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Advanced Analysis in GIS

 Network Operation (connectivity)


 Contiguity operation (raster)
Advanced Analysis

 Interpolation and proximity operation


 Fuzzy Analysis
 GIS Analytical Models
 Cartographic Algebra
 Expert systems
 Linear combination
 Digital Terrain Models

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Network Operations

Network consists of roads systems, power grids, water


supply system, sewerage systems and the like.
Advanced Analysis

Network operations are based on:

 Continuous, connected networks


 Rules for displacements in a network
 Definition of units of measure
 Accumulations of attributes value due to displacements
 Rules for manipulating attributes

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Network Operations
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Advanced Analysis

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 network analysis depends on the existence of topology in the


data
 every link and every node in the network must have a unique
identity, direction, constraints, start and end.
 analysis may include the simulation of moving resources – cars,
people, liquids, refuse and so on.
 resources moved along these lines encounter resistence in the
form of speed limits, road network, peak traffic, barriers, one-way
streets, weight limits, traffic lights, bus stops, sharp curves etc.
URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir
Network Operations

 the network system elements comprise links, barriers, stopping points


and centers. Assigning attributes to such elements permits the simulation
of realistic situations.

 a unit of measure (impedance: time, money, distance) is to employ to


evaluate alternatives.
Advanced Analysis

 shortest path, optimal allocation of resources are the common application


of network analysis

 a limit to mention to assign maximum search radius

 centers can assign its catchments; several centers can take part in the
analysis

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Connectivity operations on raster data

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Advanced Analysis

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 the technique can be used to compute precipitation runoff from a


terrain surface (Hydrological Modeling)

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Interpolation and Proximity Operations

There are many situations in which the available observations are fewer
than needed to cover an area satisfactorily. With the use of both
interpolation and extrapolation techniques, it is possible to calculate new
values for points lying within or outside the applicable data area.
Advanced Analysis

linear spline

Interpolation

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Interpolation and Proximity Operations

linear spline
Advanced Analysis

Extrapolation

The most usual techniques are: Weighted average


 closest point inter/extrapolation
 linear inter/extrapolation IDW
 spline inter/extrapolation Kriging

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Advanced Analysis Interpolation and Proximity Operations

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Advanced Analysis

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir


Advanced Analysis

URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir