LNVIkCNMLN1 AND WA1Lk

ÞCLLU1ICN
SubmlLLed by
CurpreeL Slngh
071038
LNVIkCNMLN1AL ÞCLLU1ICN IN
INDIA
W @he envlronmenLal problems ln lndla are growlng rapldlyŦ @he
lncreaslng economlc developmenL and a rapldly growlng
populaLlon LhaL has Laken Lhe counLry from 300 mllllon people
ln 1947 Lo more Lhan one bllllon people Loday ls puLLlng a
sLraln on Lhe envlronmenLţ lnfrasLrucLureţ and Lhe counLry's
naLural resourcesŦ lndusLrlal polluLlonţ soll eroslonţ
deforesLaLlonţ rapld lndusLrlallzaLlonţ urbanlzaLlonţ and land
degradaLlon are all worsenlng problems
J uCS lnulA S@Anu ln
ÞCLLu@lnC @ nvlCnMn@
W lndla has been ranked among Lhe Lop Len worsL cllmaLe
polluLers of Lhe worldŦ Jhlle lndla holds Lhe 7Lh poslLlonţ uS
and Chlna hold Lhe 2nd and 3rd poslLons respecLlvelyŦ @he
sLudy has been conducLed by Þrofessor Corey 8radshaw of Lhe
unlverslLy of Adelaldeƌs envlronmenL lnsLlLuLe ln Aprll 2010Ŧ
@he sLudy ylelded Lhe worsL Len polluLers as 8razllţ uSţ Chlnaţ
lndoneslaţ !apanţ Mexlcoţ lndlaţ usslaţ AusLralla and Þeruţ ln
Lhe orderŦ
W lndla ls Lhe worldƌs flfLhŴblggesL polluLerţ a new sLudy
conflrmed on Aprll 11ţ 2010ţ wlLh lLs greenhouse gas
emlsslons growlng by more Lhan 3 per cenL annually beLween
1994Ŵ2007Ŧ
MA!C nvlCnMn@AL ÞCLLu@lCnS
W A|r Þo||ut|on
W @he Jorld ealLh CrganlzaLlon esLlmaLes LhaL abouL Lwo
mllllon people dle premaLurely every year as a resulL of alr
polluLlonţ whlle many more suffer from breaLhlng allmenLsţ
hearL dlseaseţ lung lnfecLlons and even cancerŦ
W WA1Lk ÞCLLU1ICN
W ully 80 percenL of urban wasLe ln lndla ends up ln Lhe
counLryƌs rlversţ and unchecked urban growLh across Lhe
counLry comblned wlLh poor governmenL overslghL means Lhe
problem ls only geLLlng worseŦ A growlng number of bodles of
waLer ln lndla are unflL for human useţ and ln Lhe lv
CAnCAţ holy Lo Lhe counLryƌs 82 percenL lndu ma[orlLyţ ls
dylng slowly due Lo unchecked polluLlonŦ
W new uelhlƌs body of waLer ls llLLle more Lhan a
flowlng garbage dumpţ wlLh fully 37 percenL of Lhe clLyƌs
wasLe flndlng lLs way Lo Lhe ?amunaŦ lL ls LhaL Lhree bllllon
llLers of wasLe are pumped lnLo uelhlƌs ?amuna each dayŦ Cnly
33 percenL of Lhe 13 mllllon uelhl resldenLs are connecLed Lo
Lhe clLyƌs sewage sysLemŦ @he remalnder flush Lhelr baLh
waLerţ wasLe waLer and [usL abouL everyLhlng else down plpes
and lnLo dralnsţ mosL of Lhem empLy lnLo Lhe ?amunaŦ nearly
20 bllllon rupeesţ or almosL uS $300 mllllonţ has been spenL
on varlous clean up efforLsŦ
lv ?AMunA uLL C ÞLAS@lC 8ACS
lv CAnCA A@ vAAnASl
ClL SÞlLL CM MSC Cl@A
8ASlC ulnl@lCn C JA@
ÞCLLu@lCn
W JaLer polluLlon ls Lhe conLamlnaLlon of waLer bodles (eŦgŦ
lakesţ rlversţ oceansţ groundwaLer)Ŧ
W JaLer polluLlon affecLs planLs and organlsms llvlng ln Lhese
bodles of waLerŤ andţ ln almosL all cases Lhe effecL ls
damaglng noL only Lo lndlvldual specles and populaLlonsţ buL
