CSWIP Welder Training

Residual Stress and Distortion
Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Stresses
 Normal Stress Stress arising from a force perpendicular to the cross sectional area

Compression

Tension
Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd
M.S.Rogers

Stresses
 Shear Stress Stress arising from forces which are parallel to, and lie in the plane of the cross sectional area.

Shear Stress

Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd

M.S.Rogers

S. Hoop Stress Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Stresses  Hoop Stress Stress acting circumferentially around a pipe due to internal pressure.Rogers .

 Welding is very localised heating and the presence of liquid and solid metal in contact can be expected to induce very high levels of residual stresses. M.Rogers Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd .  The tendency to develop residual stresses increases when the heating and cooling is localised.S.  If this contraction is prevented or inhibited  residual stress will develop.Residual Stress  Metal contract during solidification and subsequent cooling.

Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .S.  The removal of residual stresses is termed stress relieving.  Residual stresses are self balancing internal forces and not stresses induced whilst applying external load  Stresses are more concentrated at the surface of the component.Residual Stress  Residual stresses are very difficult to measure with any real accuracy.

S.Residual Stress Residual stresses occur in welds in the following directions  Along the weld – longitudinal residual stresses  Across the weld – transverse residual stresses  Through the weld – short transverse residual stresses Longitudinal Transverse Short Transverse Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .

Distortion Distortion is a very complex matter more than 20 factors influence its magnitude and for this reason it is very difficult to predict its exact amount of distortion that may occur Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .S.

welding process.Distortion Factors which affect distortion are: material properties.S. the amount of restraint.Rogers . joint geometry and the welding procedure Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M. welding variables.

fit-up must be even and uniform to ensure constant shrinkage along the joint Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Distortion Fit-up is very important to minimise distortion.S.Rogers .

Rogers .S. The required volume of weld metal should be deposited in the shortest time to minimise heat input Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Distortion A mechanised welding process is preferable to a manual process because its consistent operation allows for better distortion control.

Rogers . electrode type and size.Distortion The shorter the welding time the less heat is transmitted in to the material and less distortion will occur. Keep welding times down by carefully selecting the welding process.S. welding current and travel speed Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

Rogers .S.Distortion Longitudinal shrinkage/distortion Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

S.Distortion Transverse shrinkage/distortion Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .

Rogers .Distortion Angular distortion: weld metal contraction transverse Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.S.

Rogers .S.Distortion Angular distortion: weld metal contraction transverse Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

Distortion Longitudinal bowing: weld metal contraction longitudinal Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.S.Rogers .

Distortion Longitudinal shrinkage/distortion Transverse shrinkage/distortion Angular distortion: weld metal contraction transverse Longitudinal bowing: weld metal contraction longitudinal Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .S.

Distortion Longitudinal shrinkage/distortion Transverse shrinkage/distortion Angular distortion: weld metal contraction transverse Longitudinal bowing: weld metal contraction longitudinal Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .S.

Rogers .S.Distortion Longitudinal shrinkage/distortion Transverse shrinkage/distortion Angular distortion: weld metal contraction transverse Longitudinal bowing: weld metal contraction longitudinal Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

Rogers .S.Distortion Longitudinal shrinkage/distortion Transverse shrinkage/distortion Angular distortion: weld metal contraction transverse Longitudinal bowing: weld metal contraction longitudinal Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

S.Distortion Angular Distortion Transverse Distortion Bowing Distortion Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd Longitudinal Distortion M.Rogers .

not restrained  Restrained materials result in low distortion but high residual stress  More than one type of distortion may occur at one time  Highly restrained joints also have a higher crack tendency to joints of a low restraint  The action of residual in welded joints is to cause distortion Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.e.Rogers .S.Distortion  Distortion will occur in all welded joints if the material are free to move i.

Rogers .Distortion Factors which affect distortion  Material properties and condition  Heat input  The amount of restrain  The amount of weld metal deposited Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.S.

S. angular distortion 2 3 1 4 3 5 Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Distortion The following movements can be detected in a simple butt weld 1.Peaking due to the V angle 4.Contraction in the weld metal transverse to the weld.Rogers .Contraction in the weld metal along the welds length 2.Bowing – due to the greater volume of weld metal at the top of the weld 3.Ripple (in sheet) away from the weld 5.

S.Distortion Control of distortion my be achieved in on of the following way The used of a different joint design Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .

S. hence the more weld deposited the higher amount of distortion Preparation angle 60o Preparation angle 40o Preparation angle 0o Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .Distortion The volume of weld metal in a joint will affect the amount of local expansion and contraction.

Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.S.Distortion Control of distortion my be achieved in on of the following way The used of a different joint design Offsetting the joints to be welded – so that the metal distorts into the required position.Rogers .

Rogers .S.Distortion Offsetting: The amount of offsetting required is generally a function of trail and error Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

The use of a balanced welding technique Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.Rogers .S.Distortion Control of distortion my be achieved in on of the following way The used of a different joint design Offsetting the joints to be welded – so that the metal distorts into the required position.

Back-skip welding technique 1.Rogers . 3. 2.S. 3.Distortion Back-step welding technique 1. Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M. 4. 2. 4.

The use of a balanced welding technique The use of clamps.S.Distortion Control of distortion my be achieved in on of the following way The used of a different joint design Presetting the joints to be welded – so that the metal distorts into the required position.Rogers . Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M. jigs and fixtures.

Distortion Clamping and jigging: The materials to be welded are prevented from moving by the clamp or jig the main advantage of using a jig is that the elements in a fabrication can be precisely located in the position to be welded.Rogers . Main disadvantage of jigging and high restraint is the high levels of residual stresses. Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.S.

joint design and the materials properties 4. heat input. 3. 5. 2.Rogers . the volume of weld metal in the joint. Residual stresses are locked in elastic strain. the thickness. If plates or pipes are prevented from moving by tacking. Offsetting may be used to finalise the position of the joint.Summary of Residual Stress & Distortion 1. Residual stresses should be removed from structures after welding. which is caused by local expansion and contraction in the weld area. The amount of contraction is controlled by. clamping or jigging etc (restraint). then the amount of residual stresses that remain will be higher.S. Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

Longitudinal b.S. and place the weld face in compression.Short transverse 8. The directions of contractional stresses and distortion is very complex.Rogers . A high percentage of residual stresses can be removed by heat treatments. The peening of weld faces will only redistribute the residual stress. however we can say that there are three directions: a. as is the amount and type of final distortion. 7. Transverse c. The movement caused by welding related stresses is called distortion. Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M. 9.Summary of Residual Stress & Distortion 6.

Rogers .S.Any Questions? Any Questions? Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd M.

State four factors which affect distortion. State three directions which residual stresses form in a welded joint QU 3. QU 4. Give four methods of controlling distortion. Sketch a balanced welding techniques.Questions QU 1. What causes residual stress in welds? QU 2. QU 5. M.Rogers Copyright © 2003 TWI Ltd .S.

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