W ls a LalenLed arLlsL who can'L do maLh
ºunlnLelllgenL"? ls a brllllanL sclenLlsL who
can'L follow a road map ºunlnLelllgenL"?
W Sternţ lnLelllgence ls a general capaclLy of an
lndlvldual consclously Lo ad[usL hls Lhlnklng Lo
new requlremenLsŦ lL ls Lhe general menLal
adapLablllLy Lo new problems and condlLlons
of llfeŦ
W Jf–nonţ lnLelllgence ls Lhe capaclLy Lo learn
and ad[usL Lo relaLlvely new and changlng
W 9lageLţ lnLelllgence ls Lhe ablllLy Lo adapL Lo
one's surroundlngsŦ
W 1ermanţ An lndlvldual ls lnLelllgenL ln Lhe
proporLlon LhaL he ls able Lo carry on absLracL
ln1LLLlCLnCLŴLhree approaches
Jllllam !amesť AblllLy Lo ad[usL oneself successfully Lo
relaLlvely new slLuaLlonŦ
Mcdougallť CapaclLy Lo lmprove upon naLlve Lendency ln
Lhe llghL of pasL experlenceŦ
ucklnghamť lnLelllgence ls Lhe learnlng ablllLyŦ
Calvlnť lL ls Lhe ablllLy Lo learnŦ
Joodrowť lL ls Lhe capaclLy Lo acqulreŦ
1ermanť An lndlvldual ls lnLelllgenL ln proporLlon as he ls
able Lo carry absLracL LhlnklngŦ
Munnť llexlblllLy or versaLlllLy Lo Lhe use of symbollc
W Loddard(1943)ť lnLelllgence ls Lhe ablllLy Lo
underLake acLlvlLles LhaL are dlfflculLţ complex
and absLracL and whlch are adapLlve Lo a goalţ
and are done qulckly and whlch have soclal
value and lead Lo Lhe creaLlon of someLhlng
new and dlfferenLŦ
W Jeschler(1944)ť lnLelllgence ls Lhe aggregaLe
or global capaclLy of Lhe lndlvldual Lo acL
purposefullyţ Lo Lhlnk raLlonally and Lo deal
effecLlvely wlLh Lhe envlronmenLŦ
W 1husţ lnLelllgence as a sorL of menLal energyţ
ln Lhe form of menLal or cognlLlve ablllLlesţ
avallable wlLh an lndlvldual whlch enables hlm
Lo handle hls envlronmenL ln Lerms of
adapLaLlon Lo face novel slLuaLlons as
effecLlvely as posslbleŦ
W 1hus we can access a persons lnLelllgence ln
proporLlon Lo hls ablllLy Lo use hls menLal
energy Lo handle hls problems and leadlng a
happy and conLenLed llfeŦ
nA1u8L Cl ln1LLLlCLnCL
W ulsLrlbuLlon of lnLelllgence ls noL equal among all
human belngsŦ ulsLrlbuLes accordlng Lo law of
normal probablllLy curveŦ
W varles ln Lhe same lndlvldual from age Lo age and
slLuaLlon Lo slLuaLlonŦ
W CrowLh of lnLelllgence ls orderly and cumulaLlveŦ lL ls
composlLe of many acLlvlLlesŦ
W lnborn personal quallLyŦ
W lnfluence of LnvlronmenLal facLors
W lnLelllgence and ad[usLmenL
W ex dlfference does noL conLrlbuLe Lowards
dlfference ln lnLelllgenceŦ
W lnLelllgence and raclal dlfferences
W lnLelllgence can'L be decreased or lncreasedŦ
W AmounL of lnLelllgence LhaL a person possesses ls lnherlLed
or flxedŦ
W JlLh Lhe growLh of chlldţ Lhe amounL of lnLelllgence
lnherlLed by chlld also growsŦ
W 1he growLh of lnLelllgence sLops as Lhe chlld reaches Lhe
age of slxLeen or sevenLeenŦ
W A man of forLy knows more Lhan a boy of slxLeen buL lL may
be due Lo hls experlence noL necessarlly due Lo hls
W 1he growLh of lnLelllgence of cerLaln chlldren may be
checked due Lo unfavourable condlLlonsţ when Lhese are
removed lnLelllgence grows
MlsconcepLlons abouL lnLelllgence
W lnLelllgence ls noL knowledge Lhough
acqulslLlon of knowledge Lo a greaL exLenL
depends on lnLelllgenceŦ
W lnLelllgence ls noL memoryŦ A very lnLelllgenL
person may have dull memory Ŧ
W lnLelllgence doesnoL guaranLee agalnsL
abnormal behavlour Ŧ
W lnLelllgence ls dlfferenL from sklllŦ klll can be
enhanced Lhrough pracLlceţ buL lnLelllgence
cannoL be enhanced Lhrough pracLlceŦ
W lnLelllgence ls noL same as LalenLŦ 1alenL
lnvolvesŴ naLlve capaclLy and pracLlsed sklllŦ
lnLelllgence ls a naLlve capaclLyŦ
W ls lnLelllgence one general ablllLyţ or several
speclflc ablllLles?
