# A Course of Physics

Physics 211: Lecture 1, Pg 1

CHAPTER II

Dynamics of Material Point
§1. Newton’s laws of motion §2. Applying Newton’s laws §3. Momentum and impulse

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q

What are the underlying cause of motion? What makes bodies move the way they do? → to give the answers to such questions is the subject of dynamics To analyze the principles of dynamics, along with the kinematic quantities as displacement, velocity,acceleration, we need two new concepts: force and mass Isaac Newton (1643 - 1727) published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (“Mathematical Principles of Natural Phylosophy”) in 1687. In this work, he proposed three “laws” of motion:

q

q

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§1. Newton’s Laws of Motion
Law 1: An object subject to no external forces is at rest or moves with a constant velocity if viewed from an inertial reference frame. Law 2: For any object

  ∑F = ma

Law 3: Forces occur in pairs (For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction)

  FA, B = − FB , A

These are the postulates of mechanics They are experimentally, not mathematically, justified. They work, and DEFINE what we mean by “forces”.

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1.1 Force and Interactions
1.1.1 The concept of force: Forces give a quantitative description of the interaction between two bodies or between a body with its environment When a force involves direct contact between two bodies, we call it a contact force (the pushes or pulls by your hand, force pulling on a block, friction, tension,…) F Fhead,thumb

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 There are also forces, called long-range forces that act even when the bodies are seperated by empty space (the force of gravitational attraction, forces between two electric charge, forces between magnets,…)

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1.1.2 Force vectors: q A force has magnitude and direction → force is a vector quantity. q The magnitude of force describes “how hard” the force pushes or pulls. In SI units it is measured by Newton, abbreviated N. q The effect of a force depends on, besides its magnitude and direction, also the point P where force acts at.

P P

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1.1.3 Superposition  forces: of  q When two forces F and F2 act at the same time at a point P, 1 experiment shows that the effect on the body’s motion is the same as the effect of the single force R equal to the vector sum    of the original forces: R = F1 + F2   This impotant principle is called R F1 principle of superposition of forces  q On the contrary, we can replace F2 any force by its component vectors, acting at the same point. y This operation is called   decomposition of force F

Fy

O

 Fx

x

   F = Fx + Fy

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q

The vector sum of all the forces acting on a body is called the net force

     R = F1 + F2 + F3 + ... = ∑ F

This vector equation has the component version: * In the plane (x,y):

Rx = ∑Fx

R y =∑ y F

* In three-dimensional problems, forces have also z-components:

Rz = ∑Fz
Note that in these equations each component of force may be positive, negative, or zero be carefull with signs when you evaluate the sums !

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1.2 Newton’s First Law
1.2.1 The law: An object subject to no external forces is at rest or moves with a constant velocity if viewed from an inertial reference frame. frame  If no forces act, there is no acceleration. 1.2.2 Inertial reference frame (IRF): The following statements can be thought of as the definition of inertial reference frames.  If you can eliminate all forces, then an IRF is a reference frame in which a mass moves with a constant velocity.  If one IRF exists, infinitely many exist since they are related by any arbitrary constant velocity vector!

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Let us answer the question: Is the Earth an IRF? Why a mass can be at rest on a horizontal table? The answer: * In this case, the net force ( ∑ F ) is equal to 0 * The Earth is not completely IRF, but is approximatly IRF. Proof: Let ‘s calculate the centripetal acceleration of a point on the Earth (corresponding to it’s rotation): T = 1 day = 8.64 x 104 sec, R ~ RE = 6.4 x 106 meters . We obtain a =0.034 m/s2 ( ~ 1/300 g) which is close enough to 0 that we will ignore it.

