DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ANDHRA PRADESH

Name Designation Branch Institute Semester Subject Subject code Topic Duration Sub Topic Teaching Aids : : : : : : : : : : : B. Balaji HAEIE Applied Electronics & Instrumentation Govt Polytechnic for Minorities, Guntur III Semester Process Instrumentation – I AEI-305 PH Measurement 50 Mts Definition of PH PPT’s, Diagrams
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Objectives
Upon completion of this period, you would be able to know about
• • • Definitions PH

Range of PH Examples for Acids & bases

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Definition of PH
• pH is a process variable to be measured and controlled • Indicates how acidic or basic (alkaline) of a solution • pH is defined as the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration

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• pH = - log [H+] = log 1/[H+] [H+] = Hydrogen ion concentration in moles(M) • Lower-case letter p → -ve logarithm (base 10) Upper-case letter H → Element of Hydrogen

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Definition of PH…..

PH value decreases with increase of [ H+]
• [ H+] = 10-4 M→PH = 4 • [ H+] = 10-7 M→PH = 7 • [ H+] = 10-9 M→PH = 9

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Range of pH
• PH value lies between → 0 to 14
• PH < 7 • PH > 7 • PH = 7 → Acids → Base (Alkaline) → Neutral

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PH scale
• pH scale is a series of numbers • Expresses the degree of acidity/alkanity of a solution

Acid Neutral

Base

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pH Acid 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Neutral 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Alkaline 14

Hydrogen Ion (H+) 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.0001 0.00001 0.000001 0.0000001 0.00000001 0.000000001 0.0000000001 0.00000000001 0.000000000001 0.0000000000001 0.00000000000001

Hydroxyl Ion (OH-) 0.00000000000001 0.0000000000001 0.000000000001 0.00000000001 0.0000000001 0.000000001 0.00000001 0.0000001 0.000001 0.00001 0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1

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4.0% NaOH Crackers Blood Pure Water Milk Beer Tomatoes Oranges Lemons 4.9 % H2SO4

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

8.0

9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0

pH
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PH scale…..

• Low pH • High pH •

→ Strong Acid → Strong Alkaline → Strong Acid → Strong Base

0

• 14

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Examples for Acids & Bases
• Acids
→ HCL → Vinegar → Acetic Acid

• Bases
→ Ammonia (NH3) → Sodium Hydroxide (NaoH) → Aniline (C6 H5 NH2)

• Neutral

→ Pure water
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Summary
We have discussed about • pH is a representation of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution • pH is a –ve logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration. • pH scale ranges from 0(strong acid) to 7(neutral) to 14(strong base).
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Quiz
• Which is correct about pH
(a) pH = - log[ H+] (b) pH = log 1/[ H+] (c) [H+] = 10-pH (d) all of these

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Quiz
• If the pH of a solution is 3 then hydrogen ion concentration in mole lit –1 is
(a) 1x10-1 (b) 2x10-1 (c) 1x10-3 (d) 3x10-2

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