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Chemical bond Stable electronic configuration of noble gas Octet and duplet rule Lewis symbol Ionic bond

Covalent bond Polarization of chemical bond Coordinate covalent bond Exception of octet rule Metallic bond

Periodic tabel Elements electronegativity Molecule polarity- net dipole moment Molecular shape

CHEMICAL BOND
- Chemical bond is an attractive force between atoms In the molecule. In the forming a chemical bond causes changing of electronic configuration. The changing of electronic configuration occur at the outermost shell (the valence shell), while at the inner shells dont undergo change

- The base of formation of a chemical bond is existence of a tendency of atoms to obtain stable electronic configuration such as the noble gas electronic configuration. - Basically, the chemichal bond is differentiated to 2 kinds, that is ionic bond and covalent bond Ionic bond and Covalent bond

Stable electronic configuration of noble gases


The stable electronic configuration of noble gas is an electronic configuration, which at outermost shell filled 8 valence electrons, except helium gas filled 2 valence electrons.
Electronic configuration of Nobel gases Electronic configuration Elements of Atomic Period Symbol Nobel gas number K L M N O P 1 Helium He 2 2 2 Neon Ne 10 2 8 3 Argon Ar 18 2 8 8 4 Kripton Kr 36 2 8 18 8 5 Xenon Xe 54 2 8 18 18 8 6 Radon Rn 86 2 8 18 32 18 8

Valence electron 2 8 8 8 8 8

- An electronic configuration, which is the outermost shell filled 8 electrons called octet configuration. - An electronic configuration, which is the outermost shell filled 2 electrons called duplet configuration. The noble gases, which have octet and duplet configuration, are very difficult to react with other elements.

Octet / duplet rules


The element beside nobel gas are nonstable elements There is a tendency of the elements beside nobel gas to get a stable electronic configuration, octet or duplet configuration like the nobel gas. This tendency is known as octet or duplet rules
Octet rule is a tendency of electronic configuration change of an element atom to obtain the octet configuration like nobel gases.

Duplet rule is a tendency of electronic configuration change of an element atom to obtain the duplet configuration like Helium nobel gas.
The octet or duplet stable electronic configuration like noble gases can be obtained by : 1. lossing (release) or gaining electrons 2. pairing electrons.

1. Attainment of the stable electronic configuration of nobel gases by losing and gaining of electron
- The metal atoms to obtain of octet or duplet configuration by losing electron. Example: The atom of Na (Z = 11) loses one their valence electron to form the ion of Na+. The Na+ ion has the stable elelctronic configuration like the nobel gas of Ne (2 8) Sodium ion + e sodium atom Na : 2 8 1 Na+ : 2 8 + e - The nonmetal atoms to attain of octet or duplet configuration by gaining electron. Example: The atom of Cl (Z = 17) gains one electron to form the ion of ClThe Cl- ion has the stable electronic configuration like the nobel gas of Ar (2 8 8) Chlorine atom + e ion klor + e Cl : 2 8 7 Cl : 2 8 8 Attainment the stable electronic configuration like the nobel gases by losing and gaining of electron is the base of the forming of the ionic bond.

2. Attainment of the stable electronic configuration like the nobel gases by pairing of electron.
- The nonmetal elements to obtain octet or duplet configuration can be

done by donate its valence electron each other to form the shared pairs of electron
Example:

The atom of H (Z =1) can get the stable electronic configuration by donating of its electron each other, so that form one shared pair of electron (one bond pair of electron) in the H2 molecule.

shared pair of electron bond pair of electron

In the H2 molecule each of the H atom has the stable electronic configuration like the noble gas of He. Attainment of the stable electronic configuration like the noble gas by the pairing of electrons is the base of the forming of the covalent bond.

