Project Management

CSC 2202 Systems Analysis and Design

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Project Management
•Defining

project management •Project management objectives •Sources of information system development projects •Functions of the project manager •Project management techniques •Reasons for project success & failure

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Why Project Management?
Project Management is applied during Systems Analysis, Design and Implementation. Information Systems development is almost always done under the auspices of a project.

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Definition of Project Management
Definition: Information Systems Project Management is a process of
directing the development of an acceptable Information System at a minimum cost within a specified time frame.
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Project Management - Objectives
• • • • • Understand the need for effective project management to ensure project success Develop project plans, critical paths and other estimation instruments to facilitate effective project planning Evaluate and resolve the difficulties of project management Plan and resource projects to produce results on-time and within budget Identify strategies for good project estimation and management
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Planning, Scheduling, Control, Adjustment
Project Management includes the following: • Planning - determine all tasks involved in a project • Scheduling - determine the sequence of tasks over time • Control - monitor work progress by comparing plans with actual progress • Adjustment - take appropriate corrective action to keep the project “on track”
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Process of Project Management
A project is finite A project has a well-defined end A project is non repetitive Project complexity is made manageable by subdividing the project phases into many tasks

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Sources of Systems Development Projects

Systems Development Projects result from one of three sources: -

A directive or mandate from some person, such as a president, vice president, or senior Manager of an organization.
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Sources of Systems Development Projects
An opportunity to exploit. The opportunity usually results in increased revenues and/ or profits reduced costs, or increased or improved services. 2. A problem to solve. Something usually isn’t working correctly and needs fixing.
1.
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Functions of the Project Manager
1. Planning Project tasks and staffing the project team – a good manager always has a plan. The manager estimates resource requirements and formulates a plan to deliver the target system. Each task required to complete the project must be planned.
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Functions of the Project Manager
Some of the planning issues include: How much time will be required? How many people will be needed? How much will the task cost? What tasks must be completed before other tasks are started? Can some of the tasks overlap?

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Functions of the Project Manager 2. Organizing and scheduling the project effort – members of the project team should understand their own individual roles and responsibilities as well as their reporting relationship to the project manager.

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Functions of the Project Manager The project schedule should be developed with an understanding of task time requirements, personnel assignments, and intertask dependencies.

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Functions of the Project Manager 3. Directing and controlling the project – once the project has begun the

project manager becomes the project leader. As a leader the project manager directs the team’s activities and evaluates progress. The manager must frequently report progress to superiors. The manager’s job is to monitor tasks, schedules, and costs in order to control those elements.
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Project Management Techniques
PERT Network and Gantt chart  There are 2 commonly used Project Management tools: Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT) charts which are most useful for project planning and modification. Gantt charts which are for project scheduling and progress reporting.
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Project Management Techniques
A PERT network is A graphical representation of project tasks laid out in the form of a critical path network  A Gantt chart shows Project tasks and their deviations in a bar chart format in the planning and estimating of a project prior to its inception.
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Project management Techniques Steps to Create a PERT Chart
Determine the task durations (time) Assign an identification letter to each task Draw the PERT network, number each node. Label each task with its task identification letter.
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Project Management Techniques Steps to Create a PERT Chart
Connect each node from start to finish And put each task’s duration on the network Determine the need for any dummy tasks Determine the earliest completion time for each task node Verify the PERT network for correctness.
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Network diagram - example
Task to build roof - also called task 2, 3 3
Roof 1 1 Wall 2 2 Elec 3 4 Plumb 2 Paint 7 5 Move 4 6 LEGEND: Task duration

Dummy 0

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Identify the Critical Path
First draw the network of all tasks Identify all possible paths through the network For each path, add together all task durations Path with the longest duration is the critical path This longest duration is the time required to complete the project
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Critical Path and Slack
Tasks on the critical path are critical tasks If the duration of any critical task increases, then the whole project duration will increase

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Critical Path and Slack
Tasks not on the critical path have slack If the duration of any non critical task increases (slightly), then the whole project duration will not increase

