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ANDHRA PRADESH

Name of the faculty : D Saritha

Designation : Lecturer

Branch :D.A.E.I.E

Institute : Govt Polytechnic, Kothagudem

Year/Semester : V Semester

Subject : Linear IC Applications

Sub-Code :AEI-505

Topic :Other Applications of OP-Amp

Duration :100 min

Sub-Topic :A/D and D/A Convertor

Teaching Aids :Diagrams

AEI-505.72-73 1

Objectives

will be familiar with

AEI-505.72-73 2

D/A converter with binary-weighted

resistor

to an analog output .

• The D/A converters are used in microprocessors

,data processing,binary systems etc.

AEI-505.72-73 3

Circuit diagram of D/A converter

AEI-505.72-73 4

Working

or non inverting mode.

• The converter is called a 4-bit converter as the

number of binary inputs are four.

• There are 16 (2 4)combinations of binary inputs for

b0 through b3 ,an analog output should have 16

possible corresponding values.

AEI-505.72-73 5

• Four switches (b0 to b3) are used to simulate the binary

inputs.

voltage across R is 5V because V2=V1= 0V .

• Therefore, the current through R is ( 5V/10KΩ ) =

0.5mA.

the current through feed back resistor RF is also

0.5mA,which in turn produces an output voltage of –(1k

Ω ) (0.5 mA)= - 0.5V. AEI-505.72-73 6

• The op-amp is working as a current to voltage converter.

This action connects R/2 to the positive supply of

+5V,causing twice as mush current (1mA) to flow

through RF,which in turn doubles the output voltage .

closed.

AEI-505.72-73 7

• Similarly ,if both switches b0 and b1 are closed the

current through RF will be 1.5mA,which will be converted

to an output voltage of –(1kΩ )(1.5mA)= -1.5V.

or closed,the binary-weighted currents will be set up in

input resistors.

R , which in turn is converted to a proportional output

voltage.

AEI-505.72-73 8

• When all the switches are closed, obviously the output

will be maximum. The output voltage equation is given

by

V0 = -RF (b0/R+b1/R/2+b2/R/4+b3/R/8)

high(+5V) or low (0V).

resistors is a negative going stair case with 15 steps

of -0.5 V each.

AEI-505.72-73 9

Output versus input of D/A converter

AEI-505.72-73 10

Limitations of D/A converter

binary weighted resistors, which may not be readily

available, especially if the number of inputs is more

than four.

AEI-505.72-73 11

D/A converter with R/2R resistors

AEI-505.72-73 12

Output versus input of D/A converter

AEI-505.72-73 13

Equivalent circuit when b3 is high and

b0,b1 and b2 are low

AEI-505.72-73 14

D/A converter with R-2R resistors

through b3 and the output is proportional to the binary

inputs.

• Binary inputs can either be on high (+5V) or low (0V)

state .

• The most significant bit (MSB) switch b3 is connected

to +5V and other switches are connected to ground.

AEI-505.72-73 15

• The (-)input is at virtual grou(V2≡0V);Therefore,the

current through RTH (=2R) is zero. However, the current

through 2R connected to +5V is 5V/20KΩ=0.25mA.

• The same current flows through RF and in turn produces

the output voltage. VO=-(20KΩ)(0.25mA)= -5V.

• Using the same analysis, the output voltage

corresponding to all possible combinations of binary

inputs can be calculated.

• The maximum or full scale output of -9.375V is obtained

when all the inputs are high.

AEI-505.72-73 16

• The output voltage equation can be written as

VO= -RF(b3/2R+b2/4R+b1/8R+b0/16R)

Where each of the inputs b3,b2,b1 and b0 may be either

high (+5V) or low (0V).

only two sets of precision resistances values;

• it requires more resistors and is also most difficult to

analyze than the binary weighted resistor type.

AEI-505.72-73 17

Applications of D/A converter

• Microcomputer interfacing

• CRT graphics generation

• Programmable power supplies

• Digitally controlled gain circuits

• Digital filters

AEI-505.72-73 18

A/D CONVERTER

• A/D converters convert an analog voltage to the digital

output that best represents the input

• Analog converters are also specified as 8, 10, 12 0r 16 bit

• Types of A/D converters

• Single ramp integrating

• Dual-ramp integrating

• Single counter

• Tracking

• Successive approximation

AEI-505.72-73 19

Circuit diagram of A/D converter

AEI-505.72-73 20

Successive approximation A/D converter

comparator, a successive-approximation register,

output latches, and a D/A converter

• The heart of the circuit is an 8bit successive-

approximation register (SAR), whose output is

applied to an 8-bit D/A converter.

• The analog output (VA) of the D/A converter is then

compared to an analog input signal Vin by the

comparator.

AEI-505.72-73 21

• The output of the comparator is a serial data input

to the SAR.

• The SAR then adjusts its digital output (8-bits) until

it is equivalent to analog input Vin.

• The 8-bit latch at the end of conversion holds onto

the resultant digital data output.

AEI-505.72-73 22

Working

• At the start of a conversion cycle, the SAR is reset by

holding the start (S) signal high.

• On the first clock pulse LOW-to-HIGH transition, the most

significant output bit Q7 of the SAR is set.

• The D/A converter then generates an analog equivalent to

the Q7 bit, which is compared with analog input Vin.

• If the comparator output is low, the D/A output > Vin and

the SAR will clear its MSB Q7.

• On the other hand , if the comparator output is high, the

D/A output< Vin and SAR will keep the MSB Q7 set

AEI-505.72-73 23

• During the next clock pulse LOW-to-HIGH transition, the

SAR will set the next MSB Q6.

then either keep or reset the bit Q6. This process is

continued until the SAR tries all the bits.

conversion complete (CC) signal HIGH to indicate that

the parallel output lines contain valid data.

AEI-505.72-73 24

• The CC signal in turn enables the latch, and digital data

appear at the output of the latch.

determines each bit.

be connected to the start conversion input.

AEI-505.72-73 25

Advantages

A/D converter is

• High speed

• Excellent resolution.

AEI-505.72-73 26

Applications of A/D converter

Typical applications of A/D converters are

• Microprocessor interfacing

• Data printing and recording

• Digital voltmeters

• Control of LED or LCD displays

AEI-505.72-73 27

Summary

• Applications of A/D converter

• Circuit diagram and working of D/A converter

• Applications of D/A converter

AEI-505.72-73 28

Quiz

b) Analog input into Digital output

c) None of the above

AEI-505.72-73 29

1) The digital to analog (D/A) converter changes

d) Analog input into Digital output

e) None of the above

AEI-505.72-73 30

1) The D/A converter can be formed by using

c) An op-amp alone

d) An op-amp and binary weighted resistors

e) R and 2R ladder network

f) None of the above

AEI-505.72-73 31

1) The D/A converter requires

c) Resistors

d) Electronic switches

e) Op-amp

f) All the above

AEI-505.72-73 32

1) Which of the following are A/D converters

d) Single- counter type

e) Successive approximation type

f) All the above

AEI-505.72-73 33

Frequently asked questions

weighted resistors and explain its working

resistors and explain its working

A/D converter and explain its working

AEI-505.72-73 34

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