1heorles of lnLelllgence
unllAC1C8 1PLC8? Cl ln1LLLlCLnCL
W 9uL forward by !ohnson and Lern
W Called as unlLary or monarchlc Lheory
W CldesL ln orlglnŦ
W lnLelllgence conslsLs of one facLorţ a fund of lnLellecLual
compeLenceţ whlch ls unlversal Lo all acLlvlLles of an
W A man who ls lnLelllgenL ln dolng one Lask wlll also be
lnLelllgenL ln dolng oLher Lasks because lnLelllgence ls Lhe all
round capaclLy of Lhe lndlvldual
W lnLelllgence ls regarded as an adapLlveness
whlch enables a creaLure Lo ad[usL lLself Lo
changlng envlronmenLŦ
W lnLelllgence as a monarch LhaL deLermlnes
man's level of achlevemenL ln any lnLellecLual
W newLon could have been poeL as wellţ had he
Lurned hls mlnd lnLo poeLryŦ
W CrlLlclsmť 1he ldeas propagaLed by Lhls Lheory
are noLţ howeverţ born ouL ln real llfe
W A chlld who ls good ln MaLhs may noL be good
ln Clvlcs desplLe lnLeresL and efforLs
W lnLelllgence ls noL a slngle facLor so Lhls Lheory
was noL accepLed
1JC lAC1C8 1PLC8?
W ueveloped by an Lngllsh 9sychologlsLŴCharles
pearman ln 1904Ŧ
W Also known as LclecLlc Lheory
W Comprlsed of Lwo facLorsŴ 'C' facLor Ǝ ''
W CŴgeneral
W Ŵspeclflc
W CŴgeneral menLal ablllLy ls always Lhe same
for Lhe same lndlvldual and presenL ln all Lhe
lnLellecLual exerclses and common for all
W Ŵ facLor varles from Lask Lo Lask accordlng Lo
lLs naLureŦ
CharacLerlsLlcs of 'g'
W C facLor ls responslble for naLlve lnLelllgenceŦ
W lL ls unlversal lnborn ablllLyŦ
W Ceneral menLal energyŦ
W ConsLanL ln sense LhaL for any lndlvldual ln respecL of
all Lhe correlaLed ablllLlesţ lL remalns Lhe sameŦ
W C dlffers from lndlvldual Lo lndlvldualŦ
W used ln every llfe acLlvlLyŦ
W CreaLer 'g' greaLer Lhe success ln llfeŦ
CharacLerlsLlcs of ''
W Learned and acqulred ln Lhe envlronmenLŦ
W varles from acLlvlLy Lo acLlvlLy ln Lhe same lndlvldualŦ
W lndlvlduals dlffer ln amounL of 's' ablllLyŦ
W peclal ablllLles are lndependenL of 'g' facLorŦ
LŦgŦ arLlsLlc ablllLyţ muslcalţ spaLlal reasonlng eLcŦ
W An lndlvldual performance ln Plndl ls parLly
due Lo hls general lnLelllgence and parLly due
Lo some speclflc apLlLude Lowards language (
)Ť ln maLhs ( g+s
)Ť ln drawlng ( g+s
) and
so onŦ
W 1oLal ablllLy or lnLelllgenceţ A
W g+s
1Ŧ lnLelllgence may be expressed noL only Lwo
buL several facLorsŦ
2Ŧ ŴfacLors are noL muLually excluslveŦ 1hey
overlap and glve rlse Lo cerLaln facLorsŦ
MuL1l lAC1C8 1PLC8?/ AnA8CPlC
W ueveloped by LŦLŦ 1horndlke ln 20
W Lands ln compleLe conLrasL Lo pearman's LheoryŦ
W lnLelllgence ls a comblnaLlon of numerous separaLe elemenLs
or Lhe facLorsţ each one belng a mlnuLe elemenL of one ablllLyŦ
