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Name : P. Anuradha
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Electronics & Communication Engg
Institute : G.P.W.BML, Visakhapatnam Dist
Year/Semester : III Semester
Subject : Electronics Circuits – 1
Subject Code : EC-302
Topic : Transistor Amplifiers
Duration : 50 Mnts
Sub Topic : C. B. Amplifier.
Teaching Aids : Diagrams
EC302.16 1

On completion of this period, you would be able to

• Understand the concept of amplifier

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What is an amplifier?

• Amplifier raises the level of a weak signal.

• No change in the wave shape.

• No change in the frequency of the input signal

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Why we need Amplification?

• The signal is generally the o/p of a transducer like

microphone, thermo couple.

• It is very weak.

• It must be amplified before feeding to the loud speaker etc.

EC302.16 4
Block diagram of an Amplifier

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Different stages of an amplifier

• Input Signal : Output of a microphone or thermocouple

or pressure gauge

• Amplifier : Any active device like transistor which

increases signal level

• Load : A loud speaker in an audio amplifier, a

motor in a servo amplifier etc

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• The process of strengthing a weak signal is known as


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Different Configurations of Transistor

• Common Base Configuration

• Common Emitter Configuration

• Common Collector Configuration

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• Base terminal is common for both input and output.

• Input signal is applied across emitter and base


• Output is taken across collector and base terminals.

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• Emitter terminal is common for both input and output.

• Input signal is applied across base and emitter terminals.

• Output is taken across collector and emitter terminals

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• Collector terminal is common for both input and

• Input signal is applied across base and collector
• Output is taken across emitter and collector

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In how many regions a transistor can be operated?

1. Cut off region

2. Active region

3. Saturation region

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Cutoff region
Emitter junction & Collector junction are in
Reverse Biased

Active region
Emitter junction Forward Biased & Collector
junction Reverse Biased

Saturation region
Emitter junction & Collector Junction are in
Forward Biased

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When a transistor is to be used as an amplifier it

must be operated in Active region.

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C.B.Amplifier using NPN Transistor

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Working of C.B.Amplifier

• VEE forward biases B-E junction

• VCC reverse biases C-B junction

• When there is no signal the output would be zero

• During +ve half cycle F.B is reduced and hence Ie is reduced

• Ic also decreases and hence IcRc drop also decreases

• The output Vcb increases as

• Vcb = Vcc -IcRc

No phase reversal between input and output
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Salient points of C.B.Amplifier

• Very low input resistance (20Ω - 150 Ω).

• Very high output resistance (5k Ω - 500k Ω).

• Large voltage gain (≅1500).

• Low current gain(α < 1).

• No phase reversal .

• High stability of Ic with temperature changes .

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Applications of C.B.Amplifier

• Used for matching low impedance circuit to a high

impedance circuit

• Not used for as an amplifier due to low current gain.

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We have discussed about

• Concept of Amplifier

• Various transistor configurations

• Various operating modes of transistor

• C.B.Configuration as Amplifier

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EC302.16 20
The transistor should be operated in ---------
region to work as amplifier.

A. Active Region

B. Saturation Region

C. Cutoff Region

D. All regions

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The phase difference between input and output of
a C.B. Amplifier is

A. 90°

B. 180°

C. 270°

D. 360°

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The current gain of a C.B Amplifier is

A. Less than 1

B. More than 1

C. High

D. Very high

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1. Discuss the various transistor Amplifier


2 Draw the circuit of C.B.Amplifier and explain

its working.

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