You are on page 1of 46

IMMUNE SYSTEM

The immune system has two major functions: To recognize substances that are foreign to the body, and To react to them.

NIN, Pune

TYPES OF IMMUNITY

NIN, Pune

CELLS INVOLVED IN IMMUNE SYSTEM

NIN, Pune

STRUCTURES INVOLVED IN IMMUNE SYSTEM

NIN, Pune

IMMUNO DEFICIENCY
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent.

NIN, Pune

TYPES OF I.D.
Primary, and

agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), Secondary Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) , In leukemia and multiple myeloma

NIN, Pune

Common Causes of Immune Deficiency


After-Effects of Previous Illness, Infection, or

Injury Effects of an Unbalanced Lifestyle: Poor Diet: Stress: Not enough sleep: Poor hygiene habits: Effects of Certain Medication:

NIN, Pune

CLINICAL FEATURES
Fever

Chills
Nasal congestion or discharge Cough Diarrhea Vomiting Tenderness or pain Unusual discharge Swelling or redness on the skin
NIN, Pune

DIAGNOSIS
Detailed medical history

Physical exam
Blood tests Vaccines to test the immune response

10

NIN, Pune

C.D.
Basically a diseases is termed communicable

(CD) if it is infectious and can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person via direct contact, contact or exchange of bodily fluids, or even through an indirect contact (like touching something that's bee touched by an infected person).

11

NIN, Pune

Types of Communicable Diseases


Depending on the disease causing agent

Bacterial Eg: food poisoning, enteric fever, Cholera, Diphtheria etc Viral Eg: Mumps, Chicken pox, Measles, etc Fungal Eg: Candidosis, Actinomycosis, etc Parasitic Eg : Ascariasis, Filariasis, Malaria, etc Depending on the site of infection Surface infections Eg : Scabies, Pediculosis, etc Respiratory infections Eg: Influenza, Whooping cough, Tuberculosis, etc Intestinal diseases Eg : Amoebiasis, Hepatitis, Acute Diarrheal diseases, etc Uninary tract diseases caused by E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, etc NIN, Pune 12 Reproductive tract diseases/Sexually transmitted

Types of Communicable Diseases


Another commoly used classification is by mode of

spread Air borne - Spread through contaminated air. Eg: Influenza, Tuberculosis, Leprosy Soil borne - Spread through soil contaning the infectious organism. Eg: Hookworm disease, Tetanus, etc Food borne - Spreads through contaminated food. Eg: food poisoning, Typhoid, etc
Water borne - Spreads through unclean, contaminated water. Eg: Hepatitis, Cholera, Drancunculosis, etc

13

Vector borne - Spread via mosquitoes, mites and various other arthropodes. Eg: Malaria, Filaria, Leishmaniasis, etc NIN, Pune Direct contact spread Eg: surface infections, STDs, through fomites of diseased persons.

Types of Communicable Diseases


Zoonoses: These are diseases of animals, which

14

accidntally occur in man. Zoonoses have been classified into four types, by WHO. Direct Zoonoses: The infectious agent is transferred from an infected vertebrate host to a human host. Eg: Rabies Meta-zoonoses: It requires an invertebrete host, where it can multiply before infecting a human. eg: bubonic plague, Schistosomiasis Sapro-zoonoses: This type of zoonoses depend upon non- animal reservoir or development site, like soil plants, decaying organic matter. Eg: Larva migrans of nematodes Cyclo-zoonoses: It is a type of zoonosis that requires more than one vertebrate host for maintenance of the cycle. Eg: Echinococcosis NIN, Pune


15

Lower respiratory infections[12] HIV/AIDS Diarrheal diseases[13] Tuberculosis (TB) Malaria Measles Pertussis Tetanus Meningitis Syphilis Hepatitis B Tropical diseases (6)[14]

