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• As people are becoming more conscious of

healthy eating, the serving of a variety of correctly


cooked, colourful, attractively presented
vegetables becomes increasingly important.

• This can be achieved in a variety of ways: a small


selection of vegetables served on a separate plate
to the main course is popular when appropriate, as
is the practice of placing dishes of vegetables on
the table for customers to help themselves. There
are also people who would welcome a small
selection of vegetables served as a separate course.
• As fast world-wide transport is now the norm, the
more exotic vegetables, which were previously
unknown are now available and caterers, should
learn how to prepare, cook and serve them.
However, these should not replace but, rather,
supplement freshly picked and cooked local
produce, which will always be popular if correctly
cooked, of good colour and attractively presented.

• When preparing vegetables they should be


cooked as close to service time as possible, or
prepared and blanched without over cooking. Over
cooked vegetables loose their colour and vitamin
and nutrient content.
Vegetables Are Divided Into Different
Categories.They Are As Follows:
• ROOT
• TUBER
• BULBS
• STEMS
• LEGUMES
• AQUEOUS
• LEAVES
• FLOWER HEADS
• FUNGI
• VEGETABLE FRUITS
• NLN Vegetable database.
Root Vegetables.
• Root vegetables need to be cleaned well to
remove soil, which can be a source of
contamination. The bacteria Clostridium
Perfingens and Bacillus Cereus are present
in soil and are very harmful.
Types of Root Vegetables.

• Carrots: Available all year round, good source


of Vitamin A.

• Turnips: Best between May – June.

• Swede: Best between October – March.

• Parsnips: Best between October – April.


Types of Root Vegetables.
• Beetroot: Not usually used as a vegetable, but boiled
and pickled and used in salads.

• Celeriac: Celery flavoured vegetable looks like a


rough skinned turnip.

• Radish: This is usually used as a salad item and not


served as a hot vegetable.

• Salsify: Often called an Oyster Plant, due to its


oyster type flavour.
Different Types of Roots.
Black Salsify Turnip

Carrot Parsnip
Different Types of Roots.

Beetroot Kohlrabi

Celeraic Swede
Different Types of Radish &
Cress.
Corn Salad Mustard & Cress

Icicle Black Mouli

Scarlet Globe & French Breakfast


Types of Tuber Vegetables.
• Potatoes:40 different types:
Early crop: May – August. Main crop Sept – May.

• Jerusalem Artichokes:Used in soups or served in a


cream sauce.

• Sweet Potatoes: Used in stir-fry dishes, requires


prolonged cooking, slightly nutty taste.
Types of Tubers
• Yam: Flourish in tropical climates and are similar
to sweet potatoes.

• Taro & Cassava: Also flourish in the tropics, both


taste similar to potatoes. The Taro goes a greyish
green colour when cooked.

• Jicama: a Tropical tuber popular in Mexican dishes.


Different Types of Potatoes.
All Purpose New
Yellow

All Purpose Baking


White

Salad Potato Orange Sweet

Blue Potato Yellow Sweet


Different Types of Tuber.
Taro Cassava

Jerusalem Artichoke

Jicama

Yam
Types of Bulb Vegetables.
• Onions: All year round, should have a firm and
crisp outer skin.

• Spring Onions: Best between May – September,


used in salads and Chinese cooking.

• Shallots: Best between September – October,


classed as best bulb.
Types of Bulb Vegetables.
• Leeks: All year round, must be well washed
before using.

• Chives: Best between May – August, used


mainly as a garnish.

• Garlic: All year round, best garlic comes


from France.
Different Types of Bulbs.
Pickling Onion Banana Shallot

Garlic

Shallot
Different Types of Bulbs.
Spring Onions Welsh Onions
Leeks

Tree Onion
Different Types of Bulbs.
Red Onion Yellow Onion

Spanish Onion Vidalia Onion


Types of Leaf Vegetables.
• Cabbage: 4 main types, Green, Red, Chinese &
Spring Green.

• Curly Kale: Very dark leaf, no heart / core.

• Sprouts: Should be small, compact with tight


leafs.

• Sorrel: Used in salads or cooked like Spinach.


Types of Leaf Vegetables.
• Spinach: Deep green leaves, high in Iron.

• Chard: Dark green leaf with white coloured


stems.

• Lettuce: Used in salads, wash thoroughly.

• Watercress: High in Iron, store in iced water


after picking.
Different Types of Lettuce.

Butterhead Iceberg Webb’s Rocket


Different Types of Lettuce.

Curly Endive Loosehead Chicory Mizuna


Different Types of Lettuce.

Cos Escarole Radicchio Lollo Rosso


Different Types of Green Leaf.

