Prita Sari Mustika Dewi

(10202241047)

Hertati Mukadimah (10202241048) Septiana Purnaningsih (10202241050)

the study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences.

Word Meaning
the attribution of a meaning, a feeling or significance to a word.

and adverbs. and they may in addition be marked by social and affective meaning. adjectives. . verbs.-principally nouns.may be described in terms of the three general types of meaning. All content words have a descriptive meaning.

Principally determiners. . prepositions and coordinators and subordinatorsexpress meanings that are better handled in a description of sentence meaning.

In other words. Example: That woman is the one I love. is said to be referent of the expression. both expressions have the same referent. The one I love is also referring an expression. That woman refers to a particular woman.Reference is the connection between words and things (or beings) in the real world. That woman and the one I love are the same woman in the real world. .

.• Sense is a concept that applies only between words or group of words. • Example: • Almost ready nearly ready • “almost” and “nearly” are said to have the same sense.

. Descriptive meaning is that which derives from the function of language to communicate factual information. to describe events. • Example: John is sleeping on the longue  communicates the proposition that a male by the name of John is currently lying down (or sitting) on an elongated piece of furniture generally meant to be sat upon. objects and states of affairs.1.

Social meaning is that which we rely upon when we identify certain social characteristics of speakers and situations from the character of the lannguaged used .2. it‟s absolutely gorgeous!  gender social factors • Are you comin‟ to the footie this arvo? informal context . • Example: • Then I says to her she‟s no better than what i am  social class • I adore your lavender shawl.

who always boasts about his PhD. *LANGUAGE. attitudes and opinions about a particular piece of information or about the ongoing context Example: • Jack. • Jack.3. lectured me the entire evening on Aboriginal art. Finegan page 160 . Affective meaning is that which conveys the language user‟s feelings. who has a PhD. gave me a fascinating overview of Aboriginal art last night.

A set of words (or lexemes) related in meaning. Linguist Adrienne Lehrer has defined semantic field more specifically as "a set of lexemes which cover a certain conceptual domain and which bear certain specifiable relations to one another" (1985). pain or discomfort (noise = “interference”) . For example: noise will appear in semantic fields for acoustics.

• • • • • Synonym Antonym Polysemy Homonym Hyponymy .

• They can be interchanged without altering the meaning of utterance. • Eg: woman = lady • movie=film=flick Snap = break • • .• Words that have similar meaning and share the same semantic properties. • These are words that sounds different but mean the same.

Eg. Eg. Relational opposites Antonyms that express a symmetrical relationship between two words Eg. Complementary pairs Antonym that negate each other .• Words that are opposite in one of their semantic properties • Three main kinds of antonyms: 1. asleep >< awake 2. Female >< male . Gradable pairs Antonym that are part of a larger set of related words and express the concept that one of them is more whereas the other is less. Old><young -> less young/ less old (relative) small >< large 3. Parent >< child student >< teacher . It depends on the context of the utterance and the point of view of speaker. present >< absent.

Homonymy are words that sound the same but have different meanings. clear” or „a level area of land‟. Eg: to-too-two /tu:/ tale-tail /teIl/ but-butt /b∆t/ .Polysemy words have more than one meaning. Eg: *school can be “an institution for leaning” or “a grouping fish” * Plain can be “easy.

Colour green Blue white black red .Hyponymy are more specific words that constitute a subclass of a more general word.

• Pharaprase • Entailment • Contradicton .

the other is true. and when one is false. The rider was thrown by the horse. For example: The horse threw the rider.Two sentences are paraphrases if they have same truth conditions. . the other one is false. without exception. This means whenever one is true.

so we also said „ A snake caused the rat to die. so the conclusion is „The rat died‟ Cobra = snake. kill = cause die.Relation between a set of sentences and a sentence Eg. The cobra killed a rat.‟ .

. that is. the truth of one sentence necessarily implies the falseness of another s For example : 1. I love you and I don‟t love you 2. Butch is married to Barb but Barb is not married to Butch.Contradiction is negative entailment .

• Happy: Make-up? • Dopey: Yeah.Connotation is the emotional implications and associations that a word may carry. • (William Smillie and Michael Stoyanov in The . to scare people. You know. in contrast to its denotation meaning For example : • Happy: So why do they call him "The Joker"? • Dopey: I heard he wears make-up. war paint.

For example : sheep  species of animal in the outside world. as far as it can be described in dictionary. such as : animal. .Denotation is the core or central meaning of a word or lexeme. ram. lamb.

and sailing ships. The distinction between intension and extension is not the same as that between connotation and denotation. the intension of “ship” as a substantive is “vehicle for conveyance on water.” whereas its extension embraces such things as cargo ships.Intension and extension. For instance. in logic. and “extension” indicates its range of applicability by naming the particular objects that it denotes. passenger ships. correlative words that indicate the reference of a term or concept: “intension” indicates the internal content of a term or concept that constitutes its formal definition. battle ships. .

• Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true. • Example : .

And since when was bread such an emergency? She grumbled to herself all the way to the store and back. . Why couldn't her sister Sarah go? Sarah was older. and Mom never forgot anything. Mandi thought everyone had forgotten her birthday. It was bad enough everyone had forgotten her birthday. Mandi didn't know why she had to go.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In the following story Mandi's family throws a surprise birthday party for her. She thought that was kind of rude! Her mom sent her to the store for a loaf of bread in the middle of the afternoon. she was startled to hear. no one had even wished her a "Happy Birthday!" No one mentioned it all day long--not even her mother. As you read the story. she also had to run everyone's errands! As she dragged herself into the kitchen. look for clues . She had noticed her sisters whispering at lunch. "SURPRISE!" They hadn't forgotten after all. This morning at the breakfast table.

• The dollar is falling sharply. • For example : • You are my sunshine.• Metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common. . • Tennis star Steffi Graf breezed through yesterday’s semifinal.

p.• Componential analysis also called feature analysis or contrast analysis. refers to the description of the meaning of words through structured sets of semantic features which are given as “present”. [– mature] or girl [– male] [– mature] or child [+/– male] [– mature]. • For example : • man = [+ male]. . one word can have basic underlying meanings that are well established depending on the cultural context. being edible is an important factor by which plants may be distinguished from one another (Ottenheimer. 20). 2006. [+ mature] or woman = [– male]. It is crucial to understand these underlying meanings in order to fully understand any language and culture. the word girl can have three basic factors (or semantic properties): human. “absent” or “indifferent with reference to feature. In other words. [+ mature] or boy = [+ male]. and female. To summarize. young. Another example.

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