also Lo Lhe naLural blologlcal communlLlesŦ
W JaLer polluLlon occurs when polluLanLs are dlscharged
dlrecLly or lndlrecLly lnLo waLer bodles wlLhouL adequaLe
LreaLmenL Lo remove harmful compoundsŦ
SCuCS C JA@ ÞCLLu@lCn
W @here are Lwo Lypes of sources of waLer polluLlonť
W Þo|nt sources of water po||ut|on
@hose sources of waLer polluLlon whlch are flxed aL a place and have a speclflc locaLlon for
dlscharglng polluLanLs lnLo a parLlcular waLer body are called polnL sources of waLer
polluLlonŦ @he polnL sources of waLer polluLlon lncludeť facLorlesţ power planLsţ underground
coal mlnes and oll wells slLuaLed close Lo Lhe waLer sourcesŦ @he polnL sources of waLer
polluLlon dlscharge Lhelr polluLanLs dlrecLly lnLo Lhe waLer sourceŦ
W NonŴpo|nt sources of water po||ut|on
@hose sources of waLer polluLlon whlch are scaLLered and do noL have any speclflc
locaLlon for dlscharglng polluLanLs lnLo a parLlcular waLer body are called nonŴpolnL
sources of waLer polluLlonŦ @he nonŴpolnL sources of waLer polluLlon lncludeť runŴoffs
from fleldsţ lawns and gardensţ many small dralnsţ raln waLer from roads and sLreeLs
and dlrLy waLer from Lhe dlfferenL consLrucLlon slLesŦ
MA!C SCuCS C JA@
ÞCLLu@lCn
W @he ma[or sources of waLer polluLlon areť
W Industr|a| Wastesť @he dlscharglng of lndusLrlal wasLes from lndusLrles lnLo rlvers and lakes polluLes
waLerŦ @he lndusLrlal wasLes conLaln a large number of harmful chemlcals lncludlng aclds and alkalls
W ewageť uumplng of sewage lnLo rlvers and lakes polluLes waLer (sewage ls Lhe fllLhy maLLer carrled
ln large underground dralns called sewers)Ŧ Þlease noLe LhaL lndusLrlal wasLes and sewage are Lhe
Lwo ma[or sources of waLer polluLlon ln blg clLlesŦ
W nthet|c Detergentsť xcesslve use of synLheLlc deLergenLs for washlng purposes produces a loL of
foam and polluLes waLerŦ
W hem|ca| Iert|||zersť @he excesslve use of ferLlllzers ln Lhe soll causes waLer polluLlon because some
of Lhese ferLlllzers are washed lnLo rlvers and lakes wlLh raln waLerŦ
W Þetro|eum C||ť @he leakage of peLroleum oll lnLo Lhe sea durlng drllllng and shlpplng operaLlons
polluLes sea waLerŦ
AMuL C@S C JA@
ÞCLLu@lCn
W JaLer polluLlon causes a number of dlseases such as
Lypholdţ choleraţ dysenLeryţ hepaLlLls and [aundlce
W JaLer polluLlon desLroys useful mlcroŴorganlsms whlch
are Lhe naLural cleanslng agenLs of waLer
W JaLer polluLlon caused by sewage and chemlcal
ferLlllzers leads Lo euLrophlcaLlon and deoxygenaLlon of
waLer bodles kllllng Lhe aquaLlc anlmals
W JaLer polluLlon caused by Loxlc lndusLrlal wasLes kllls
flsh and oLher aquaLlc anlmals
uu @C nCnŴAvAlLA8lLl@? C SA
ulnklnC JA@
Þvn@lCn Anu CCn@CL C
JA@ ÞCLLu@lCn
W JaLer polluLlon can be prevenLed or conLrolled ln Lhe followlng waysť
1Ŧ Sewage should be LreaLed sulLably before lL ls dlscharged lnLo Lhe rlver (or ocean)
