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TRAINING METHODOLOGY I

Y N Kaushal
Director, Enablers India
www.enablersindia.com/

Paper 4 Training Methodology I


Objectives

To provide to participants a suitable back drop for

appreciating concerns of the learning Teaching process and sensitizing them to the different ways of handling training methodologies.

Paper 4 Training Methodology I


Contents

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Overview of Training Methodologies: Logic and Process of Learning; Principles of Learning; Criteria for Method Selection; Skills of an Effective Trainer; Use of Audio-Visual Aids in training; Computer Aided Instruction; Distance Learning, Open Learning, E- Learning, Technologies Convergence and Multimedia Environment.

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Training Methodology I Agenda


1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Overview of Training Methodologies: Logic and Process of Learning; Principles of Learning; Criteria for Method Selection; Skills of an Effective Trainer; Use of Audio-Visual Aids in training; Computer Aided Instruction; Distance Learning, Open Learning, E- Learning, Technologies Convergence and Multimedia Environment.

Variety of Training methods (Alphabetical)


Ad hoc projects Consultation

Audio based
Audio conferencing Book based discussion Case method Classroom Coaching Community involvement

Counseling
Cross functional job

Corporate sabbaticals

assignments Demonstration Developmental job placement Discussion group E-mail based training Games

Variety of Training methods


Games Lecture

Interactive classroom
Internal internships Intranet based training Job aids Job restructuring Job rotation Laboratory method

Mentoring from the inside


Mentoring from the

Learner`s oral report

outside Mind mapping Multimedia CBT OJT Outside coaches Panel discussion

Variety of Training methods


Permissive discussion Reverse role playing

Pictographic
Practice exercises Practice role playing Practicum Professional org.

Self-study books
Simulations Storytelling Symposium Text based CBT Video based Video-conferencing

participation Programmed instruction Research

Web based

Training Methodology I Agenda


1.

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Overview of Training Methodologies: Logic and Process of Learning; Principles of Learning; Criteria for Method Selection; Skills of an Effective Trainer; Use of Audio-Visual Aids in training; Computer Aided Instruction; Distance Learning, Open Learning, E- Learning, Technologies Convergence and Multimedia Environment.

Learning
Learning can be defined formally as the act,

process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills. In contrast, memory can define the capacity of storing, retrieving, and acting on that knowledge. Learning helps us move from novices to experts and allows us to gain new knowledge and abilities.

Learning
Any relatively permanent change

in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience.

The Learning Stages

Incompetence
Unconscious

Incompetence
Conscious

Competence
Unconscious

Competence
Conscious

The learning Process


Experience

Plan/ Action

Reflection

Conclusion/ Theorizing

How do people Learn? The Learning Process


Experience/ Observation Reflection
Conclusion/ Theorizing
This is the actual learning experience. It may be Reactive something which happens to you, or Proactive - an experience which you deliberately seek out A non-judgmental look back at what happened in the learning experience.
Drawing conclusions from the thoughts at the reflection stage to identify lessons learnt.

Testing the lessons learnt from the Apply/ Experimenting conclusions, so that they can be related and applied to similar situations in the future.

Learning Theory
Learning strengthens the brain by building new pathways

and increasing connections that we can rely on when we want to learn more. Definitions that are more complex add words such as comprehension and mastery through experience or study. Physiologically, learning is the formation of cell assemblies and phase sequences. Children learn by building these assemblies and sequences. Adults spend more time making new arrangements than forming new sequences. Our experience and background allow us to learn new concepts.

Learning Theory
At the neurological level, any established

knowledge (from experience and background) appears to be made up of exceedingly intricate arrangements of cell materials, electrical charges, and chemical elements. Learning requires energy; re-learning and un-learning requires even more. We must access higher brain functions to generate the much-needed energy and unbind the old.

Do Adults learn differently?

six assumptions related to motivation of adult learning:


Adults need to know the reason for learning something (Need

to Know) Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities (Foundation). Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction (Self-concept). Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives (Readiness). Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (Orientation). Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators (Motivation).

