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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name of the faculty : D Saritha
Designation : Lecturer
Branch :D.A.E.I.E
Institute : Govt Polytechnic, Kothagudem
Year/Semester : V Semester
Subject : Linear IC Applications
Sub-Code :AEI-505
Topic :Other Applications of OP-Amp
Duration :100 min
Sub-Topic :A/D and D/A Convertor
Teaching Aids :Diagrams
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Objectives

Upon the completion of this topic the student


will be familiar with

• A/D Convertor circuit using op-amp

• Operation of A/D Convertor

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D/A converter with binary-weighted
resistor

• The D/A converter is used to convert a digital input


to an analog output .
• The D/A converters are used in microprocessors
,data processing,binary systems etc.

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Circuit diagram of D/A converter

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Working

• The op-amp can be connected in the inverting mode


or non inverting mode.
• The converter is called a 4-bit converter as the
number of binary inputs are four.
• There are 16 (2 4)combinations of binary inputs for
b0 through b3 ,an analog output should have 16
possible corresponding values.

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• Four switches (b0 to b3) are used to simulate the binary
inputs.

• When switch b0 is closed (connected to +5V),the


voltage across R is 5V because V2=V1= 0V .
• Therefore, the current through R is ( 5V/10KΩ ) =
0.5mA.

• However ,the input bias current IB is negligible; hence


the current through feed back resistor RF is also
0.5mA,which in turn produces an output voltage of –(1k
Ω ) (0.5 mA)= - 0.5V. AEI-505.72-73 6
• The op-amp is working as a current to voltage converter.

• Now suppose that switch b1 is closed and b0 is opened.


This action connects R/2 to the positive supply of
+5V,causing twice as mush current (1mA) to flow
through RF,which in turn doubles the output voltage .

• Thus the output voltage V0 is -1v when switch b1 is


closed.

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• Similarly ,if both switches b0 and b1 are closed the
current through RF will be 1.5mA,which will be converted
to an output voltage of –(1kΩ )(1.5mA)= -1.5V.

• Thus, depending on whether switches b0 the b3 are open


or closed,the binary-weighted currents will be set up in
input resistors.

• The sum of these currents is equal to the current through


R , which in turn is converted to a proportional output
voltage.
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• When all the switches are closed, obviously the output
will be maximum. The output voltage equation is given
by
V0 = -RF (b0/R+b1/R/2+b2/R/4+b3/R/8)

• Where each of the inputs b3 ,b2,b1 and b0 may be


high(+5V) or low (0V).

• The output of a D/A converter with binary weighted


resistors is a negative going stair case with 15 steps
of -0.5 V each.
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Output versus input of D/A converter

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Limitations of D/A converter

• The drawback of a D/A converter is that it requires


binary weighted resistors, which may not be readily
available, especially if the number of inputs is more
than four.

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D/A converter with R/2R resistors

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Output versus input of D/A converter

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Equivalent circuit when b3 is high and
b0,b1 and b2 are low

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D/A converter with R-2R resistors

• The binary inputs are simulated by switches b0


through b3 and the output is proportional to the binary
inputs.
• Binary inputs can either be on high (+5V) or low (0V)
state .
• The most significant bit (MSB) switch b3 is connected
to +5V and other switches are connected to ground.

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• The (-)input is at virtual grou(V2≡0V);Therefore,the
current through RTH (=2R) is zero. However, the current
through 2R connected to +5V is 5V/20KΩ=0.25mA.
• The same current flows through RF and in turn produces
the output voltage. VO=-(20KΩ)(0.25mA)= -5V.
• Using the same analysis, the output voltage
corresponding to all possible combinations of binary
inputs can be calculated.
• The maximum or full scale output of -9.375V is obtained
when all the inputs are high.

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• The output voltage equation can be written as
VO= -RF(b3/2R+b2/4R+b1/8R+b0/16R)
Where each of the inputs b3,b2,b1 and b0 may be either
high (+5V) or low (0V).

