Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior

4th Edition

Chapter 1: Introduction to Organizational Behavior

JENNIFER GEORGE & GARETH JONES
1-1 ©2005 Prentice Hall

Chapter Objectives
 Define organizational behavior and explain how and why it determines the effectiveness of an organization  Appreciate why the study of organizational behavior improves a person’s ability to understand and respond to events that take place in a work setting  Differentiate between the three levels at which organizational behavior is examined

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©2005 Prentice Hall

Chapter Objectives  Appreciate the way changes in an organization’s external environment continually create challenges for organizational behavior  Describe the four main kinds of forces in the environment that post the most opportunities and problems for organizations today 1-3 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

IKEA’s Global Approach to OB  IKEA strives to increase employees’ skills and knowledge  IKEA provides employees with rewards that encourage high performance  IKEA encourages employee commitment and cooperation 1-4 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

What is an Organization?  An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals – Individual goals – Organizational goals 1-5 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

feel. and how organizations respond to their environments  See Figure 1.What is Organizational Behavior?  Organizational behavior (OB): the study of factors that have an impact on how people and groups act. 1.3 1-6 ©2005 Prentice Hall .2.1. 1. think. and respond to work and organizations.

financial. and controlling an organization’s human. material. organizing.What is Management?  Management is the process of planning. leading. and other resources to increase its effectiveness 1-7 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Four Functions of Management     Planning Organizing Leading Controlling 1-8 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

1: Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles      Figurehead Liaison Disseminator Entrepreneur Resource allocator     Leader Monitor Spokesperson Disturbance handler  Negotiator 1-9 ©2005 Prentice Hall .Table 1.

work with. 1-10 ©2005 Prentice Hall .  Human Skills: The ability to understand.  Technical Skills: Job-specific knowledge and techniques. lead.Managerial Skills  Conceptual Skills: The ability to analyze and diagnose a situation and distinguish between cause and effect. and control the behavior of other people and groups.

Challenges for Organizational Behavior     1: Changing Social/ Cultural Environment 2: Evolving Global Environment 3: Advancing Information Technology 4: Shifting Work/ Employment Relationships 1-11 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Changing Social and Cultural Environment  National culture  Organizational ethics and well-being  Diverse work force 1-12 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Diversity Challenges  Fairness and Justice  Decision-Making and Performance  Flexibility 1-13 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Evolving Global Environment  Understanding Global Differences  Improve Organization’s Behaviors and Procedures in Response to Those Differences 1-14 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Advancing Information Technology        Information Knowledge Information Technology Organizational Learning Intranets Creativity Innovation 1-15 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Shifting Work/ Employment Relationships     Downsizing Empowerment and Self-Managed Teams Contingent Workers Outsourcing 1-16 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

Taylor and Scientific Management Mary Parker Follett Hawthorne Studies Theory X and Y 1-17 ©2005 Prentice Hall .W.Appendix 1A: A Short History of Organizational Behavior     F.

F. Taylor and Scientific Management  Scientific management: the systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency  The amount of and effort each employee expends to produce a unit of output can be reduced by increasing specialization and the division of labor 1-18 ©2005 Prentice Hall .W.

Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures 1-19 ©2005 Prentice Hall . gather informal job knowledge that employees possess.Four Principles of Scientific Management  1. and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed  2. Study the way employees perform their tasks.

and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level 1-20 ©2005 Prentice Hall . and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures  4. Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task.Four Principles of Scientific Management_2  3. Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task.

Mary Parker Follett  Management must consider the human side  Employees should be involved in job analysis  Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position  Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects 1-21 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

The Hawthorne Studies  Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company.e.. lighting)  Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered 1-22 ©2005 Prentice Hall . 1924-1932  Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance (i.

The Hawthorne Studies_2  Factors influencing behavior: – Attention from researchers – Manager’s leadership approach – Work group norms  The “Hawthorne Effect” 1-23 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

dislikes work.Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X  Average employee is lazy. and will try to do as little as possible  Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment Theory Y  Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed  Manager’s task is create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative 1-24 ©2005 Prentice Hall .

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