Lewis symbol
A Lewis symbol is an atom symbol, which accompanied by its valence electrons. Its valence electrons can be representated by dot sign (.) or cros sign (x). The Lewis symbol is very useful in the chemical bond, mainly to illustrating of the covalent bond Example: excercise1 Hydrogen

Lewis Symbol of Period Elements of 1, 2, and 3 Group Period IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA

Period 1 Period 2
Period 3

Ionic Bond
Ionic bond is a bonding between the positive ions and the negative ions that are caused by the electrostatic attractive force. The ionic bond especially formed between the atoms of metallic elements of group IA (alkali metals), group IIA (alkali earth metals and the atoms of nonmetallic elements of group VIIA (halogen), group VIA. Changing of electronic configuration that occurs in the formation of ionic bond as follow : - The metallic element losses its valence electron to form positive ion. Example: The metals of group IIA (alkaline earth metals) loss 2 valence electrons to form ion with charge of 2+.
Mg : 2 8 2 Mg2+ : 2 8 0 + 2e

- The nonmetallic element gains valence electron at its outer shell to form negative ion
Example: The nonmetals of group VIIA (halogen) gain 1 valence electron to form ion with charge of 1-

Cl : 2 8 7 +

Cl : 2 8 8

Explaination of ionic bond formation


Example 1: LiF
By using Lewys symbol formation of LiF ioninic bond can be explained as follow:
- Li atom (Z =3) losses one valence electron to form Li+ ion

- F atom (Z = 9) gains one electron at its outermost shell to form F ion.

- By electrostatic force, one Li+ ion and one F ion combine to form ionic compound of LiF.

Example 2: CaCl2
By using Lewys symbol formation of CaCl2 ioninic bond can be explained as follow: - Ca atom (Z = 20) losses two its valence electrons to form ion of Ca2+ Ca2+ ion has stable electronic configuration like the noble gas of Ar (2 8 8)

- Cl atom gains one electron to form ion of ClCl- ion has stable electronic configuration like the noble gas of Ar ( 2 8 8)

Because CaCl2 is neutral, so one ion of Ca2+ bind two ions of ClOne Ca2+ ion and two Cl- ion by electrostatic attractive force join to form the ionic compound of CaCl2

Covalent Bond
Covalent bond is a bonding between non-metallic atoms that are caused by sharing pair of electron. In the formation of covalent bond, each non metallic atom donates one or more their valence electrons, it used to form the shared pair of electronn. The shared pair of electrons is often called as bond pair of electron. The pair of not shared electrons is called as lone pair of electron. By forming bond pair of electron, so each atom in that molecule has octet or duplet configuration like the noble gas. lone pair of electron.

shared pair of electron bond pair of electron covalent bond

In general, nonmetal of group IVA up to VIIA, the valence electron donated to form a covalent bond is as much as its insuffiency to reach the octet structure (8 of valence electrons).
Table 3.3. The valence electrons of nonmetal, Lewis symbol and the general number of electron which is donated in the formation of covalent bond Groups Valence Lewis symbols elektrons Donated electrons

VIIA (halogen)
VIA VA IVA

7
6 5 4

2
3 4

A compound, which has covalent bond is called covalent compound. A covalent compound, which is illustrated by using Lewis symbol called Lewis structural formula or electron-dot formula.
Example:

Lewis structural formula of water

Lewis structural formula of ammonia

Covalent compound composed by the same nonmetal element is called molecular element. Example: H2, O2, O3, N2, F2, Cl2 Br2, I2, P4, S8. Covalent compound composed by the different nonmetal element is called molecular compound. Example: H2O, NH3, HCl, CO(NH2)2 , H2SO4, NaOH, C6H12O6.

Explaination covalent bond formation


I. Covalent compound with single bond Example: 1. HCl
1H

: 1 17Cl : 2 8 7

valence electron of H = 1 valence electron of Cl = 7

- H atom donates one electron - Cl atom donates (8 7) = 1 its electron valence - It form one bond pair of electron (one covalent bond ) - In the HCl molecule : H atom has duplet structrure (2e) at its valence shell Cl atom has octet structure (8e-) at its valence shell. - A bond pair of electron can be illustrated/drawn by one bond line.

bond pair of electron (covalent bond)

H Cl

2. CCl4
6C

: 2 4 17Cl : 2 8 7

valence electron of C = 4 valence electron of Cl = 7

- C atom donates four electron - Four atom of Cl, each of them donate 1 electron - It form four bond pair of electrons (4 covalent bond ) between C atom and four Cl atom. - In the CCl4 molecule, C atom and Cl atom has octet structure. - The fourth bond pair of electrons can be illustrated by four bond line.

Cl Cl C Cl
Cl

Covalent compound formation with multiple bond


1. Double bond
Example: O2 6 valence electron of O = 6 8O : 2 O atoms, each of them donate two electrons Between the second of O atom form two bond pair of electrons (double bond ). In the O2 molecule, the second of O atoms has octet structure.

