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COMMUNICATION I

Meaning of communication
Comes from Latin word COMMUNICARE
means common talk. Speaking/writing or sending a message to somebody It also involves ensuring that the message reached the another person. Also ensures that the messages are receive, understand, interpret and respond to them.

NATURE OF COMMUNICATION
A very basic phenomenon that pervades
all human interactions. All human endeavours & activities Most crucial ingredient of business success It is a process because the phenomenon of creating & exchanging messages is ongoing, ever-changing & continuous.

Fundamentals of communication Peter Drucker


Communication is perception. Communication is Expectation Communication makes Demands. Communication and Information
are different.

IF MANAGEMENT IS

GETTING THINGS DONE THROUGH THE PEOPLE COMMUNICATION IS ESSENCE OF IT.

DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION
The transfer of information and understanding from one person to another person. It is the way of reaching others with facts, ideas, thoughts and values. It is a bridge of meaning among people so that they can share what they feel and know. By using this bridge a person can cross safely a river of the misunderstanding that sometimes separate people. Keith Davis

Communication is any behavior that results in an exchange of meaning.

The effective transmission of message from


one person or body of persons (sender) to another (receiver). Communication is a mutual exchange, of facts, thoughts, and perceptions resulting in common understanding between the sender and receiver. This does not necessarily imply agreement. Communication may be broadly defined as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is a process by which meanings are perceived and understanding are reached among human beings.

MOST EFFECTIVE INSTRUMENT FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT.

IMPORTANCE
Sap and life blood of organisation Nervous system of an organisation Without communication no direction no
control Acts as unifying link & binding, directing force Necessary for creating warm & friendly relationships among employees

Passing orders, plans, policies to


subordinates (downward communication) Provision of information from lower levels to management for decision making and policy formulation (upward communication). Pre-requisite of effective management

All management Passes through Bottleneck of communication

M A N A G E R

PLANNING ORGANIZING STAFFING DIRECTING CONTROLLING

communication

Work group performance

OBJECTIVES
develop information and understanding for good

effective group functioning. Foster positive attitudes for motivation, cooperation, job satisfaction Discourage the spread of misinformation, rumours, gossip Release of emotional tensions of workers To prepare workers for the change Encourage ideas, suggestions for subordinates for an improvement in the product & work conditions

To improvement labour management


relations by keeping both in contact with each other. Ensure free exchange of information and ideas, self importance Satisfy basic human needs as the needs of recognition, self importance and a sense of belonging. To serve auxiliary functions such as entertainment and maintenance of social relations among human being.

Principles of Communication

Drawing Conclusion Use of fear (emotional versus factual) Sleeper Effect Credibility of communicator Effect of Known Motives Selective Exposure Personal Involvement Influence of groups Primacy Two way communication

Efficacy & effectiveness Uprightness & honesty of purpose Preciseness & clarity Completeness Candidates Conciseness Coherence Consistency Consideration Courtesy Correctness Chronology Continuous communication

IMPORTANT `C` s IN COMMUNICATION



Correct Clear Candid Complete Concise Consistent Coherent Courteous

Credible Chronological Considerate Continuous Compassing

Forms of Communication
Cathy would like to describe her graduation
ceremony to her aunt who lives in Australia. Think of two ways in which she could do this

After the graduation, Cathy wants to describe to


her brother how some of the girls walked up to collect their certificate. What do you think she would do?

Forms of Communication
Verbal
Requires words May be speech or writing Conversation
Face-to-face Telephone

Letter Email Text message Fax Messenger/chat

Forms of Communication
Non-Verbal
Relies on elements other than speech or writing Is just as important as non-verbal communication Body language (gestures, posture, facial expression) Use of space Use of objects Dress Graphics (charts, tables, diagrams) Integrating forms for specific purposes (role play, simulation)

FORM and CONTEXT


The specific FORM of communication is,
or should be, intimately related to the CONTEXT in which it is used

One element of our COMMUNICATIVE


COMPETENCE is our ability to get our message across accurately

Contexts of Communication
In order to evaluate the appropriateness or
effectiveness of a communication act, we must first understand its context.

Communication does not occur in a


vacuum. It occurs within a CONTEXT

The circumstances of a communicative act


are referred to as the CONTEXT of communication

Contexts of Communication
You have to give a speech in each of the
following situations. Consider the adjustments that you would have to make to your presentation
To a panel of interviewers where you are applying for a job To a group of standard two students in their assembly hall To an oral examiner in a small examination room To a group of persons opposing your ideas On national television On radio

Contexts of Communication
Who is present, or who is being addressed.
What do you need to consider here?

The general attitude of your audience. Why is


this important?

Where the communication takes place. What


are the factors that should influence your communicative decisions?

Contexts of Communication
Context may be FORMAL
Certain societal norms are evident and there are perceived patterns of behaviour

NON-FORMAL/INFORMAL
Individuals or groups are not constrained by specified ways in which communication would normally take place

Contexts of Communication
Intrapersonal- Thinking, solving
problems, imagining/imaging

Interpersonal interviews,
conversations, intimate communication

Small group leadership meeting,


brain-storming, prayer meeting

Contexts of Communication
Organizational business,
government, official purposes, educational

Academic essay, research paper,


doctoral thesis

Public speeches, debates Intercultural communicating across


social sub-group, in tourism

Contexts of Communication
Match the scenarios with the most appropriate form of verbal communication

Form of Communication A. A written notice/poster B. A skit C. A written note

D. A television/radio address
E. A telephone call F. A short talk