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TINJAUAN PUSTAKA

SEL
 Sel merupakan satuan terkecil organisme yang

dibatasi dari lingkungannya oleh membran plasma (Syukri, 1999).  Selain memisahkan diri dari lingkungan sekitarnya, sel juga perlu berhubungan dengan lingkungannya agar tetap hidup (http://www.chem-is-try.org).

Gambar 1 Struktur Sel Tumbuhan

Perbedaan Sel Hewan dan Sel Tumbuhan
Sel Hewan Sel Tumbuhan

com).ac. .ipb.MEMBRAN SEL  Senyawa utama penyusun membran adalah protein dan lipid (Lakitan.  Komposisi lipid dan protein tergantung pada jenis dan fungsi membran (http://bima.  Membran bersifat selektif permeabel (http://www. 1993).id).kompas.

Gambar 2 Struktur Membran Sel .

. like it’s a liquid MOSAIC.because of the pattern produced by the scattered protein molecules when the membrane is viewed from above.FLUID because individual phospholipids and proteins can move around freely within the layer.

1983). .  Fosfolipid tersusun atas bagian kepala yang bersifat hidrofilik (polar) dan bagian ekor yang hidrofobik (non polar).LIPID MEMBRAN  Lipid membran terdiri dari fosfolipid dan kolesterol (Guyton.

Gambar 3 Fosfolipid .

The Parts of Phospholipid Molecule .

ac.ipb.id).  Protein berperan sebagai channel dan carrier serta pompa (Guyton.PROTEIN MEMBRAN  Berdasarkan kekuatan ikatannya protein membran dibedakaan menjadi 2. 1987). yaitu: protein integral dan protein periferal (http://bima. .

Structure Membrane Protein (1)  Membrane-spanning alpha helices are the most common structural motif in membrane proteins .

Structure Membran Protein (2)  Each strand is hydrogen bonded to its neighbor in an antiparallel arrangement. forming a single beta sheet .

O2. H2O . CO2.Semipermeable Membrane Small molecules and larger hydrophobic molecules move through easily. e.g.

TRANSPORT MEMBRAN Membrane transport Small molecules passive transport simple diffusion water nonpolar ions endocytosis facilitated diffusion channels permeases Large molecules exocytosis pinocytosis active transport pumps cootransporters .

Require energy .Facilitated Ion Diffusion: the diffusion of ion by “gated” in membrane  Active Transport (Using ATP):the pumping of molecules or ions through a membrane against their concentration gradient. Passive Transport (Diffusion) : Types of Transport Across Cell Membrane -Simple Diffusion: the diffusion of molecule that can pass through directly the membrane .Osmosis : the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane .

Osmosis  Diffusion of water Diffusion across a membrane across a membrane  Moves from HIGH water potential (low solute) to LOW water potential (high solute) Semipermeable membrane .

Cell in Isotonic Solution 10% NaCL 90% H2O ENVIRONMENT CELL 10% NaCL 90% H2O NO NET MOVEMENT .

Cell in Hypotonic Solution 10% NaCL 90% H2O CELL 20% NaCL 80% H2O .

Cell in Hypertonic Solution 15% NaCL 85% H2O ENVIRONMENT CELL 5% NaCL 95% H2O What is the direction of water movement? .

Osmosis in Red Blood Cells Isotonic Hypotonic Hypertonic .

.Facilitated Diffusion  Some Carrier proteins do not extend through the membrane.  They bond and drag molecules through the lipid bilayer and release them on the opposite side.

and is therefore a type of cotransporter  Antiporter-An antiporter (also called exchanger or counter-transporter) is transmembrane protein which is involved in secondary active transport of two or more different molecules or ions (i. solutes) across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in opposite directions.Transmembrane Protein (1) Basic Transport Mechanism  Uniporter : A uniporter is transmembrane membrane protein that is involved in facilitated diffusion. . They can be either a channel or a carrier protein  Symport-A symport is transmembrane protein that is involved in movement of two or more different molecules or ions across a phospholipid membrane such as the plasma membrane in the same direction.e.

Mechanism Transport in Carrier protein .

allowing the passive movement of small inorganic ions (only passive transport) “Influenced by: electrochemical gradient” .Transmembrane Protein (2)  Carrier proteins. from a narrow hydrophilic core. have moving parts to shift specific molecules across the membrane (Passive and Active transport)  Channel proteins.

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 Ex: Valinomycin.  When all these binding sites are occupied.Carrier Transport  The carriers involved behave like specialized membrane-bound enzymes. protein carrier for pottassium . the rate of transport is maximal  Carrier Transport facilitate for passive and active transport. Each type of carrier protein has one or more specific binding sites for its solute (substrate).

Hypothetical Model Carrier Protein  Conformational change in a carrier protein could mediate the facilitated diffusion of a solute .

 Other carrier Passive Transport proteins change shape to move materials across the cell membrane without ATP See animation 1 .

.CoTransport  Cotransport are similar to those in facilitated diffusion in that specific binding takes place and no ATP is expended.  Ex: Glucose and Na+ in the small intestine The high concentration of glucose in the lumen provides the energy for the transporter to move both Na+ and glucose out of the lumen and into the cell. It is different in that two substances must bind at the same time before the transport takes place. This transport takes place even if the concentration of Na+ in the lumen is less than in the cell. The Na+ thus moves to a higher concentration. but only provided the free energy required for this is less than that provided by the movement of glucose down its concentration gradient.

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.Active Transport Requires energy or ATP Moves materials from Low to High concentration Against concentration gradient  Examples: Pumping Na+ (sodium ions) out and K+ (potassium ions) in against strong concentration gradients.

. dalam proses difusi zat dapat berpindah dari larutan berkonsentrasi tinggi ke larutan berkonsentrasi rendah hingga tercapai keadaan keseimbangan.cc.mn.us/biology).  Proses difusi dibedakan menjadi dua.DIFUSI  Menurut Poedjiadi (1994). yaitu: difusi sederhana dan difusi terbantu (http://www.northland.

dengan menggunakan sejumlah energi yang diperoleh dari dalam sel (Poedjiadi. .TRANSPORT AKTIF  Transpor aktif adalah perpindahan suatu zat yang bertentangan dengan gradien konsentrasi. 1994).

Gambar 2.4 Transport Aktif .

 Potensial membran lebih negatif di bagian dalam dibandingkan di bagian luar (Ganong. 1974).POTENSIAL MEMBRAN  Potensial membran timbul karena difusi ion dan transport aktif ion melewati membran (Guyton. . 1983).

Pembentukan ATP .

Penggunaan ATP .

Prinsip Kerja Pompa Na+-K+ dan Proses Pengangkutan Aktif Pompa Na+-K+ Pengangkutan Aktif ATP ADP + PI dalam Membran luar lipoprotein K+ glikoprotein Na+ .

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