2. Triple bond
Example: N2 valence electron of N = 5 7N : 2 5 N atoms, each of them donate three electrons It form three bond pair of electrons (triple bond ). In the N2 molecule, the second of N atoms has octet structure.``

Coordinate covalent bond


Coordinate covalent bond is a covalent bond, which its bond pair of electron only come from one of atom.
Coordinate covalent bond can formed if one of atom has lone pair of electron and the other atom has the empty orbital. This bond is represented by the arrow sign with direction from donator to acceptor atom of the electron pair. Coordinate covalent bond is also called as coordination bond

Example: 1. Ammonium ion, NH4+.

Coordinate covalent bond

2. Hydronium ion, H3O+.

Coordinate covalent bond

Exception of octet rule


1. Compounds not achieve octet structure a. BeCl2 compound
4Be

:2 2 One B atom and two Cl atoms form two bond pair of electrons. In BeCl2 molecule, the center atom of Be has four valence electrons (< 8 electrons), it cant fulfil octet rule.

b. BCl3 compound
5B

:2 3 One B atom and three Cl atoms form three bond pair of electrons In BCl3 molecule, the center atom of B has six valence electrons (< 8 electrons), it cant fulfil octet rule.

2. Compound with extended octet structure


Nonmetallic elements of period 3, 4 and so on can form covalent compound deviate fron the octet rule. This case is caused by it have outermost shell can occupied more than eight electrons.

a. PCl5 compound 15P : 2 8 5

In PCl5 molecule, the center atom of P has electronic configuration of outermost shell more than eight electrons. A molecule that its center atom has electronic configuration of outermost shell more than 8 electrons is called a compound with extended octet structure. In PCl5 molecule, the center atom of P have a outermost shell electronic configuration of ten electron (> 8 electrons )

a. IF7 compound
Atomic number of I = 53 valence electron of I = 7 53I = 2 8 18 18 7 The seventh of valence electrons of I is used to form covalent bonds with F In IF7 molecule found the extended octet structure, at the center atom of I have a outermost shell configuration of fourteen electrons (> 8 electrons )

Polarization of covalent bond


Polar covalent bond
Covalent bond polarization is an unequal distribution of the negative charge of bond pair of electron between the two atoms in a molecule of covalent compound Bond polarization occur if the atoms that bonded have different electronegativity The atom more electronegative become more contain negative (-) and its pair atom become more contain positive (+ ) The bigger difference in electronegativity, the bigger polarity level of the bonding occured. Compound that its molecule contains bond polarization is called polar covalent compound. Example:
HF, HCl, HBr, HI, H2O, H2S, NH3

Explaination occuring covalent bond polarization:


> HF Electronegativity F > H. The bond pair of electron stronger pulled to F atom. The position of bond pair of electron nearer to F atom than to H atom. Distribution negative char ge of the bond pair of electron more many to F atom than to H atom. It is occur covalent bond polarization. F atom more contain negative (-) and H atom more contain positive (+).

> H 2O Electronegativity O > H. The bond pair of electron stronger pulled to O atom than H atom. O atom more contain negative (-) and H atom more contain positive (+)

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Nonpolar covalent bond


1. Diatomic compound
The covalent compound formed by two different element atom always polar

Example: H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

H2

The second of H atom in H2 molecule has the equal electronegativity, therefore the bond pair of electron is pulled the equal strong by the second of H atoms. The bond of pair of electron exist exactly in the middle of the second of atoms, and the negative charge of bond pair of electron widespread equal to the second of H atoms. pada kedua atom H. The covalent bod dont undergoes polarization.

Polarity of Compound
Polarity of compound is a nature of the covalent compound that related with the polarization of covalent bond. Covalent compound can as polar or non polar compound. The polarity of compound can occur in binary (diatomic) or polyatomic compound

Binary (diatomic) compound


Binary (diatomic) compound is a compound that each molecule only consist of two atoms, the same types or different types. 1. Diatomic compound formed by two nonmetallic atoms of the same type is nonpolar.

