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Techniques a. Inspection b. Palpation
relatively equal with slight variation Deviation from Normal . Inspection a.recent change to unequal size . Size and Symmetry . 1.
convex and pendulum .Shape -round.
Color .redness.pink. increased venous engorgement . blue hue. inflammation. striae with age of pregnancy Deviation from normal .
edema.retraction.smooth Deviation from normal . ulcers . lumps. “peau d’ orange”. rashes. lesions. enlarged pores. dimpling. Skin surface .
Observe areola and nipples for the following: 1. slight variation Deviation from normal .relatively the same. B. Size .large variation .
Color .pink to deep brown .
round. if it occurs after maturation or charges with movement .inversion. Shape . oval. everted Deviation from normal .
none. clear yellow 2 days after childbirth Deviation from normal . Discharge .foul. purulent. sanguineous discharge .
presence of small Montgomery tubercles Deviation from normal . dimpling. Texture . enlarged pores .retraction.
2. Temperature -warm Deviation from normal -erythema . Palpation * palpate the breasts for the following: a.
elastic Deviation from normal . B. Elasticity .lumpy .
C.painful . Tenderness .non tender. slightly tender Deviation from normal .
mobility. D. and location) . shape.bilateral firm infra mammary transverse ridge at base of breasts Deviation from normal . consistency. Masses ( note size.masses or nodules present .
dark red . serosanguineous.none.presence of discharge. clear yellow. clear yellow 2 days after childbirth Deviation from normal . * palpate nipple for discharge . unilateral serous.
subclavian. intermediate. internal mammary .palpable lymph nodes . mammary. C. palpate lymph nodes in the following areas: *supraclavicular. scapular. brachial.none palpable Deviation from normal .
note nodules.areolar areas and nipples are darker than surrounding breast tissue. Variation for Men 1. . Inspect the nipple and areola.absence of edema . or ulcerations. . swelling. .
distorted nipple and areola may indicate cancer. . Deviation from normal .
nipple and areola overlie a thin disc of undeveloped breast that is indistinguishable from surrounding tissues.small breast. 2. . . . Palpate the areola and note nodules.Adolescent boys may develop temporary breast enlargement on one or both sides.
Deviation from normal . . irregular nodule frequently fixed to both nipple and underlying tissue may indicate breast cancer. .hard.a firm disc of glandular enlargement may indicate gynecomastia.
Note any rash.reddened and inflamed area occurs with infected hidradenitis suppurative. 3.enlarged tender nodes may indicate lymphadenitis from hand or arm infection or axillary metastasis of breast cancer. . .rashes may indicate allergy to deodorant. unusual pigmentation and nodes. Inspect and palpate the axillae. infection. . .
abnormal increase in size? .assymetrical growth? -Girls prior to puberty.pain or discomfort? -Boys during adolescence. Pediatric *focus questions: .
Geriatric .coarser and more nodular tissue .breasts are less firm and pendulous .
.boys during adolescence abnormal increase in size? Geriatric .coarser and more nodular tissue .girls prior to puberty pain or discomfort? .breasts are less firm and pendulous .