Sewage can be LreaLed by a modern Lechnlque lnvolvlng Lhe followlng Lhree sLepsť prlmary LreaLmenLţ secondary LreaLmenL
and LerLlary LreaLmenLţ and converLed lnLo clean and pure drlnklng waLerŦ
%a) Þr|mar 1reatmentŦ lrsL of allţ sewage ls passed Lhrough a grlndlng mechanlsmŦ lL ls Lhen passed Lhrough several seLLllng
chambers and llme ls added Lo neuLrallze lLŦ
%) econdar 1reatment or 8|o|og|ca| 1reatment Ŧ @he neuLrallzed sewage sLlll conLalns a loL of paLhogenlc and nonŴ
paLhogenlc organlsms and organlc maLLerŦ lL ls senL Lo a reacLor or chamber called 'Upf|owAnaero|c |udge 8|anket'
(uAS8)Ŧ ereţ Lhe anaeroblc bacLerla decompose Lhe blodegradable organlc maLLer presenL ln Lhe sewageŦ @hls process
removes Lhe foul smell and produces meLhane gas (whlch can be used as a fuel)Ŧ ln Lhls wayţ sewage ls converLed lnLo clean
waLerŦ @hls waLer ls senL Lo aeraLlon Lanks where lL ls mlxed wlLh alr and bacLerlaŦ @hese bacLerla desLroy whaLever small
organlc wasLe maLerlal ls lefL ln lLŦ @hls waLer sLlll conLalns some mlcroŴorganlsmsţ so lL ls yeL noL flL for drlnklngŦ @he harmful
mlcroŴorganlsms presenL ln lL have Lo be kllledŦ
%c) 1ert|ar 1reatmentŦ @he flnal sLep (called LerLlary LreaLmenL) ls a dlslnfecLlon process Lo remove Lraces of organlc maLLerţ
bacLerla and dlssolved lnorganlc solldsţ eLcŦţ Lo make lL flL for drlnklngŦ @he LerLlary LreaLmenL ls done by uslng Lhe processes
llke chlorlnaLlonţ evaporaLlon and exchange absorpLlon Lo obLaln clean and pure drlnklng waLerŦ
2Ŧ lndusLrlal wasLes should be LreaLed chemlcally Lo neuLrallze Lhe harmful subsLances presenL ln Lhemţ before dlscharglng
lnLo rlvers (or oceans)Ŧ
3Ŧ JasLe paperţ plasLlcsţ wasLe food maLerlals and roLLlng frulLs and vegeLables should noL be Lhrown lnLo open dralnsŦ
4Ŧ Solld wasLes conLalnlng organlc maLLer and effluenLs from dlsLlllerles should noL be Lhrown lnLo waLer bodlesŦ @hese
should be senL Lo blogas planLsŦ
3Ŧ lf a source of waLerţ llke a lakeţ geLs polluLed wlLh ollţ Lhen Lhe oll sllck formed should be sklmmed off from lLs surface
wlLh Lhe help of a sucLlon devlceŦ Saw dusL can also be spread over oll sllck Lo absorb as much oll as posslbleŦ
MASuS unu@Akn C SCuLu
8 @Akn
W Nat|ona| Act|on Þ|an on ||mate hange
@haL lndla wlll puL solar energy generaLlon aL Lhe forefronL of lLs baLLle agalnsL
cllmaLe change became evldenL wlLh Þrlme MlnlsLer Manmohan Slngh releaslng
Lhe naLlonal AcLlon Þlan on CllmaLe Change ln new uelhl lasL yearŦ
@he plan conslsLed of elghL naLlonal mlsslonsŦ @hey are on solar energyţ enhanced
energy efflclencyţ susLalnable hablLaLţ waLer conservaLlonţ susLalnlng Lhe
lmalayan ecosysLemţ creaLlng a ƌgreen lndlaƌ Lhrough a large LreeŴplanLlng
programmeţ susLalnable agrlculLure and esLabllshlng a knowledge plaLform on
cllmaLe changeŦ