NIN, Pune

DTap/ Tdap Diphtheria, Tetanus (Lockjaw),

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Hep A -Hepatitis A Hep B-Hepatitis B HIB Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) HPV Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical/Anal Cancer, Genital Warts Influenza Influenza (Seasonal Flu) MMR -Measles, Mumps, Rubella (German Measles) Meningitis - Meningococcal Pneumonia- Pneumococcal Polio - Poliomyelitis Rotaviruv -Rotavirus Chicken Pox -Varicella,
NIN, Pune

16

NATUROPATHY
Definition

Basic Principles of Naturopathy

1.Theory of toxemia 2.Theory of vitality 3.Theory of self-healing capacity of the body Concept of Acute & Chronic disease

17

NIN, Pune

FASTING
Total Rest:
PHYSICAL PHYSIOLOGICAL SENSORY

Total ABSTINENCE from Solid & Liquid food

(except water). Duration Short, Intermittent, Long.

18

NIN, Pune

FASTING & IMMUNITY


Fasting : opportunity to heal
Reduced burden of digestion Reduces load on

immune system Lowered plasma viscosity (less fat, sugar, protein) Promote normal homeostatic balance
Increases macrophage activity:
Fasting increases catabolism cellular breakdown

19

NIN, Pune

Increases cell-mediated immunity: (100,000

receptors)
Increases Ig level: measles, hepatitis A Monocyte functioning: inflammation Enhanced NK cell activity: tumors / cancers /

viruses
Enhances neutrophil-bactericidal activity: (50-

70% spiderman!)
20 NIN, Pune

THUS, with physical, sensory, physiological rest,

YOU laze around, while immune system works.


21 NIN, Pune

FASTING PROCEDURE
1.

Early Fasting (1-2 days): Stores of glycogen from liver is used up.

2. Fasting (3-10 days): Increased keto-acidosis (acetoacetic acid, acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid) bicarbonate (body) carbonic acid CO2

22

NIN, Pune

3. Starvation: Starts when fat stores are completely utilized & body has turned to protein as its sole energy source tissue damage death. HOW TO BREAK THE FAST ? Cooked Salad Juice (Fruit/Veg) Water Juice (Fruit/Veg) Salad Cooked

23

NIN, Pune

HYDROTHERAPY
Use of water

Therapeutic application of

water:
A.INTERNAL
B.EXTERNAL

Body is 70 % water
24 NIN, Pune

Forms of hydrotherapy
Packs

General baths Immersion, Half tub-bath etc.


Local baths Sitz, foot, arm, hip, spinal etc. Compresses A) Bandages: Hot or Cold

B) Poultices Others Enema, friction etc.

25

NIN, Pune

NIN, Pune

26

Few Studies
Effect of hyperthermic water bath on parameters

on cellular immunity. (Parameters: Lymphocytes, NK cell counts & their activity. Outcome: increase in CD8+ T lymphocyte & NK dependent on STH production).
Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 2000;20(1-2):41-6.

Immunological

changes during hydrotherapy (Kneipps). (Outcome: IgM, alpha 2 macroglobulin, complement factor C3 were increased).
Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1977 Nov 11;102(45):1625-30.

27

NIN, Pune

Therapeutic application of cold chest pack in

bronchial asthma.
W J Med Sci 1(1):18-20, Jan-Jun,2006

Changes in lower leg blood flow during warm-,

cold-, and contrast- water therapy. (Parameters: arterial blood flow strain gauge plethysmography)
Arch Phys med Rehabil. 2005 Jul;86(7):1404-10

Hormonal,

beta-endorphin & renin activity changes in man during partial immersion, as a therapeutic method, in water at 38o C. (Outcome: FSH & LH conc decreased).
Minerva Med. 1987 Feb 15;78(3):135-9.

