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Name Designation Branch Institute Semester Subject Subject code Topic Duration Subtopic Teaching Aids : D. Simhachalam : Lecturer : A.E.I.E : K.D.R.G.P.T, Wanaparthy. : III : Process Instrumentation-I : AEI-305 : Conductivity, Weight and Humidity Measurement : 100 minutes : Conductivity compensatory : PPTS, animations, Diagrams AEI305.71 To 72

1

Objectives

Upon completion of this topic, student will be able to know about

• Description of principle of conductivity compensatory • Principle of temperature control

AEI305.71 To 72

2

Recap

In last class we have studied about

• Principle of measurement of conductivity.

• And also we have seen some practical equipment for conductivity measurement.

AEI305.71 To 72

3

Description

• The electrodes in the cell are not exactly one cm apart • And may not have surface area of one sq. cm. • Thus the value of observed conductivity is not equal to specific conductivity. • But proportional to it.

AEI305.71 To 72

4

Description

• It is important to calculate a factor for the conductivity cell, known as cell constant. • This cell constant (K) is a function of a) The electrode areas, b) The distance between the electrodes c) The electrical field pattern between the electrodes.

AEI305.71 To 72

5

Description

• Cell constant (k) must be multiplied by the observed conductance to obtain the actual conductivity reading.

AEI305.71 To 72

6

Example

For example • For an observed conductance reading of 200 µS using a cell with K = 0.1, • Then, the conductivity value is 200 x 0. 1 = 20 µS/cm.

AEI305.71 To 72

7

Equation

• We know that

**R = ρd/A Where, R is a resistance ρ is a specific resistivity d is a distance between the electrodes A is a surface area
**

AEI305.71 To 72 8

Derivation

R = ρK where K = d/A = cell constant

• The cell constant is defined as the ratio of the distance between the electrodes d, to the electrode area A.

AEI305.71 To 72 9

Derivation

or K = cell constant 1 observed conductivity = R/ρ = 1 specific conductivity or specific conductivity = cell constant X observed conductivity

AEI305.71 To 72

10

Description

• The cell constant is determined by substituting the value of specific conductivity of N/50 KCl solution at 25°C.

• This value was found to be 0.002765 mhos.

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11

Description

• The value of conductivity is then observed with the given cell using N/50 KCl solution.

• The cell constant is then calculated as cell constant = 0.002765/ observed conductivity

AEI305.71 To 72

12

Temperature control

• The temperature coefficient for conductance is about 2%/°C • So some temperature control is essential during measurement. • Immerse the cell in a large bath of water or oil maintained at room temperature

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13

**Change in Temperature Slope/oC
**

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 25 30 40 50 75 100 Temperature Ultra Pure Water

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Temperature Slope

Sodium Chloride

14

Summary

We have discussed about

• Description of principle of conductivity compensatory

• Principle of temperature control

AEI305.71 To 72

15

QUIZ

1. Why the value of observed conductivity is not equal to specific conductivity because of the b) c) d) e) Distance between the electrodes are not 1cm Electrodes may not have the surface area 1 sq.cm Both a) & b) None

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16

1.

Cell constant is to be calculated for compensating a) Temperature b) Observed Conductivity c) Specific Conductivity d) None

AEI305.71 To 72

17

1.

The cell constant is defined as a) d/A b) A/d c) A*d d) None

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18

1.

To maintain temperature constant during experiment, where to immerse the cell? • • • • Large bath of water Large bath of oil Both a) & b) None

AEI305.71 To 72

19

Frequently asked questions

2.

Describe the principle of conductivity compensatory

4.

Define cell constant.

AEI305.71 To 72

20

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