslon
W 1he vacancy and Lhe lnLersLalcy
mechanlsms are consldered Lhe domlnaLlng
mechanlsms for dopanL lmpurlLy dlffuslon
ln Sl( 8 As Sb)
W 8 and dlffuse vla a dual mechanlsm
W As and Sb dlffuse predomlnanLly vla a
vacancy mechanlsm
llCk's LCuA1lCnS Cl ullluSlCn
W 1he baslc dlffuslon process of lmpurlLy aLoms
ls slmllar Lo LhaL of charge carrlers (elecLrons
and holes)
W We deflne a flux l as Lhe number of dopanL
aLoms passlng Lhrough a unlL area ln a unlL
Llme and C as Lhe dopanL concenLraLlon per
unlL volume as
l u*dc/dx
Ccarrler concenLraLlon
udlffuslon coefflclenL or dlffuslvlLy
W 1he baslc drlvlng force of Lhe dlffuslon process
ls Lhe concenLraLlon gradlenL dC/dx
W under Lhe condlLlon LhaL no maLerlals are
formed or consumed ln Lhe hosL
semlconducLor we obLaln
W When Lhe concenLraLlon of Lhe dopanL aLoms
ls low Lhe dlffuslon coefflclenL can be
consldered Lo be lndependenL of doplng
concenLraLlon and Lq 4 becomes
W 1hls ls Lhe llck's dlffuslon equaLlon
W 1he dlffuslon coefflclenL can be expressed as
where uodlffuslon coefflclenL when LemperaLure
ls lnflnlLe
LaacLlvaLlon energy
W 1hls equaLlon shows Lhe LemperaLure
dependence of dlffuslon coefflclenL
ullluSlCn 8CllLLS
1ConsLanL surface concenLraLlon
W 0
W 1he boundary condlLlons are
W Cs ls Lhe surface concenLraLlon (aL x 0)
whlch ls lndependenL of Llme
erfc ls Lhe complemenLary error funcLlon and
2ConsLanL LoLal dopanL dlffuslon
W lor Lhls case a flxed (or consLanL) amounL of
dopanL ls deposlLed onLo Lhe semlconducLor
surface ln a Lhln layer and Lhe dopanL
subsequenLly dlffuses lnLo Lhe semlconducLor
W 1he boundary condlLlons are
W SubsLlLuLlng x0 we geL
W 1he gradlenL (or slope) ls zero aL x 0 and aL
xlnflnlLy and max gradlenL occurs aL
MLASu8LMLn1 Cl ullluSlvl1?
W !unC1lCn uL1P MLASu8LMLn1
Measured on an angle lapped sample
chemlcal sLalnlng by a mlxLure of 100 cc
Pl(49) and a few drops of PnC3
When Lhe sample ls puL under sLrong
lllumlnaLlon for 12 mlnuLes Lhe pLype reglon
wlll be sLalned darker Lhan Lhe n Lype reglon
1he [uncLlon depLhs can be measured from 3
mlcrons Lo over 100 mlcrons
W MLASu8lnC SPLL1 8LSlS1AnCL 1PL 4 Cln1
8C8L 1LCPnlCuL
1he sheeL reslsLance ls glven by
vdc volLage across Lhe volLage probes
lconsLanL dc currenL passlng Lhrough Lhe
currenL probes
Cl correcLlon facLor
lAS1 ullluSAn1S ln Sl
W Croup l and group vlll elemenLs are fasL
dlffusanLs ln Sl
W 1hey form deep level Lraps and affecL Lhe
mlnorlLy carrler llfeLlme and Lhe [uncLlon leakage
W lacLors affecLlng Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon and dlffuslon
raLes of Lhese elemenLs are
W ulslocaLlon concenLraLlon preclplLaLlon of Lhese
elemenLs near dlslocaLlons coollng raLeseLc
W lL ls almosL lmposslble Lo measure Lhelr
dlffuslvlLles wlLh any conslsLency
lC8MlnC nMCSAn eg Cl ullluSlCn
W ALomlc dlffuslon mechanlsms are belng
developed Lo relaLe Lhe lnLeracLlon of lmpurlLy
dlffuslon wlLh charged polnL defecLs
W ALLempLs are belng made Lo consLrucL dlffuslon
models based on defecL lmpurlLy lnLeracLlons
W As Lhe devlce slze geLs smaller and smaller Lhe
need for beLLer measuremenL Lechnlques
becomes more urgenL
W A loL of research ls sLlll belng done ln Lhls fleld
desplLe oLher mechanlsms llke lon lmplanLaLlon
belng avallable for Lhe same purpose
1PAnk ?Cu!!!