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CERAMO-METAL ALLOYS

Stephen C. Bayne
Department of Operative Dentistry School of Dentistry University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450

http://www.dent.unc.edu/portfolios/bayne/dental-materials/

PFM FABRICATION .

4 ppm/C .PROCESSING CYCLES CAST GOLD ALLOYS Tm 890C CERAMO METAL ALLOYS Tm 1100-1500C Tvitrification residual vitrification porosity ductile brittle alloy alloy Tg cooling shrinkage porosity Trt TIME Alloy LCTE = 16-18 ppm/C Trt TIME Opaque + 2-3 Body Layers Porcelain and Alloy LCTE = 14.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND A. Historical Review of Porcelain Use in Dentistry: 18061817184418541884188919571959B. Fonzi prepared porcelain teeth with baked in Pt posts Plantous introduces porcelain teeth to the US SS White begins large scale production of porcelain in US Loomis patents the totally porcelain denture Logan makes porcelain crown with baked Pt metal post Land develops the all porcelain jacket crown First P/M restorations Weinstein patents the P/M process for dentistry Historical Review of Casting Alloys in Dentistry: 18701907194019681970Cast restorations produced from gold coins Taggart introduces a inlay casting technique Bronze alloys replace casting gold alloys during the war US allows price of gold to fluctuate on the open market Large scale introduction of gold substitute alloys .

High fusing temperature to prevent distortion in porcelain bake b. E = 90 to 220 GPa) (Space for ceramic esthetics. 4. Chemical bonding between porcelain and oxide layer on metal b. Non-irritating 2. No porcelain discoloration reactions Mechanical Properties: a. High Hardness (H = 125. Matched LCTE of porcelain and metal Chemical Properties: a.. Electrochemical corrosion resistance d. . but metal thickness for rigidity) b.465 kg/mm2) (Need metal to be capable of being ground and polished) Biological Properties: a.MAJOR PFM ALLOY REQUIREMENTS 1. 3. Physical Properties: a. Chemical corrosion resistance (no tarnish) c. High E (= stiffness) (e.g. Non-toxic b.

ADA Classification System (see phase diagrams) (1) Type I  83% Au+ (Non-heat hardenable) -. Full Gold Crown and Bridge Alloys (REVIEW of precious alloys) a. onlay.inlay (2) Type II  78% Au+ (Non-heat hardenable) -.CLASSIFICATION OF ALLOYS 1. crown (4) Type IV  75% Au+ (Heat hardenable) -.crown.onlay. bridge Effects of Alloys Components: (1) Gold (Au)  corrosion resistance (2) Copper (Cu)  increased hardness (3) Silver (Ag)  counteracts orange color of copper (4) Palladium (Pd)  increased MP and hardness (5) Platinum (Pt)  increased MP (6) Zinc (Zn)  oxygen scavenger b.inlay. . … (3) Type III  78% Au+ (Heat hardenable) -.

Brasses (ACTIVE) CORROSION Passive Immune TIME Au–Pt–Pd  Au-Pd-Ag  Pd-Ag  Pd-X  Ni-Cr … . Other Crown and Bridge Casting Alloys: a.CLASSIFICATION OF ALLOYS 2. ADA Classification System (see phase diagrams) (1) High gold alloys (IMMUNE) (a) Au-Pt-Pd (b) Au-Pd-Ag (2) Low gold alloys (SEMI-IMMUNE) (3) Gold-substitute alloys (PASSIVE) (a) Ag-Pd (85% of all PFM alloys) (b) Pd-X (4) Base-metal alloys (PASSIVE) (a) Ni-Cr (with or without Be) (b) Co-Cr (c) Fe-Cr (5) Titanium alloys (PASSIVE) (6) Other alloys – Al Bronzes.

Effects of Alloying Components in Gold Alloys: (1) Au. Fe  increased modulus opaque body c. Co.CLASSIFICATION OF ALLOYS 2. In. Other Crown and Bridge Casting Alloys (cont): b. metal oxide . Ti  oxide formers in other alloys (2) Ni. Ag. Sn  oxide formers for gold alloys (6) Zn  oxygen scavenger Effects of Alloying Components in Other Alloys: (1) Cr. Pt  corrosion resistance (2) Pt  increased MP (3) Pd  increased MP and hardness (4) Ag  cheaper (5) Fe. Pd.

Synonyms for Ceramic-Metal Restorations: a. White Gold = White color due to higher concentration of Pt or Pd. b. . Porcelain Bonded to Metal (PBM) c. Porcelain-Metal Restorations (P/M) 2. Porcelain Fused to Metal (PFM) b. Ceramo-Metal Restorations d. Color of Alloys: a. Yellow Gold = yellow color due to presence of copper and/or gold.SPECIAL TERMINOLOGY 1.

BHN 165 200 170 260 250-300 ----- .PROPERTIES of Ceramo-Metal Alloys Tm(°C) Au-Pt-Pd Au-Pd-Ag Pd-Ag Pd-X Ni-Cr Co-Cr Fe-Cr 1120 1180 1100 1340 1320 ----- KHN.

COMMERCIAL EXAMPLES Au-Pt-Pd Au-Pd-Ag Pd-Ag Pd-X Ni-Cr Co-Cr Fe-Cr .

THANK YOU .

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