W no such Lhlng as general lnLelllgence( a slngle facLor) and
Lhere are only many hlghly lndependenL speclflc ablllLles
whlch help ln Lhe accompllshmenL of dlfferenL Lasks
W Lvery Lasks needs dlfferenL ablllLles or a hosL of hlghly
lndependenL facLors and Lhere ls noLhlng llke general
lnLelllgence/ ablllLyŦ
ALLrlbuLes of lnLelllgence
W 1here are 4 aLLrlbuLes of lnLelllgenceŴ
W LevelŴdlfflculLy of a Lask LhaL can be solvedŦ
Ladder of dlfflculLy deLermlnes level or
alLlLude or degree of lnLelllgenceŦ
W 8angeŴLoLal number of Lasks aL any glven
degree of dlfflculLyŦ
W AreaŴLoLal noŦ of slLuaLlons aL each level Lo
whlch one ls able Lo respondŦ
W peedŴrapldlLy wlLh whlch one can solve or
respond Lo Lhe LesL lLemsŦ
W Lvery lnLelllgence LesL conslsLs Lhese four
aLLrlbuLesŦ Jhen we LesL a person we glve hlm
a cerLaln noŦ of LasksŴarea
W 1hese Lasks vary ln dlfflculLyŴ alLlLude
W 1here are cerLaln noŦ of lLems aL each level of
dlfflculLyŴ range
W 1hey respond ln a glven LlmeŴspeed
(CLdŦŦŦ) MuL1l lAC1C8 1PLC8?
W Pe devlsed an lnLelllgence LesL known asť CAVD
enLence CompleLlon(C)
ArlLhmeLlcal 8easonlng(A)
vocabulary (v)
lollowlng ulrecLlons (u)
1hese four seLs of lLems does noL encompass Lhe enLlre range of
absLracL lnLelllgenceŦ
Accordlng Lo hlm Lhree Lypes of lnLelllgence
oclal lnLelllgenceŴ ablllLy Lo undersLand and
deal wlLh persons
ConcreLe lnLelllgenceŴablllLy Lo undersLand
and deal wlLh Lhlngs
AbsLracL lnLelllgenceŴablllLy Lo undersLand and
deal wlLh verbal and maLhemaLlcal reasonlngŦ
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
W Ioy Þf G|€ord (March 7ţ 1897 Ŷ november 26ţ
1987) was a u psychologlsLţ besL remembered for
hls psychomeLrlc sLudy of human lnLelllgence
W Accordlng Lo Cullfordƌs LrucLure of lnLellecL (l)
Lheoryţ an lndlvldualƌs performance on lnLelllgence
LesLs can be Lraced back Lo Lhe underlylng menLal
ablllLles or facLors of lnLelllgenceŦ l Lheory comprlses
up Lo 130 dlfferenL lnLellecLual ablllLles organlzed
along Lhree dlmenslonsŸCperaLlonsţ ConLenLţ and
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
W ln Cullfordƌs LrucLure of lnLellecL (l) Lheoryţ lnLelllgence ls
vlewed as comprlslng operaLlonsţ conLenLsţ and producLsŦ
1here areť
W 3 klnds of operaLlons
cognlLlonţ memoryţ dlvergenL producLlonţ convergenL
producLlonţ evaluaLlon
W 3 klnds of conLenLs
vlsualţ audlLoryţ symbollcţ semanLlcţ behavloralŦ
W 6 klnds of producLs
unlLsţ classesţ relaLlonsţ sysLemsţ LransformaLlonsţ and
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
W Cperft|ons d|mens|on
l lncludes slx operaLlons or general lnLellecLual processesť