teps |n 8udget 2010Ŵ11 for the Lnv|ronment
@he lncreased polluLlon levels assoclaLed wlLh lndusLrlallsaLlon and urbanlsaLlonţ
a number of proacLlve sLeps have been proposed ln Lhe unlon 8udgeL (2010Ŵ11)Ŧ
@he ma[or sLeps lncludeť
Nat|ona| |ean Lnerg Iund %NLI) Ŵ for fundlng research and lnnovaLlve pro[ecLs
ln clean energy LechnologyŦ AllocaLlon for naLlonal Canga lver 8asln AuLhorlLy has
been doubled ln 2010Ŵ11 Lo sŦ300 croreŦ @he ºMlsslon Clean Canga 2020" under
Lhe naLlonal Canga lver 8asln AuLhorlLy (nC8A) wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlve LhaL no
unLreaLed munlclpal sewage or lndusLrlal lnfluenL wlll be dlscharged lnLo Lhe
naLlonal rlver has already been lnlLlaLedŦ
SCM AC@S
W vapl ln Cu[araL and Suklnda ln Crrlsa ls among Lhe worldƌs Lop 10 mosL polluLed placesţ
accordlng Lo Lhe 8lacksmlLh lnsLlLuLeţ a new ?orkŴbased nonproflL groupŦ
Vap| ť ÞoLenLlally affecLed peopleť 71ţ000 ŴÞolluLanLsť Chemlcals and heavy meLals due
Lo lLs lndusLrlal esLaLesŦ
uk|ndať ÞoLenLlally affecLed peopleť 2ţ600ţ000Ŧ ŴÞolluLanLsť exavalenL chromlum due
Lo lLs ChromlLe mlnesŦ
W As many as 31 lndlan clLles have exLremely hlgh alr polluLlonţ ÞaLnaţ Lucknowţ alpurţ
arldabad and Ahmedabad Lopplng Lhe llsLŦ
W An envlronmenL and foresL mlnlsLry reporLţ released on SepLember 14ţ 2007 has
ldenLlfled 31 clLles LhaL do noL meeL Lhe prescrlbed esplrable ÞarLlculaLe MaLLer
(SÞM) levelsţ speclfled under Lhe naLlonal AmblenL Alr CuallLy SLandards (nAACS)Ŧ
W Accordlng Lo Lhe reporLţ Coblndgarh ln Þun[ab ls Lhe mosL polluLed clLyţ and Ludhlanaţ
alpur and Lucknow hold Lhe nexL Lhree poslLlonsŦ
W arldabad on Lhe ouLsklrL of uelhl ls Lhe 10Lh mosL polluLed clLyţ followed by Agraţ Lhe
clLy of @a[ MahalŦ Ahmedabad ls placed 12Lhţ lndore 16Lhţ uelhl 22ndţ kolkaLa 23Lhţ
Mumbal 40Lhţ yderabad 44Lh and 8angalore sLands aL 46Lh ln Lhe llsLŦ @he Crlssa Lown
of Angulţ home Lo naLlonal Alumlnlum Company (nALCC)ţ ls Lhe 30Lh polluLed clLy of
Lhe counLryŦ
MC AC@S
Mahatma Ghandh| on Lnv|ronmenta|
po||ut|on
W MahaLma Candhl had sald LhaL naLure has enough Lo
saLlsfy everyone's need buL has noL enough Lo saLlsfy man's
greedŦ Sadly our everŴexpandlng greed has puL us ln such
precarlous slLuaLlonŦ Jlll we reallse lL? @he pollcy of
lndusLrlallsaLlon had helped rlch Lo become rlcher and poor
become poorerŦ @he dlsparlLy has wldenedŦ lL ls Lhe
democraLlc sysLem followed ln Lhe counLry whlch has
forced our pollcyŴmakers Lo Lhlnk of growLh for allŦ @haL ls
why we are hearlng plans for lncluslve growLhŦ
lndusLrlallsaLlon ls noL wlLhouL prlceŦ All Lhese have a dlrecL
bearlng on envlronmenLal polluLlon leadlng Lo cllmaLlc
changeŦ Je are all wlLness Lo Lhe deleLerlous effecLs of
cllmaLe changeŦ @he whole world ls now anxlous Lo repalr
Lhe damageŦ
@Ank ?Cu

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