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##  Network Operation (connectivity)

 Contiguity operation (raster)

##  Interpolation and proximity operation

 Fuzzy Analysis
 GIS Analytical Models
 Cartographic Algebra
 Expert systems
 Linear combination
 Digital Terrain Models

## URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir

Network Operations

## Network consists of roads systems, power grids, water

supply system, sewerage systems and the like.

##  Continuous, connected networks

 Rules for displacements in a network
 Definition of units of measure
 Accumulations of attributes value due to displacements
 Rules for manipulating attributes

## URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir

Network Operations
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##  network analysis depends on the existence of topology in the

data
 every link and every node in the network must have a unique
identity, direction, constraints, start and end.
 analysis may include the simulation of moving resources – cars,
people, liquids, refuse and so on.
 resources moved along these lines encounter resistence in the
form of speed limits, road network, peak traffic, barriers, one-way
streets, weight limits, traffic lights, bus stops, sharp curves etc.
URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir
Network Operations

##  the network system elements comprise links, barriers, stopping points

and centers. Assigning attributes to such elements permits the simulation
of realistic situations.

##  a unit of measure (impedance: time, money, distance) is to employ to

evaluate alternatives.

##  shortest path, optimal allocation of resources are the common application

of network analysis

##  a limit to mention to assign maximum search radius

 centers can assign its catchments; several centers can take part in the
analysis

## URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir

Connectivity operations on raster data

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9 5 6 4

6 2 3 1

4 3 2 2

##  the technique can be used to compute precipitation runoff from a

terrain surface (Hydrological Modeling)

## URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir

Interpolation and Proximity Operations

There are many situations in which the available observations are fewer
than needed to cover an area satisfactorily. With the use of both
interpolation and extrapolation techniques, it is possible to calculate new
values for points lying within or outside the applicable data area.

linear spline

Interpolation

## URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir

Interpolation and Proximity Operations

linear spline

Extrapolation

## The most usual techniques are: Weighted average

 closest point inter/extrapolation
 linear inter/extrapolation IDW
 spline inter/extrapolation Kriging

## URP 3161: Geographical Information System Ahsanul Kabir

Advanced Analysis Interpolation and Proximity Operations