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A stillborn of 36 weeks gestation was delivered by a

30-year old primigravida. The microscopic picture of the


lungs at autopsy is shown below.
Discuss the following:

 Salientfeatures
 Diagnosis and basis for diagnosis.
 Differential diagnosis
 Pathophysiology
 Treatment
 Prognosis
Four days after delivery, a premature newborn started to develop
bloody stools accompanied by abdominal distention. Abdominal
radiograph shows gas within intestinal wall. Below are
microscopic features of the intestine
Discuss the following:

 Salientfeatures.
 Diagnosis
 Differential diagnosis
 Pathophysiology
 Treatment
 Prognosis
A one year-old boy develops fever one month PTA. One week PTA, he
complained of headache. He also started to have vomiting and stiffness of
the neck. On admission lumbar tap was done. CSF exam shows 50,000
neutrophils/mm3 , decreased glucose, and increased protein.Patient died a
week after admission, Below are the pictures of the gross features of the
brain during autopsy.
Discuss the following:

 Salient features
 Diagnosis
 Etiologic agents
 Differential diagnosis
 Pathophysiology
 Differentiating features from TB meningitis
 Treatment
 Prognosis
A seven year-old girl was noticed to have anorexia for the last 6 months.
The mother also noticed she was having low grade afternoon fever. On
physical examination, prominent non-matted lymph nodes are appreciated
in the supraclavicular and post-auricular areas.Below are the gross and
microscopic features.
:Discuss the following:

 Salientfeatures
 Diagnosis
 Pathophysiology
 Differential diagnosis; differences from
secondary tuberculosis
 Treatment
 Prognosis
A ten-year old boy was diagnosed to be malnourished.
Below are the gross and microscopic features of the
liver.
Discuss the following:

 Diagnosis
 Bases for diagnosis
 Differentiate marasmus from kashiorkor
 Discuss the various pathologic changes in
malnutrition
 Treatment, Prevention, Impact to society
A 5-year old boy was brought to a pediatrician because of
abdominal mass. He was subsequently operated on. Below are
the gross and microscopic features of the tumor
Discuss the following:

 Diagnosis
 Clinicalbases for diagnosis
 Pathogenesis and genetics
 Gross and microscopic features
 Treatment and prognosis
Below are gross pictures of kernicterus.
Discuss the following:

 Definition
 Clinicalmanifestations
 Etiology and Pathophysiology
 Relationship to physiologic jaundice of the
newborn
 Treatment and prognosis
Below is the gross picture of a stillborn.
Discuss the following:

 Diagnosis
 Differentiate the forms of congenital
anomalies
 Genetics and pathophysiology of this
condition
 Risk factors from the parents
Examination of a stillborn fetus or neonate should consist of a careful
and detailed physical examination. You must note the presence of any
anomalies, as well as detail size and gestational age.
 Give the diagnosis.
 Congenital anomalies are classified into the following:
– Malformation
– Disruption
– Deformation
– Sequence
– Syndrome
Which type of congenital anomaly is this condition?
 What other congenital abnormalities are usually
associated with this condition?
 What are the possible causative factors?
 What should be included in counseling the parents of
this patient?
In this case, the
diaphragmatic dome is
missing on the left,
allowing herniation of the
abdominal contents into
the chest cavity. The
metal probe in the
photograph is behind the
left lung, which has been
displaced by the stomach.
Below the stomach is a
dark spleen (at the white
arrow). The white arrow
overlies the left lobe of
liver which is extending
upward.
 What other congenital abnormalities are usually
associated with this condition?
 What are the possible causative factors?
 What should be included in counseling the parents
of this patient?
Agenesis refers to the
absence of formation of a
body part in
embryogenesis. Here the
kidneys are absent from
the retroperitoneum, and
this renal agenesis will
result in oligohydramnios,
because amniotic fluid is
mainly derived from fetal
urine.
 Define agenesis.
 Differentiate between agenesis and
hypoplasia.
 What is the pathogenesis of this condition?
 State the relationship of this condition to
oligohydramnios.
 What are the possible causative factors in
agenesis?
The most serious
consequence of
oligohydramnios is
pulmonary hypoplasia.
Note the extremely
small lungs in this
case on each side of
the heart in the middle
of the chest.
 What is the expected clinical manifestation
of this condition?
 Is this condition compatible to life? Give
the reason for your answer.
This is a case of omphalocoele. It is a ventral abdominal wall
defect that requires surgical repair. It involves the region of the
umbilical cord. A thin membrane covers the herniated
abdominal contents. The bowels has mainly developed outside
the abdominal cavity. It is malrotated and the cavity is too
small.
 Statethe pathogenesis of this condition.
 What are the chances that this will recur in
succeeding pregnancies?