Foodborne Illness Can Cause More than a Stomach Ache!

ramid MyPy Safety Food elines Guid

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Alice Henneman, MS, RD University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension in Lancaster County http://lancaster.unl.edu/food

Joyce Jensen, REHS Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.

June 2005
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Acknowledgments
• This slide set is based on information provided by:
– United States Department of Agriculture – United States Department of Health & Human Services

• For more information, visit:
– http://www.mypyramid.gov – http://www.fsis.usda.gov – http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines
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Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year:
• 76 million people become ill • 5,000 people die

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Signs and symptoms

Upset stomach

Fever

Diarrhea

Vomiting

Dehydration
(sometimes severe)
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Possible more severe conditions

Meningitis Paralysis
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Don’t count on these to test for food safety!

Sight

Smell

Taste

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Even IF tasting would tell …
Why risk getting sick?
A “tiny taste” may not protect you … as few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne illnesses!

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Why gamble with your health?
It takes about ½ hour to 6 weeks to become ill from unsafe foods. You may become sick later even if you feel OK after eating.

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Why risk other people’s health?
Is the food safe for everyone at the table?

Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnesses. A food you safely eat might make others sick.

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People with a higher risk of foodborne illness

Infants Pregnant women

Young children and older adults

People with weakened immune systems and individuals with certain chronic diseases
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Be a winner!
Increase your odds of preventing a foodborne illness in YOUR HOME!

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“Key recommendations” for food safety
The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five “Key Recommendations” for food safety.

Source: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm 13

Recommendation 1: CLEAN
Clean hands, food-contact surfaces, fruits and vegetables.
Do NOT wash or rinse meat and poultry as this could spread bacteria to other foods.

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Wash your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness.

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How to wash hands
1. Wet hands with
WARM water.

2. Soap and scrub for
20 seconds.

3. Rinse under clean,
running water.

4. Dry completely
using a clean cloth or paper towel.
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Wash hands after …

Using bathroom or changing diapers

Handling pets

Sneezing, blowing nose & coughing

AND before ...

Touching a cut or open sore

Handling food

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Clean during food preparation
Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.
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Avoid spreading bacteria
• Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. • Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.
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Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria
• Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth. • Have a good supply of dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day.

There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are worst offenders.
~ research by Dr. Charles Gerba
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Recommendation 2: SEPARATE
Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.
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Use different cutting boards

Use one cutting board for fresh produce and a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood.

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When groovy isn’t a good thing

Replace cutting boards if they become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves.

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Use clean plates
NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.

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Recommendation 3: COOK
Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.

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Thermy temperature recommendations
TM

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 26 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/education/thermy

Chicken and turkey

Thermy™ says: Cook chicken and turkey (whole birds, legs, thighs & wings) to 180 degrees F. 27

Ham

Thermy™ says: A "cook before eating" ham should reach 160 degrees F. To reheat a fully-cooked ham, heat it to 140 degrees F.

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Ground meats

Thermy™ says: Cook hamburger, ground beef and other ground meats to 160 degrees F and ground poultry to 165 degrees F.

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Leftovers

Thermy™ says: Reheat leftovers until a temperature of 165 degrees F is reached throughout the product. 30

Egg dishes

Thermy™ says: Cook egg dishes such as quiche to 160 degrees F.

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Beef, lamb & veal steaks

Thermy™ says: Cook beef, lamb and veal steaks and roasts to 160 degrees F for medium doneness 32 (145 degrees F for medium rare).

Turkey

Thermy™ says: A turkey is done when the temperature in the inner thigh reaches 180 degrees F. 33

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The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!

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Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?

36 Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160 degrees F, even though it's pink inside.

This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135 degrees F.

37 Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature

38 Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

Types of food thermometers

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DIGITAL instant-read
• Reads in 10 seconds • Place at least ½ inch deep (or as directed by manufacturer) • Gives fast reading • Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods • Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking • Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions • Available in "kitchen" stores
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 40 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

DIAL instant-read
• • • • • • • • • Reads in 15-20 seconds Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions Readily available in stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 41 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

Dial oven-safe
• • • • • • Reads in 1-2 minutes Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups Not appropriate for thin foods Can remain in food while it's cooking Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 42 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

Oven probe with cord
• Can be used in most foods • Can also be used outside the oven • Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot • Base unit sits on stovetop or counter • Cannot be calibrated
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 43 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use)
• Reads in 5 -10 seconds • Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions) • Designed to be used only once • Designed for specific temperature ranges • Should only be used with food for which they are intended • Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 44 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

Thermometer-fork combination
• • • • • • Reads in 2-10 seconds Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food Can be used in most foods Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time • Cannot be calibrated • Convenient for grilling
Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service 45 http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

Placing a food thermometer
• • •
Place in the thickest part of food. Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle. Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done." For irregularly shaped food – such as with a beef roast – check the temperature in several places. Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!
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• •

Using a thermometer in thinner foods
For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, a DIGITAL instant-read food thermometer should be used if possible – as it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer. Disposable temperature indicators are another option.
For really thin foods, it may be necessary to insert a digital thermometer or disposable temperature indicator at an angle.
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Using a thermometer in thinner foods
For an "instant-read" DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.

When grilling or frying, to avoid burning fingers, it may be helpful to remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer.

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Recommendation 4: CHILL
Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly.
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The TWO-hour rule
Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90 degrees F. Perishable foods include: • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu • Dairy products • Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables • Fresh, peeled/cut fruits and vegetables
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DANGER ZONE
Bacteria multiply rapidly between 40 and 140 degrees F.

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A multiplication quiz
Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!