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1.3 Newton’s Second Law
1.3.1 The law:
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For any object,

FNET = Σ F = ma

“If a net external force acts on a body, the body has acceleration. The direction of acceleration is the same as the direction of the net force, The magnitude of the net force is equal to the mass of the body times the acceleration of the body”  The constant of proportionality is called “mass”, denoted m. » The mass of an object is a constant property of that object, and is independent of external influences. q Force has units of [M]x[L / T2] = kg m/s2 = N (Newton) “One newton is the amount of the net force that gives an acceleration of one meter per second squared to a body with a mass of one kilogram” q The vector equation of the second law is equivalent to the following component equations: ΣFX = maX ∑FY = maY, ∑FZ = maZ
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1.3.2 Mass and weight: Mass characterizes the inertial properties of a body (the greater the mass, the greater the force needed to cause s given acceleration) q Weight is s force exerted on a body by the pull of the Earth or other large body (weight on the Earth, weight on the Moon,..) q According to the second law, one has w = mg q Measuring mass and weight: * We can compare masses by compairing their accelerations when subjected to the same net force * But ususally the most convenient way to measure the mass is to measure the weight of body, and compare with a standard mass. (using a equal-arm balance)
q

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• What is the force of gravity exerted by the earth on a typical physics student? Typical student mass m = 55kg g = 9.8 m/s2. W = mg = (55 kg)x(9.8 m/s2 ) W= 539 N It is the weight of a typical student
W

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1.4 Newton’s Third Law
“If body A exerts a force on body B (called an action), then body B exerts a force on body A (called a reaction). These two forces have the same magnitude but are opposite in direction”. FA ,B = - FB ,A. Caution: Two forces (action and reaction) act at different points, on different bodies.

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§2. Applying Newton’s Laws
2.1 Particles in equilibrium: 2.1.1 One-dimensional equilibrium: Let’s consider the case of a hanging mass M. Assume that that the mass of the rope itself is negligible.  The method of free-body diagrams: in solving a problem, you have to identify all the force acting on each body in the problem.  A free-body diagram is a diagram showing the choosen body, free of its surrounding bodies.  The free-body diagram for the mass M. The net force acting on M: ∑F = T + W = 0  The free-body diagram for the rope. On each point P of the rope: ∑F = T’ + T’’ = 0

M

T M W (a) P

T’’

T’ (b)

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Remarks: * Two forces T and T’ are an action-reaction pair | T | = | T’ | * The force T’ (or T’’) which acts on each point of the rope is called tension of the rope. If the mass of the rope is negligible | T’’ | = | T’ | (if the mass of the rope is not negligible, | T” | > | T’ | )

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2.1.2 Two-dimensional equilibrium: • Free-body diagrams: (a) For the mass m ; (b) For the point P of the string • We have the following equations: | T | = | T’ | (by the third Newton’s law) T’ + T1 + T2 = 0 (the net force on P) or | T’ | = | T’’ |
T

m P m W (a)

T1 P T’ (b)

T2

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q

One more example of two-dimensional equilibrium: A rope holds the mass M in a inclined plane. * Firstly, we make a decomposition: W = W1 + W2 * The plane exerts a force N on the mass. The magnitude of N is | N | = | W2 | * The rope exerts a force T on the mass. The magnitude of T is | T | = | W1 | * The net force on the mass: ∑ F = W + N + T = 0.
N N T
M

W1 α

T

α W W

W2

Free-body diagram for M
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2.2 Dynamics of particles: In problems of dynamics, bodies are accelerating and hence are not in equlibrium. 2.2.1 Example 1 - Masses hung around a pulley: Masses m1 and m2 are attached to an ideal massless string and hung around an ideal massless pulley. q What are the tensions in the string T1 and T2 ? q Find the accelerations, a1 and a2, of the masses. Solution:  Draw free body diagrams for each object  Applying Newton’s second law: (in j -components)

T1 T2

j

T1 a1 m1g

T2 a2 m2g j

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 T1 - m1g = m1a1  T2 - m2g = m2a2 2 eqn, but 4 unk??? But T1 = T2 = T a1 = -a2 = -a since the pulley is ideal, the string is massless since the masses are connected by the ideal (non-elastic) string So we have m1g - T = m1 a T - m2g = m2 a

(a) (b)

Two equations & two unknowns  we can solve for both unknowns (T and a).
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q

Add (b) + (a):  g(m1 - m2 ) = a(m1+ m2 )