Learning Theories
Reinforcement Theory Social Learning Theory Goal Theories

Need Theories

Information Processing Theory

Adult Learning Theory

Expectancy Theory

Reinforcement Theory
Emphasizes that people are motivated to perform or avoid

certain behaviors because of past outcomes that have resulted from those behaviors.
Positive reinforcement Negative Reinforcement

Extinction
Punishment

Reinforcement Theory (continued)


From a training perspective, it suggests that for learners

to acquire knowledge, change behavior, or modify skills, the trainer needs to identify what outcomes the learner finds most positive )and negative). Trainers then need to link these outcomes to learners acquiring knowledge, skills, or changing behaviors.

Schedules of Reinforcement
Ratio Schedules Fixed-ratio schedule Continuous reinforcement Variable-ratio schedule Interval Schedules Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule

Social Learning Theory


Emphasizes that people learn by

observing other persons (models) whom they believe are credible and knowledgeable. Recognizes that behavior that is reinforced or rewarded tends to be repeated. The models behavior or skill that is rewarded is adopted by the observer.

Social Learning Theory (continued)


Learning new skills or behavior comes

from: directly experiencing the consequences of using behavior or skills, or the process of observing others and seeing the consequences of their behavior Learning is also influenced by a persons self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is a persons judgment about whether she can successfully learn knowledge and skills.

Processes of Social Learning Theory

Attention

Retention

Motor Reproducti on
Physical Capability
Accuracy Feedback

Motivation al Processes

Match Modeled Performan ce

Model Stimuli Trainee Characteristics

Coding Organization Rehearsal

Reinforcement

Goal Theories
Goal setting theory assumes behavior results from a

persons conscious goals and intentions. Goals influence behavior by directing energy and attention, sustaining effort over time, and motivating the person to develop strategies for goal attainment. Research suggests that specific challenging goals have been shown to lead to high performance only if people are committed to the goal.

Goal Theories (continued)


Goal setting theory is used in training

program design. It suggests that learning can be facilitated by providing trainees with specific challenging goals and objectives. The influence of goal setting theory can be seen in the development of training lesson plans.

Need Theories
Need theories help explain the value that a person

places on certain outcomes. Need theories suggest that to motivate learning:

trainers should identify trainees needs, and

communicate how training program content

relates to fulfilling these needs


If the basic needs of trainees are not met, they are

unlikely to be motivated to learn.

Expectancy Theory
Expectancy theory suggests that a persons behavior is

based on three factors:


Expectancy Instrumentality Valance

Expectancy Theory (continued)


Expectancy theory suggests that

learning is most likely to occur when employees believe:


They can learn the content of the

program (expectancy) Learning is linked to outcomes such as better job performance, a salary increase, or peer recognition (instrumentality) Employees value these outcomes

Expectancy Theory of Motivation


Valance
Value of Outcome

Expectancy
Effort Performance

Instrumentality
Performance Outcome

= Effort

Does Trainee Have Ability to Learn? Does Trainee Believe He Can Learn?

Does Trainee Believe Training Outcomes Promised Will Be Delivered?

Are Outcomes Related to Training Valued?

Adult Learning Theory


Adult learning theory was developed out of a need

for a specific theory of how adults learn. It is based on several assumptions:


Adults have the need to know why they are learning

something. Adults have a need to be self-directed. Adults bring more work-related experiences into the learning situation. Adults enter into a learning experience with a problemcentered approach to learning. Adults are motivated to learn by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivators.

Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training:


Design Issue Self concept Experience Readiness Time perspective Orientation to learning Implications Mutual planning and collaboration in instruction Use learner experience as basis for examples and applications Develop instruction based on learners interests and competencies Immediate application of content Problem centered instead of subject centered

Information Processing Theory


These theories give more emphasis to the internal

processes that occur when training content is learned and retained. This information can come from another person or the learners own observation of the results of his action. If the evaluation of the response is positive, this provides reinforcement that the behavior is desirable to be stored in long-term memory for use in similar situations.

Learning Style Inventory


Wordsworth Concrete Experience
CE

Active Experimentation

Salim Ali Observation

T a t a

RO

AE

AC

Abstract Concept

Einstein

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The Learning Process: Learning Styles


Diverger Concrete experience Reflective observation Assimilator Abstract conceptualization Reflective observation
Converger Abstract conceptualization Active experimentation Accommodator Concrete experience Active experimentation

A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its own flame. A Trainer can never really TRAIN unless he is still learning himself.