Example: H2, N2, O2, F2 Cl2, Br2, l2


2. Diatomic compound formed by two nonmetallic atoms of the different type is polar.

Example: HF, HCl, HBr, HI,

Polyatomic compound
Poly atomic compound is a compound that each molecule only consist of more of the different non-metal atoms. Polarity of polyatomic compound beside its bond kind polar covalent, also depent of the molecular shape, symmetry or unsymmetry

> Polyatomic compound, which is its central atom has not the lone pair of electron, its molecular shape is symmetry (symmetrical polyatomic compound)
> Polyatomic compound, which is its central atom has the lone pair of electron, its molecular shape is unsymmetry . (unsymmetrical polyatomic compound)

2. Polyatomic compound
Covalent compound formed by 2 or more atoms of different nonmetallic element , can polar or non polar, depend its molecular shape, symetric or unsymetric - Poliatomic compound that its central atom has not lone pair of electron, its molecular shape is symetric. - Poliatomic compound that its central atom has lone pair of electron, its molecular shape is unsymetric.

central atom lone electron pair bond electron pair surrounding atom

> Polar polyatomic compound


The polyatomic compound that has unsymmetrical molecular shape is polar.
Example: H2O, H2S, NH3, PH3, PCl3

- H2O. The molecular shape of H2O is bent, like theb font V

- NH3. The molecular shape of NH3 is trigonal piramide

> Nonpolar polyatom compound


The polyatomic compound that has symetrical molecular shape is nonpolar. This case is caused each polar bond in the symetrical will mutual nullify Example: CH4, CCl4, SiCl4, BeCl2, BCl3, CO2. > The molecular shape of CH4 is tetrahedron
rangkuman

> The molecular shape of BeCl2 is linier

Momen Dipol [moment dipoles ]


Momen dipol () adalah hasil kali antara selisih muatan (Q) dengan jarak (r) antara pusat muatan positip dan negatip. =Qxr Satuan momen dipol adalah debye (D). 1 D = 3,33 x 10-10 C.m Momen dipol adalah suatu besaran yang menyatakan tingkat kepolaran suatu senyawa. Makin besar harga momem dipol suatu senyawa, makin besar tingkat kepolaran senyawa tersebut. Senyawa nonpolar momen dipolnya = O (nol).
Table 3.4. Moment dipoles some compounds
Name of substance Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen choride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen iodide Water Ammonia Aseton Carbon tetra chlorida Formula HF HCl HBr HI H2O NH3 CH3COCH3 CCl4 Momen Dipol (debye) 1.91 1.03 0.79 0.38 1.84 1.48 0 0

Metallic Bond
- Ikatan logam adalah suatu ikatan kimia yang disebabkan oleh interaksi antara atom-atom logam dengan elektron valensi yang mudah/bebas bergerak dari kulit luar atom satu ke kulit luar atom lainnya - Unsur logam mempunyai elektron valensi yang mudah bergerak/berpindah dari kulit luar atom satu ke kulit luar atom lainnya. - Elektron valensi yang bebas bergerak inilah yang menyebabkan logam mempunyai sifat penghantar panas dan penghantar listrik yang baik

EXERCISE

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Exercise 1
Draw the Lewis simbol of the atoms below: 5B, 7N, 8O, 9F, 13Al, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 20Ca, 35Br

Exercise 2
Draw the Lewis formula of compunds below: a. I2 b. HCl c. CCl4 d. CH3Cl. e. N2

Exercise 3
Write the Lewis formula and structure formula of these compound : a. SCl4 b. CO2 c. PCl5 d. XeO3 e. OF2

Electron configuration

18Ar

= (2) (8) (8) 35Br = (2) (8) (18) (7)

Procedure to write Lewis structure


1. Calculate the sum of valence electron of all atoms in formula 2. Draw the posible basic shape of the molecule 3. Give one pair of electron for every single bonds 4. The electron remaining is used to make the terminal atoms reach octet or duplet configuration 5. Add the electron remaining, if there is remain, to central atom 6. If it isnt okted yet, draw lone pair electron of terminal atom to make central atom double/triple bond

Example : POCl3
e val = 5 + 6 + (3x7) = 32 Basic shape O Cl P Cl Cl

VSEPR

Kepolaran molekul poliatom

Dipole moment is a vector. The molecule's overall dipole moment is the result of the vector sum of all the bond dipoles within it

Dipol Ikatan dalam Molekul

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Periodic Tabel

Electronegativity

Polarity net dipole

Dipole moment is a vector. The molecule's overall dipole moment is the result of the vector sum of all the bond dipoles within it

Polarity net dipole

The dipole moment is a vector