( m1 - m2 ) g a = ( m1 + m2 )
q

Subtract (b) - (a): ( m1 - m2 )2  2T - g(m1 + m2 ) = -a(m1 - m2 ) = - g m + m 1 2  T = 2gm1m2 / (m1 + m2 )

q

So we find:

a=

( m1 − m 2 ) g ( m1 + m 2 )

2 m1 m2 T= g ( m1 + m2 )

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a=

Is the result reasonable? Check limiting cases!
q

( m1 − m 2 ) g ( m1 + m 2 )

T=

2 m1 m2 (m1 + m2 )

g

Special cases: i.) m1 = m2 = m ii.) m2 or m1 = 0

a = 0 and T = mg. |a| = g and T= 0.

OK! OK!

We can use this system to determine g (by measuring the acceleration a for given masses).

( m2 + m1 ) g= a ( m2 - m1 )
If m1 is almost m2, then acceleration will be small.
You can measure motion for a long time. More accurate….

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2.2.2 Example 2 - Attached bodies on two inclined planes

smooth peg

m11 m

m m22

θ1 all surfaces frictionless, peg is frictionless

θ2

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Solution:  Draw free body diagrams for each object  Choose coordinate system for each block  Applying Newton’s second law, taking “x” components: 1) T1 - m1gsin θ1 = m1a1X 2) T2 - m2gsin θ2 = m2a2X x x y T1 T2 But T1 = T2 = T and - a1X = a2X = a (constraints) Using the constraints, we get 2 eqn and 2 unks N m2 m1 θ1 m1g θ2

y N

m2g

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T - m1gsin θ1 = - m1a (a) T - m2g sin θ2 = m2a (b) Subtracting (a) from (b) gives: m1g sin θ1 - m2g sin θ2= (m1 + m2) a So:
q

a=

m1 sin θ1 − m2 sin θ 2 g + m2 m1

Some special case:  Case 1 m1 m2

If θ1 = 0 and θ2 = 0, a = 0.
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 Case 2

m1

If θ1 = 90 and θ2 = 90, m2
a= ( m1 − m 2 ) g ( m1 + m 2 )

 Case 3

m1 If θ1 = 0 and θ2 = 90, m2
a= − m2 g ( m1 + m 2 )

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2.2.3 Surface friction Surface friction is caused by the “microscopic” interactions between the two surfaces

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q

Kinetic friction: The contact force exerted by the surface on body * The direction of the frictional force vector fF is perpendicular to the normal force vector N, in the direction opposing relative motion of the two surfaces. * The magnitude of the frictional force vector is proportional to the magnitude of the normal force N.

fF = µKN

(equation for magnitudes only) y-componets: N = mg y ma µKN mg
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µK is the coefficient of kinetic friction. x-components: F − µKN = ma ; So: F − µKmg = ma F

N

x

* If a = 0, the right side of the last equation is equal to 0. So we can define the magnitude of kinetic friction as the horizontal force needed for constant speed on a flat surface. * Values of μk depend on: (i) materials which a body and a surface are made of ; (ii) the speed of the body relative to the surface. The effect of (ii) is often ignored, and values of μk are given approximately for some materials (see the textbook, page 173, table 5.1) * It’s easier to move a loaded body across a horizontal floor using a cart with wheels than to slide it. The friction in this case is called rolling friction. It’s magnitude is determine by the formula for the kinetic slide friction, but with an other cooeficient, coefficient of rolling friction μr , which is much smaller than μk . (For example, steel on steel: μk ≈ 0.74 ;

μr ≈ 0.002 ÷ 0.003).