Nettles Purslane Sorrel Dandelion


Different Types of Green Leaf.
Spinach Chinese Greens Spring Greens
Different Types of Green Leaf.
Beet Greens Bok Choy Watercress

Curly Kale Chinese Leaves Swiss Chard


Different Types of Leaves.
Red Cabbage

White Cabbage Sprouts


Types of Flower Head
Vegetables.
• Cauliflower: Best between March –
December, should have bright white head.

• Broccoli: All year round, firm green or


purple heads.

• Globe Artichoke: Best cooked with piece of


Lemon attached to the bottom.
Different Types of Flower Head.
Cauliflower Globe Artichoke

Purple Cauliflower Purple & Green Broccoli


Types of Stem Vegetables.
• Celery: Used in Bouquet Garni, Soups or
salads.

• Chicory: Used as lettuce.

• Fennel: Bulb like with a strong flavour,


used in salads.

• Asparagus:3 main types with white, green


& purple heads.
Types of Stem Vegetables.
• Cardoon: A relation of the Globe Artichoke
prepare like Celery.

• Fennel: Bulb like with a strong flavour, used in


salads.

• Asparagus:3 main types with white, green &


purple heads.

• Fiddlehead Fern: A mixed flavour of Asparagus &


French Beans.
Different Types of Stem
Vegetables.
Celery Cardoon

Fennel Asparagus Fiddlehead Fern


Types of Legumes & Pods.

• Broad Bean: Can be used as a salad item,


mainly used as a hot vegetable dish.

• French Bean: Used as a hot vegetable dish.

• Runner Bean: Large ones can be stringy and


tough.
Types of Legumes & Pods.

• Mange tout: Crisp flat underdeveloped pea.


Stir-fried or sautéed.

• Peas: Should be firm and crisp, sugar snap


peas should be cooked like Mange tout.

• Kenya Beans: Similar to French bean but


grown in Kenya.
Different Types of Pods &
Legumes
Sugar Snap Haricot Broad

Garden Peas in pod


Different Types of Pods

Mange tout Bobby Bean Runner Bean


Types of Edible Fungi.
• Only purchase Fungi (Mushrooms) from
reputable suppliers, do not use fungi that
you are unsure of.

• Some Fungi are poisonous and great care is


needs to be taken to avoid them.
Types of Edible Fungi.

• Cep: Flat and brown in colour.

• Chanterelle: Also known as Egg mushroom.

• Morel: Very expensive, holes all over the


mushroom.

• Field Mushroom: Very woody looking.


Types of Edible Fungi.

• Open: Mostly used in general cooking.

• Closed: Mostly used in general cooking.

• Truffle: Black or White.

• Shiitake: Flat topped.


Different Types of Mushrooms &
Fungi.
Oyster Chanterelle

Hedgehog Fresh Cep

Horn of Plenty Shaggy Ink Cap

Chestnut Button
Different Types of Mushrooms &
Fungi.
Shiitake Enoki Black & White Truffle

Horse Parasol
Fresh Morel Dried Morel
Different Types of Mushrooms &
Fungi.
Dried Cep (Porcini)

Portobello

Giant Puffball Dried Cloud Ear Straw


Types of Vegetable Fruits.
• Tomato: Should be ripe and red, Cherry,
Beefsteak, Plum.

• Avocado: Must be ripe, soak in Lemon juice after


preparing.

• Aubergine: Egg plant, when prepared sprinkle


with salt, removes excess water.

• Cucumber: Used in salads, baby cucumbers are


called Dills.

• Capsicum: Peppers, green, yellow, red, black,


white, orange.
Types of Vegetable Fruits.
• Courgette: Also known as by their Italian name
Zucchini.

• Okra: Also known as Ladies fingers.

• Baby Sweetcorn: Good source of Vitamin C &


B1.(Marrow and Courgette are also known as a
fruit).

• Marrow: Best cooked by steaming or Par boiling.

• Squash: Two types Summer & Winter Squash.


Different Types of Tomatoes.
Cherry Sun Dried Tomatillo
Different Types of Tomatoes.
Beefsteak Plum
Different Types of Aubergine &
Avocado.
Aubergine Purple Aubergine

White Aubergine Hass & Winter Avocado


Different Types of Cucumber.
Ridge Cucumber

Cucumber
Different Types of Capsicums
(Peppers).
Yellow Green Red
Different Types of Chillies.
Jalapeno Ancho Bird

Large Dried Anaheim


Different Types of Fruit
Vegetables.
Okra (Ladies Fingers) Baby corn & Corn on the Cob

Pumpkin
Different Types of Winter
Squash.
Acorn Butternut Turban Hubbard
Different Types of Summer
Squash.
Pattypan Chayote Yellow Straightneck
Types of Aqueous Vegetables.
• Courgette: Also known as by their Italian name
Zucchini.

• Marrow: Best cooked by steaming or Par boiling.

• These types of Vegetables are also Fruit


Vegetables.
Different Types of Aqueous
Vegetables.
Spaghetti Marrow Vegetable Marrow Courgette