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PERT Network
PERT Network Strengths • It assists determine task dependencies • PERT network is continuously useful to project managers prior to and during a project. • PERT network is straightforward in its concept and is supported by soft ware.
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PERT network
Pert strengths 4. The PERT network’s graphical representation of the project’s critical path and task slack time allows the project manager to focus more attention on the critical aspects of the projecttime, costs, and people..
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PERT network
Pert strengths 5. The project management software that creates the PERT network usually provides excellent project tracking documentation. 6. The use of the PERT network is applicable in a wide variety of projects.
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PERT network
Weaknesses of the PERT network: • In order for the PERT network to be useful, project tasks have to be clearly defined as well as their relationships to each other. • The PERT network does not deal very well with task overlap. PERT assumes that following tasks after their preceding tasks end.
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PERT network
3. The PERT network is only good as the time estimates that are entered by the project manager. 4. By design, the project manager will normally focus more attention on the critical path tasks than other tasks, which could be problematic for nearcritical path tasks if overlooked.
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The Gantt chart
• •

The Gantt chart is based on a twodimensional graph scale. Each of the significant project tasks is listed along the vertical axis of the graph, and the estimated elapsed calendar time to complete the entire project is listed along the horizontal axis. An appropriate calendar time interval, such as days, weeks, or months is selected for the horizontal axis.
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The Gantt chart

The Gantt chart is at its best for visually showing each of the project’s task status at any moment in time simply by drawing a vertical bar from top to bottom on the chart at the calendar time you are interested in.
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The Gantt chart

Once drawn, a visual inspection of the shading within each of the bars on the chart gives you an indication of project task status for each task.

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The Gantt chart
It is also useful for showing any overlapping or parallel tasks. It does not clearly show task dependence, even though it does show task start and stop times, and you can clearly see that tasks start after others have already begun or are already finished.
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Gantt chart
Manual Gantt chart Solid bar = actual work Hollow bar = planned work

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Gantt chart and PERT/CPM for project implementation phase

SC Fig 26

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The Gantt chart
Gantt Chart Strengths

Being able to see overlapping or parallel tasks. Being able to see the status of each project task at any point in time.

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The Gantt chart

Gantt Chart Weaknesses Not being able to definitely tell from the Gantt chart whether the entire project is on time, behind time, or ahead of schedule. Not showing task dependencies.

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Project Management - manual versus automated Difficult to manually manage a large project Many project management packages exist e.g. Microsoft Project, Mac Project II, Time Line, Primavera, CA Superproject, Project Scheduler 6
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MS Project - Gantt chart

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Keys to Project Success
Successful systems must satisfy business requirements, meet users’ needs, stay within budget, and be completed on time The essential objective is to provide a solution to a business problem

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Keys to Project Success
Some reasons for failure
 Unclear

requirements, targets, or scope  Shortcuts or sloppy work  Poor design choices  Insufficient testing or test procedures  Lack of software change control  Changes in culture, funding, or objectives

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Keys to Project Success
Some reasons for failure
 Unrealistic

cost estimates  Poor monitoring and control of progress  Inadequate reaction to early signs of problems  Failure to recognize activity dependencies  Personality conflicts and employee turnover
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Systems Development Failures
Some reasons for failure
Use of undisciplined development methodologies or approaches.  Inadequate or not understood or appreciated Systems Development tools.  Project Scope was not clearly defined in the beginning.  Use of no or poor estimating techniques.  Schedule delays.

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Keys to Project Success
When the project manager recognizes a problem, what options are available?
Trim the project requirements  Add to the project resources  Delay the project deadline  Improve the quality of project management

Whatever the reason, the project manager must try to get the project back under control and keep it under control
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What constitutes a Systems Development project failure
The organization completely abandons the project at some point prior to its implementation. The organization must rework a significant amount of the project, so much so that they deem it a failure but do go ahead and initiate the network.

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What constitutes a Systems Development project failure The delivered Information Systems is okay, but the project was way over time and budget, therefore, it is defined a failure. The delivered Information Systems doesn’t meet the user requirement or expectations, therefore; it is deemed a failure.
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Review Questions
1. Describe and explain the essential characteristics of effective and successful project management. 2. Explain the importance of critical path and critical task estimation. 3. Explain the importance of graphical output in representing project plans (network diagrams.)
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