How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIA left at room temperature 7 hours?
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Answer: 2,097,152!

Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours.

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How to be cool – part 1
• Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less. Place very hot foods on a rack at room temperature for about 20 minutes before refrigeration.
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How to be cool – part 2
It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm. Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.

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Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures
• Set refrigerator at 40 degrees F or below. • Set freezer at 0 degrees F.

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Place an appliance thermometer in your refrigerator AND freezer

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Monitor refrigerator & freezer temperatures

• Place thermometer in the front of refrigerator/freezer in an easy-to-read location. • Check temperature regularly – at least once a week.

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The THAW LAW
• Plan ahead to defrost foods. • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.

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When to leave your leftovers
• Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days. • If in doubt, toss it out!

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Time to toss …

"If it walks out, let it go!"
~ seen on a refrigerator magnet

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Recommendation 5: AVOID...
• Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products • Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs • Raw and undercooked meat and poultry • Unpasteurized juices • Raw sprouts
Most at risk are infants, young children, pregnant women, older adults and the immunocompromised.
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Food safety recommendations for food groups
The 2005 MyPyramid gives specific food safety recommendations for each food group.

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Fruits & vegetables

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Cleaning fruits & vegetables
• • •
Remove and discard outer leaves. Rinse under clean, running water just before preparing or eating. Rub briskly – scrubbing with a clean brush or hands – to remove dirt and surface microorganisms. Don’t use soap or detergent.
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Cleaning fruits & vegetables
1. 2.
After washing, dry with a clean cloth or paper towel. Moisture left on produce may promote survival and growth of microorganisms. Drying is critical if food won’t be eaten or cooked right away. Cut away bruised and damaged areas.

3.

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Wash this produce, too!
Bacteria on the outside of fruits can be transferred to the inside when the fruit is peeled or cut. Wash fruits – such as cantaloupe and other melons – under running water.
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Handling fruits & vegetables
• Cover and refrigerate cut/peeled fruits and vegetables. TOSS cut/peeled fresh produce if left at room temperature longer than TWO hours.

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Separate fruits & vegetables from other foods

Keep fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparing or storing them.

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Read labels
Read labels on bagged produce to determine if it is ready-to-eat. Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and used by the “use-by” date.
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Dairy products

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Dairy do’s and don’ts
• Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products such as some soft cheeses. • Refrigerate dairy foods promptly. Discard dairy foods left at room temperature for more than two hours – even if they Do NOT drink milk directly look and smell good.
from the carton.
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Meat & beans

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Avoid washing raw meat & poultry
Do NOT wash raw meat and poultry. Washing is not necessary. Washing increases the danger of cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils, and counter surfaces.

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Refrigerator storage

Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.
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Cook to safe temperatures
Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs and raw/undercooked meat and poultry.

Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.
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Signs of safely cooked fish
• Fin fish: Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. • Shrimp, lobsters & crab: Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. • Scallops: Turn milky white or opaque and firm. • Clams, mussels & oysters: Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed.
The US Food & Drug Administration recommends cooking most seafood to an internal temperature of 145 degrees F for 15 seconds.
Source: United States Food & Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/797_home.html
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Specific group recommendations
These groups should avoid some types of fish and eat types lower in mercury:
– Pregnant women and those who may become pregnant – Nursing mothers – Young children

For more information: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/a or call 1-888-SAFEFOOD.
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Specific group recommendations
Pregnant women, older adults, and the immunocompromised should only eat deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot to avoid the risk of listeriosis.

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Should you keep or toss …

Pizza left on the counter overnight?

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Toss it out!
Even if you reheat pizza left on the counter overnight, some bacteria can form a heat resistant toxin that cooking won’t destroy.

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Should you keep or toss …

Hamburger thawed on the kitchen counter?

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Toss it out!
• As with pizza left out more than TWO hours, bacteria may have formed heat-resistant toxins. • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator. • Thaw packages of meat, poultry and seafood on a plate on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator to prevent their juices from dripping on other foods.
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Should you keep or toss …

Perishable food left out from the noon meal until the evening meal?

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Toss it out!
Perishable foods – such as meats, gravy and cooked vegetables – should be refrigerated within TWO hours.

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Should you keep or toss …

Pumpkin pie stored at room temperature overnight?

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Toss it out!
• Foods with eggs, milk, and a high moisture content – such as pumpkin pie – must be refrigerated. • Avoid keeping pumpkin pie at room temperature more than TWO hours, including time after baking AND before being served. • Some commercial pumpkin pies – purchased at room temperature – must later be refrigerated. Check label for storage requirements and don’t buy them if label directions are unclear or missing. 88

Should you keep or toss …

Cut/peeled fruits and vegetables at room temperature for over TWO hours?

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Toss it out!
• Once you have cut through the protective skin of fruits and vegetables, bacteria can enter. • Refrigerate cut or peeled fruits and vegetables within TWO hours.

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Should you keep or toss …

Leftovers in the refrigerator for over a week?

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Toss it out!
• Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days. • You can’t always see or smell if a food is unsafe. It may be unsafe to taste a food.

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Should you keep or toss …

A FULL pot of chicken soup stored in the refrigerator while still hot?

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…(can you guess?)
How long would it take an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator?

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Would you believe … 24 hours!

TOSS IT OUT!
Remember: Transfer hot foods to shallow containers to speed cooling.

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Should you keep or toss …

A turkey in your freezer for five years?

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You decide!
Food kept frozen at 0 degrees F is still safe to eat. However, it may not taste as good. To assure best flavor, eat a frozen turkey within a year.
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Remember:
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