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Transmission media

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Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Topics Included:
Definition Types of Transmission Media Guided Transmission Media *Twisted Pair Cable *Coaxial Cable *Optical Fiber Unguided Transmission Media *microwave *Radio Wave *Satellite
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What is Transmission Media??


*Sending of data from one device to another device is called transmission of data.

*Medium used to transfer data is called Media.

*Transmission of data through medium is called Transmission Media.

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Types Of Transmission Media


Guided Transmission Media
*Twisted Pair Cable *Coaxial Cable *Optical Fiber

Unguided Transmission Media


*Microwave *Radio Wave *Satellite *Infrared
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Guided T.M. (Wired)


*Guided Media includes cables.

*Medium itself is more important in determining in the limitations of transmission.

*The Transmission capacity, in terms of either data rate or bandwidth, depends critically on the distance and on whether the medium is point-to-point or multipoint.

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Twisted Pair Cable

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*The most common form of wiring in data communication is the twisted pair cable.

*The twisted pair consists of two insulated copper wires wrapped together in double helix.

*The twisting tends to decrease the crosstalk interference(bleeding of signal) between adjacent pairs in a cable.

*Twisted pair is limited in distance, bandwidth and data rate.

*the attenuation for twisted pair is a very strong function of 5/2/12 frequency.

Twisted Pair Types

Unshielded twisted
*ordinary telephone wire *cheapest *easy to install *suffers from external EM

Shielded twisted
*Metal braid or sheathing

that reduces interference


*more expensive *easiest to install *harder to handle due to 5/2/12

interference

larger weight and thickness.

Types of UTP
Type CAT 1 Description Voice-grade communications only, no data transmission Data-grade transmission upto 4 Mbps Data-grade transmission upto 10 Mbps Data-grade transmission upto 16 Mbps Data-grade transmission

CAT 2 CAT 3 CAT 4 CAT 5

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Advantages and Disadvantages


Disadvantages: Advantages:
*Because of easy to install and is incapable carrying a signal over *It is simple,high attenuation, it maintain. long distances without the use of repeaters. *It is physically flexible and has low weight. *Its low bandwidth capabilities make it unsuitable for broadband *It can be easily connected. applications. *It is very inexpensive. *It supports maximum data rates 1 Mbps without conditioning and 10 Mbps with conditioning.

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Coaxial Cable

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*Coaxial cable consists the following layers in its construction: -the copper conductor -insulation layer of plastic foam -second conductor or shield of wire mesh tube or metallic foil. -outer jacket of tough plastic. *Coaxial Cable can be used over longer distances and support more stations on a shared line than twisted pair. *Coaxial Cable is a versatile transmission medium, used in wide variety of applications including Television distribution: aerial to Television systems.

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Advantages And Disadvantages


Disadvantages: Advantages:
*Coaxial Cables are expensive compared to twisted pair cables. *The data transmission characteristics of Coaxial Cables are comparatively better than those of twisted pair cables. *The Coaxial Cables are not compatible with twisted pair cables. *Coaxial Cables can be used as the basis for a shred cable network. *The Coaxial Cables can be used for broadband transmissions. *Coaxial cables offer higher bandwidth upto 400 Mbps.

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Optical Fibers

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Light rays having

angle less than Critical angle is absorbed by the jacket and the light rays having incident angle more than Critical angle enters the core of wire and undergoes total internal reflection.
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*Fiber Optic Cable is known as most sophisticated cables used in long distance network connection.

*Through this data cable data transmission is done through light rays signal transmission rather than electrical signal transmission.

*It has inner core of glass that conducts light. The inner core is surrounded by Cladding.

*Cladding is nothing but layer of glass that reflects light back into the core.

*Each fiber is surrounded by plastic sheath.

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Types of Optical Fibers:


Step-index multimode: Rays at shallow angles are reflected and prorogated along the fiber and other rays are absorbed by surrounding materials.

Single-mode: When fiber core radius is reduced, fewer angles will reflect. By reducing the radius of the core to order of the wavelength, only a single angle or mode can pass: the axial ray.

Graded-index multimode: By varying index of refraction of core, a third type of transmission is possible i.e, Graded-index multimode.
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Advantages And Disadvantages


Advantages:
*It is immune to electrical and magnetic interference i.e., noise in any form because the information is travelling on modulated light beam.

*It is highly suitable for harsh industrial environments.

*It guarantees secure transmission capacity.

*Fiber optic cables can be used for broadband5/2/12 transmission where several channels(i.e., bands of frequency) are handled in parallel

Disadvantages:
*Installation problem. Fiber optic cables are quite fragile and may need special care to make them sufficiently robust for an office environment. *Connecting either two fibers together or a light source to a fiber is a difficult process. *Because of noise immunity, optical fibers are virtually impossible to tap. In order to incept a signal, the fiber must be cut and a detector inserted. *Light can reach the receiver out of phase. *Connection losses are common problems. *Fiber optic cables are more difficult to solder. *They are the most expensive of all cables.
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Comparison table for guded media


Type Type Sub Max. Bandwidt InstallationCost Type segment h supp length -orted (mts) (mbps) 100 100 185 100 500 10 10 Easy moderate Easy Hard Cheapest Interfer ence

Twisted UTP pair cable STP Coaxial Thinnet

High

Moderate Moderate Cheap Moderate Moderate Low

thicknet 500 Fiber Optic Cable

Multinode 2 km 100 Single 100 km 2 gbps

Very hard Expensive None Very hard 5/2/12 Expensive None

Unguided T.M.
*Unguided media(wireless communication) consists of a means i.e., air, space etc. for the data signals to travel, where there is nothing to guide them along a specific path, like in wires. Unbounded media is electromagnetic waves in form of radio, microwave, infrared and others.