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Static friction: The frictional force balances the net applied forces such that the object doesn’t move. The maximum possible static frictional force is proportional to N.

fF ≤ µSN

and as long as this is true, then fF = fA in opposite direction The “coefficient of static friction,” µS, determines maximum static frictional force, µSN, that the contact between the objects can provide. µS is discovered by increasing F until the object starts to slide: FMAX - µSN = 0 N = mg (in this case) FMAX = µS mg N FMAX µS = FMAX / mg y x

µS N

mg
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q

Example of a motion with friction:

A block of mass m, when placed on a rough inclined plane (µ > 0) and given a brief push, keeps moving down the plane with constant speed.  If a similar block (same µ) of mass 2m were placed on the same incline and given a brief push, it would: (a) stop (b) accelerate m (c) move with constant speed

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q q

Since the velocity is constant, it’s just broken free from surface friction. Net force down ramp is essentially zero Draw FBD and find the total force in the x-direction FNET,X = mg sin θ − µKmg cos θ = ma = 0

y

µKN

x

N θ mg θ

Doubling the mass will simply double both terms…net force will still be zero! Speed will still be constant! Increase the friction and the downhill force by the same factor  nothing changes!
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mg sinθ

2.2 Dynamics of circular motion:
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Let us consider a UCM. It is known (Ch. I) that in this case the particle’s acceleration always directed toward the center of the circle (perpendicular to the instantaneous velocity vector). It is often called centripetal acceleration The magnitude of the acceleration

v2 2 = =ω R R

(“rad” means radial). By Newton’s second law, the net force exerted on the particle must be parallel to the acceleration, that is, directed toward the center also. The magnitude of the net force:

v2 = m = mω 2 R R
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Example: The conical pendulum The mass m, hung at the end of a thin wire of length L, moves in a horizontal circle with constant speed v. Assuming that the angle α is known, find the tension F in the wire and the period T of the circular motion? The equation ∑F = ma y has two components:
α Fcosα m m v R α F

∑Fx = F sinα = m.arad
x

L

ac
Fc=Fsinα W Free-body diagram for m

∑Fy = F cosα – mg = 0 The second eq. gives  F = mg / cosα

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So, we find (mg / cosα) sinα = m arad arad = g / tanα Applying the formula and R = L sinα, we obtain

4π 2 = ω2 R = 2 R T
L cos α g

T=

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Review of §2 (Applying Newton’s Laws) How can you solve a problem of dynamics?
q q q q q

q

Draw free body diagrams for each object in the problem Identify the forces which act on each object Determine the net forces on each object Choose an appropriate coordinate system Establish the equations which relate the given and unknown quantities, using Newton’s law and the coordinate method Solve the obtained system of equations
RESULTS

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§3. Momentum and Impulse
In some kind of dynamics problems, for example, collisions of particles, it is difficult to analyze them bu applying Newton’s laws directly. An alternative approach is to introduce two new dynamcal quantities, momentum and impulse, and a conservation law, conservation of momentum.

3.1 Momentum and impulse:
3.1.1 Definition of momentum: q For a single particle, the momentum vector p is defined as: p = mv
q

Then, the equation for the second Newton’s law can be written in the equivalent form:
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  dv  ∑F = ma = m dt   dp ∑F = dt
q

 dp = dt

For a system of particles the total momentum P is the vector sum of the individual particle momenta:
N N    P = ∑pi = ∑miv i i =1 i =1

where the index i is related to the particle i of a system of N particles.
q

Units of momentum are kg m/s.

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3.1.2 Definition of impulse: q Let’s consider a particle acted on by a constant net force ∑F during a time interval ∆t = t2 - t1. In this case, the impulse of the net force, denoted by J, is defined to be the product of the net force and the time interval J = (∑F ).(t2 - t1) = (∑F) . ∆t force)
q

(for constant net

Units of impuls are kg m/s, the same as units of momentum

q

Impulse is closely relatedto momentum:  dp ∑ F = dt The equation for constant net forces leads to J = (∑F) .(t2 - t1) = p2 - p1 (impulse- momentum theorem)
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The impulse-momentum theorem: ”the change in momentum of a particle during a time interval equals the impuls of the net force that acts on the particle during that interval”.
q

In the general case when net forces are not constant we have

   2 p2 − p1 = ∫ dp = ∫
 p1 t1

 p2

t

(

 ∑ F dt.