W CognlLlonŸ1he ablllLy Lo undersLandţ comprehendţ dlscoverţ
and become aware of lnformaLlonŦ
W Memory recordlngŸ1he ablllLy Lo encode lnformaLlonŦ
W Memory reLenLlonŸ1he ablllLy Lo recall lnformaLlonŦ
W ulvergenL producLlonŸ1he ablllLy Lo generaLe mulLlple
soluLlons Lo a problemŤ creaLlvlLyŦ
W ConvergenL producLlonŸ1he ablllLy Lo deduce a slngle
soluLlon Lo a problemŤ ruleŴfollowlng or problemŴsolvlngŦ
W LvaluaLlonŸ1he ablllLy Lo [udge wheLher or noL lnformaLlon ls
accuraLeţ conslsLenLţ or valldŦ
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
W Content d|mens|on
l lncludes flve broad areas of lnformaLlon Lo whlch Lhe human
lnLellecL applles Lhe slx operaLlonsť
W vlsualŸlnformaLlon percelved Lhrough seelngŦ
W AudlLoryŸlnformaLlon percelved Lhrough hearlngŦ
W klnesLheLlcŸlnformaLlon percelved Lhrough oneƌs own
physlcal acLlonsŦ
W ymbollcŸlnformaLlon percelved as symbols or slgns LhaL
have no meanlng by LhemselvesŤ eŦgŦţ Arablc numerals or Lhe
leLLers of an alphabeLŦ
W emanLlcŴJhlch ls concerned wlLh verbal meanlng of ldeasŦ
W ehavloralŸlnformaLlon percelved as acLs of peopleŦ
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
W Þrodct d|mens|on
As Lhe name suggesLsţ Lhls dlmenslon conLalns resulLs of
applylng parLlcular operaLlons Lo speclflc conLenLsŦ 1he l
model lncludes slx producLsţ ln lncreaslng complexlLyť
W unlLsŸlngle lLems of knowledgeŦ
W ClassesŸeLs of unlLs sharlng common aLLrlbuLesŦ
W 8elaLlonsŸunlLs llnked as opposlLes or ln assoclaLlonsţ
sequencesţ or analoglesŦ
W ysLemsŸMulLlple relaLlons lnLerrelaLed Lo comprlse
sLrucLures or neLworksŦ
W 1ransformaLlonsŸChangesţ perspecLlvesţ converslonsţ or
muLaLlons Lo knowledgeŦ
W lmpllcaLlonsŸ9redlcLlonsţ lnferencesţ consequencesţ or
anLlclpaLlons of knowledgeŦ
CulLlC8u 1PLC8?(Cl MCuLL)
W 1hereforeţ accordlng Lo Cullford Lhere are 6 x 3 x 6 ƹ 180
lnLellecLual ablllLles or facLorsŦ Lach ablllLy sLands for a
parLlcular operaLlon ln a parLlcular conLenL area and resulLs ln
a speclflc producLţ such as Comprehenslon of llgural unlLs or
LvaluaLlon of emanLlc lmpllcaLlonsŦ
W Cullfordƌs orlglnal model was composed of 120 componenLs
because he had noL separaLed llgural ConLenL lnLo separaLe
AudlLory and vlsual conLenLsţ nor had he separaLed Memory
lnLo Memory 8ecordlng and Memory 8eLenLlonŦ
W Jhen he separaLed llgural lnLo AudlLory and vlsual conLenLsţ
hls model lncreased Lo 3 x 3 x 6 ƹ 130 caLegorlesŦ
W Jhen Cullford separaLed Lhe Memory funcLlonsţ hls model
flnally lncreased Lo Lhe flnal 180 facLors

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