28

NIN, Pune

MASSAGE
Per Henrik Ling (great-great grandson of swedish

scientist Olof Rudbeck human lymphatic system) Ljunga in 1776. 5 long flowing strokes:
Effleurage (sliding/gliding)

Pettrisage (kneading)
Tapotement (rhythmic tapping) Friction (cross fiber) Vibration/shaking

29

NIN, Pune

30

NIN, Pune

Few Studies
Passive muscle relaxant
Touch Ann Intern Med. 2008 Sep 16;149(6):369-79 Muscle stretch Warmth-Pain relief Relieving fatigue Br J Sports Med. 2008 Oct;42(10):534-8. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Jul;47(4-5):205-13. EMG J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Dec;14(10):1223-9. Dsd Motorneuron pool excitability- Hoffmann reflex Man Ther. 2008

31

NIN, Pune

Induce mental relaxation- Through


muscle relaxation Facilitated venous return Br J Sports Med. 2004 Apr;38(2):173-6. Temperature warmth Neural changes Blood pressure J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Mar;14(2):125-8. Autonomic changes:
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;1:4820-3.

Alertness-Facial massage Biomed Res. 2008 Dec;29(6):317-20.

32

NIN, Pune

Cellular immunity: Significant effect of effleurage massage on cellular immunity, cortisol, oxytocin, anxiety, depression or quality of life could not be demonstrated in this study- pre-post 20 visits
Auton Neurosci. 2008 Jun;140(1-2):88-95.

CD4, CD8, and CD56 cell counts and percentage, along with activation markers (CD25 and CD69).
J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(6):511-6

33

NIN, Pune

Detection of telomerase activity in prostate

massage samples improves differentiating prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004 Apr;130(4):217-21.

Epub 2004 Jan 29.

34

NIN, Pune

Respiratory functions in COPD


Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2006

May;12(2):141-7.

Defaecation reflex-spinal injury patients


Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006 May;20 Suppl

35

NIN, Pune

MUD THERAPY
Application of therapeutic mud changes

structure and cellular composition of all the lymphoid organs studied: thymus, mesenterial and popliteal lymph nodes. These changes are mainly unidirectional and are characterized by increased reactions of humoral immunity.
Morfologiia. 2002;122(4):56-7

36

NIN, Pune

37

NIN, Pune

Normalization of immune indices psoriatic

arthritis (109).
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1999 May-Jun;(3):31-5.

Specific and nonspecific immunereactivity (by

the level of IgA, IgM, IgG, circulating immune complexes, T and B lymphocytes; RF titers, leukocyte migration inhibition test), platelet componentsof hemostasis (number of platelets, adhesion induced by ADP and epinephrine) RA
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1989 Mar-Apr;(2):38-42

38

NIN, Pune

YOGA
People with HIV experience intense feelings of

fear, hopelessness, anxiety, loneliness, and depression. Yoga techniques can do much to help one reduce excessive fear and anxiety, learn stress-coping skills, and build inner strength through the relaxation and self-awareness training of meditation.

39

NIN, Pune

A man who regularly performs Pranayama is required to take lesser number of breaths and therefore lives longer.
Sr. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. NIN, Pune Animals/Birds Pigeon Duck Horse Cat Elephant Sparrow Monkey Pig Serpent Tortoise Dog Gout Human No. of respirations/minute 34 22 26 24 22 30 30 36 16 5 28 36 15

40

Tortoise rate of resp/min is about 5 breaths lives

about 400 years, establishing the fact that lesser the speed of respiration per minute longer the life span.
A man who does yogic exercise, respirates about

8 times and if he does meditation regularly this number can be reduced to 4 times. Such a person may live for

400 years!

41

NIN, Pune

42

NIN, Pune

43

NIN, Pune

SURYA NAMASKAR

44

NIN, Pune

SUMMARY
NATURE CURE PRINCIPLES OF HEALTHY

LIVING / LIFE NATURAL.


HIV infected with CD4+ count <500 HAART ! HIV

+ with CD4+ count >500 Lifestyle modification Naturopathy increase lifespan Objective of NIN SANATORIUM !

45

NIN, Pune

THANK YOU !
Website: www.punenin.org E-mail: ninpune@vsnl.com Contact No.: (020) 2605 9682 / 3 / 4 / 5 Dr. Dhananjay itsdeejay@gmail.com

46

NIN, Pune