• The advantage of the D/A converter is that it requires


only two sets of precision resistances values;
• it requires more resistors and is also most difficult to
analyze than the binary weighted resistor type.

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Applications of D/A converter

The applications of D/A converters are

• Microcomputer interfacing
• CRT graphics generation
• Programmable power supplies
• Digitally controlled gain circuits
• Digital filters

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A/D CONVERTER
• A/D converters convert an analog voltage to the digital
output that best represents the input
• Analog converters are also specified as 8, 10, 12 0r 16 bit
• Types of A/D converters
• Single ramp integrating
• Dual-ramp integrating
• Single counter
• Tracking
• Successive approximation

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Circuit diagram of A/D converter

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Successive approximation A/D converter

• The successive-approximation type uses a


comparator, a successive-approximation register,
output latches, and a D/A converter
• The heart of the circuit is an 8bit successive-
approximation register (SAR), whose output is
applied to an 8-bit D/A converter.
• The analog output (VA) of the D/A converter is then
compared to an analog input signal Vin by the
comparator.
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• The output of the comparator is a serial data input
to the SAR.
• The SAR then adjusts its digital output (8-bits) until
it is equivalent to analog input Vin.
• The 8-bit latch at the end of conversion holds onto
the resultant digital data output.

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Working
• At the start of a conversion cycle, the SAR is reset by
holding the start (S) signal high.
• On the first clock pulse LOW-to-HIGH transition, the most
significant output bit Q7 of the SAR is set.
• The D/A converter then generates an analog equivalent to
the Q7 bit, which is compared with analog input Vin.
• If the comparator output is low, the D/A output > Vin and
the SAR will clear its MSB Q7.
• On the other hand , if the comparator output is high, the
D/A output< Vin and SAR will keep the MSB Q7 set
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• During the next clock pulse LOW-to-HIGH transition, the
SAR will set the next MSB Q6.

• Depending on the output of the comparator, the SAR will


then either keep or reset the bit Q6. This process is
continued until the SAR tries all the bits.

• As soon as the LSB Q0 is tried, the SAR forces the


conversion complete (CC) signal HIGH to indicate that
the parallel output lines contain valid data.

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• The CC signal in turn enables the latch, and digital data
appear at the output of the latch.

• Digital data are also available serially as the SAR


determines each bit.

• To cycle the converter continuously, the CC signal may


be connected to the start conversion input.

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Advantages

The advantage of the successive-approximation


A/D converter is

• High speed

• Excellent resolution.

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Applications of A/D converter
Typical applications of A/D converters are

• Microprocessor interfacing
• Data printing and recording
• Digital voltmeters
• Control of LED or LCD displays

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Summary

We have discussed about

• Circuit diagram and working of A/D converter


• Applications of A/D converter
• Circuit diagram and working of D/A converter
• Applications of D/A converter

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Quiz

1) The analog to digital (A/D) converter changes

a) Digital input into Analog output


b) Analog input into Digital output
c) None of the above

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1) The digital to analog (D/A) converter changes

c) Digital input into Analog output


d) Analog input into Digital output
e) None of the above

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1) The D/A converter can be formed by using

c) An op-amp alone
d) An op-amp and binary weighted resistors
e) R and 2R ladder network
f) None of the above

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1) The D/A converter requires

c) Resistors
d) Electronic switches
e) Op-amp
f) All the above

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1) Which of the following are A/D converters

c) Single or double ramp integrating type


d) Single- counter type
e) Successive approximation type
f) All the above

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Frequently asked questions

• Draw the circuit of a D/A converter with binary-


weighted resistors and explain its working

• Draw the circuit of a D/A converter with R and 2R


resistors and explain its working

• List the applications of a D/A converter

• Draw the circuit of an Successive approximation type of


A/D converter and explain its working

• List the applications of A/D converter


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