*These are used where wires and cables are difficult to install.

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Micro Wave

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*Microwave signals are used to transmit data without cables.

*These are similar to radio and television signals.

*These are used for long distance communications.

*The microwave transmission consists of a transmitter, receiver and an atmosphere.

*In this, parabolic antennas are mounted on towers to send a beam to other antennas ten kms away.
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*This is line-of-sight transmission (signal passes through the

Advantages And Disadvantages


Advantages:
*It proves cheaper than digging trenches for laying cables and maintaining repeaters and cables if cable gets broken by variety of causes.

*It offers freedom from land acquisition rights that are required for laying, repairing the cables.

*It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain.


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*Microwaves have the ability to communicate over oceans.

Disadvantages:
*Microwave communication is an insecure communication.

*Signals from a single antenna may split up and propagate by slightly different paths to receiving antenna. When these out-of-phase signals recombine, they interfere, reducing the signal strength.

*Microwave propagation is susceptable to weather effects like rains, thunder storms etc.

*Bandwidth allocation is extremely limited in case of microwaves. 5/2/12

Radio Wave

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*The transmission making use of radio frequencies is known as radiowave transmission.

*All radios use continuous sine waves to transmit information.

*Radio setup has two parts: Transmitter and Receiver.

*The transmitter takes message, encodes it onto a sine wave and transmits it with radio waves.

*The receiver receives the radio waves and decodes the message from the sine wave it receives.
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Advantages And Disadvantages


Disadvantages: Advantages:
*Radio-wave communication is an insecure communication. *Radio-wave transmission offers mobility. *Radio-wave propagation is susceptible to weather effects like rains, thunder storms etc.digging *It is cheaper than trenches for laying cable and maintaining repeaters and cables if cables get broken by a variety of causes. *It offers freedom from land acquisition rights that are required for laying, repairing the cables.

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Satellite Microwave
Point-to-point link Broadcast link

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*Satellite is a relay station.

*Receives on one frequency, amplifiers or repeats signal and transmits it on another frequency.

*In satellite communication the earth station consist of a satellite dish that functions as an antenna and communication equipment to transmit and receive data from satellite passing overhead.

*Most communication satellites have multiple, independent reception and transmission devices known as transponders.

*Transponders are capable of handling a full- colour , commercial 5/2/12 television transmission , complete with audio.

Uses:
*Television

*Long distance telephones.

*Private business networks.

*Global positioning.

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Advantages And Disadvantages


Advantages:
*The area coverage through satellite transmission is quite large.

*The laying and maintenance of intercontinental cable is difficult and expensive and this is where the satellite proves to be the best alternative.

*The heavy usage of intercontinental traffic makes the satellite commercially attractive.
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Disadvantages:
*Technological limitations preventing the deployment of large, high gain antennas on the satellite platform.

*Over crowding of available bandwidth due to low antenna gains.

*The high investment cost and insurance cost associated with significant probability of failure.

*High atmospheric losses above 30 GHz limit carrier frequencies.


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Infrared

Infrared Radiation
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*Infrared technology allows computing devices to communicate via short-range wireless signals. With infrared, computers can transfer files and other digital data bidirectionally. Infrared transmission technology used in computers is similar to that used in consumer product remote control units.

*Installation and usage: Computer infrared network adapters both transmit and receive data through ports on the rear or side of a device. Infrared adapters are installed in many and handled personal devices.

*Range: Infrared communications span very short distances. Place two infrared devices within a few feet ( no more than 5 mts) of each other when networking them. Unlike Wi-Fi and Bluetooth technologies, infrared network signal cannot penetrate walls or 5/2/12 other obstructions and work only in the direct line of sight.

*Performance: Infrared technology used in local networks exists in three different forms: -IrDA-SIR (slow speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 115 Kbps. -IrDA-MIR (medium speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 1.15 Mbps. -IrDA-FIR (fast speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 4 Mbps.

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Advantages And Disadvantages


Advantages:
*Low power requirements: therefore ideal for laptops, telephones, personal digital assistants *Low circuitry costs: $2- $5 for the entire coding decoding circuitry.

*Simple circuitry: no special or proprietary hardware is required, can be incorporated into the integrated circuit of a product.

*Higher security: directionality of beam helps ensure that data isnt 5/2/12 leaked or spilled to nearby devices as its transmitted.

Disadvantages:
*Line of sight: transmitters and receivers must be almost directly aligned (i.e. able to see each other) to communicate.

*Blocked by common materials: people, walls, plants, etc. can block transmission.

*Short range: performance drops off with longer distances.

*Light, weather sensitive: direct sunlight, rain, fog, dust, pollution can affect transmission.
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Made by:
Pragati Tuteja Prachi Darji

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Thank U All ************


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