)

Define impulse of the non-constant net force by

 t2 J ≡∫
t1

(

 ∑F dt

)

then the impulse-momentum theorem also holds in general cases:

   J = p2 −p1

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q

One can determine an average net force when the net force is not constant

 t2 J ≡∫
t1

(

  ∑ F dt = Fav (t2 − t1 )

)

with the average force the result of the force (changing momentum) is the same as of the original net force. The meaning of the concept of impuls is to characterize the effect of forces – causing changes in momentum.

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3.1.3 Conservation of Momentum: q The concept of momentum is particularly impotant in situations in which we have two or more interacting particles. q Let’s consider a system of two or more interacting particles  Internal force: The forces that the particles of the system exert on each other  External forces: The forces exerted on any particle of the system by some object outside  A system on which there are no external forces is called an isolated system q Suppose that we have a isolated system of two particles A and B

  dpA FB on A = dt
  FB on A + FA on B

by Newton’s third law     dpA dpB d ( pA + pB ) = + = =0 dt dt dt
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  dp B FA on B = dt

   P = pA + p B

 dP = 0 dt

P : the total momentum vector of the system The principle of conservation of momentum: “The total momentum of a isolated system is constant”.
q
 mv The principle holds for an isolated system containing any number of particle A , B, C,… interacting with each other
A

       P = pA + p B + pC +... = mv A + mvB + mvC +...
 dP = 0 dt

 P = constant

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Example 1
q

Consider the bullet & block as a system. After the bullet is shot, there are no external forces acting on the system in the x-direction. Momentum is conserved in the x direction!
 Px, i = Px, f  mv = (M+m)V

M + m v =  V  m 

x v V initial final

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Example 2

q

Consider a collision in 2-D (cars crashing at a slippery intersection...no friction). v1 m1 + m2 m2 v2 after V

m1

before

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q

There are no net external forces acting.  Use momentum conservation for both components.
Px ,i = Px ,f m1v1 = ( m1 + m 2 )V x

X:

Vx =

m1 v1 ( m1 + m 2 ) m2 v2 ( m1 + m 2 )

y:

Py ,i = Py ,f

m 2 v 2 = ( m1 + m 2 )V y

Vy =

v1 m1 m2 v2

V = (Vx,Vy) m1 + m2

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q

We can see the same thing using vectors:

P P p1 p2 θ p1
p2 p1

p2

tan θ =

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q

Caution!!  For any case of collisions in which there are no external forces, the total momentum is conserved.  But the total kinetic energy may be not conserved. If in the collision the total kinetic energy is conserved, it is called elastic collisions.  Collisions may be elastic or inelastic. In inelastic collisions a part of kinetic energy may be converted to other forms (thermal energy, etc…).

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Example 3: Rocket propulsion Let’s consider a rocket fired in outer space, where there is no gravitational force and air resistance. q The x-component of total momentum at the moment t: P1 = mv q The x-component of total momentum of x the system of roket and fuel at the moment t+dt: m+dm P2 = (m+dm)(v+dv) + (- dm)(v - vex) (dm<0) (vex - the exhaust speed of burned at t+dt v+dv fuel relative to the rocket) q According to the principle of vfuel = v-vex conservation of momentum: P1 = P2 m at t

v
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mv = (m+dm)(v+dv) + (- dm)(v - vex) mdv = - dm vex - dm dv ≈ - dm vex m(dv/dt) = - vex (dm/dt) So the net force (thrust) on the rocket: F = - vex (dm/dt) , The thrust is proportional to the relative speed of the ejected fuel and to the mass of of fuel ejected per unite time.

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Review of §3 (Momentum and Impulse)
q q q

q

q q

v characterizes the state of motion kinematically p=mv characterizes the state of motion dynamically The net force on a particle is equal to the rate of change of the particle’s momentum The product of the net force and the time interval is the impulse of the net force (the time interval must be small if the force is not constant) The impulse of a force characterizes the effect of force (to change particle’s momentum): the change in particle’s momentum during a time interval equals the impulse of the net force during that time interval. The total momentum of a isolated system is always conserved. For collisions of the particles of a isolated system the total momentum is conserved, but the total kinetic energy may be or not be conserved (collisions may be elastic or inelastic).
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